CN105436506B - A kind of manufacture method of powder metallurgy support - Google Patents

A kind of manufacture method of powder metallurgy support Download PDF

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CN105436506B
CN105436506B CN201410498132.1A CN201410498132A CN105436506B CN 105436506 B CN105436506 B CN 105436506B CN 201410498132 A CN201410498132 A CN 201410498132A CN 105436506 B CN105436506 B CN 105436506B
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manufacture method
temperature
sintering
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CN105436506A (en
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包崇玺
詹学救
周国燕
毛增光
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NBTM New Materials Group Co Ltd
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Abstract

A kind of manufacture method of powder metallurgy support, step:Iron, chromium, molybdenum, manganese, nickel, carbon and copper are mixed into mixed powder by mass percentage;It is 6.2~7.2g/cm that above-mentioned mixed powder is pressed into density on press3Bearing green compact;It is sintered in 1000 DEG C~1350 DEG C of temperature, the time of sintering is 5~180 minutes, is annealed in non-oxidizing atmosphere;Extruded on the press reequiped by single lead screw ex truding briquetting machine or sizing rolling machine, extrusion deformation degree is more than or equal to 2% in diametric(al);Selectivity processing, steam treatment are required according to size.The advantage of the invention is that:Manufacture craft is simple, and precision is high, surface smoothness is good, effectively eliminates in forging process due to the problem for carrying out at high temperature and making mould be also easy to produce cracking, so as to reduce production cost, improves production efficiency.Compared with prior powder metallurgy technique, the density of product is higher, realizes surface densification substantially.

Description

A kind of manufacture method of powder metallurgy support
Technical field
The present invention relates to the manufacture method of the manufacture method of powder metallurgy support, especially compressor bearing.
Background technology
It is machined out at present in compressor industry, powerful compressor using cast blank.Mach method speed Degree is slower, and stock utilization is low, and homogeneity of product is poor.Bearing and bearing coordinate, general compressor assembling, by by bearing or branch Seat is welded on compressor housing.The product processed is assembled in assembling using welding manner.Welding for cast iron, due to It is conventional material, general Compressors Factory can preferably ensure without big technological problemses, welding quality and weld strength. But for powdered metal parts, due to hole be present, the physical property such as heat of the quantity of hole, form and distribution influence material Conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion and hardenability etc., these physical properties directly affect material weldability, make welding relatively smelting with composition Material increases compared to difficulty.Weld contraction produces larger tensile stress in commonly welding cooling procedure.In the effect of tensile stress Under due to the elongation percentage of powdered metallurgical material it is relatively low, often crack, weld strength reduces, or even can not complete to weld Journey.The problem of weldability, have impact on the application of powder metallurgy support within the compressor, especially need the high-power of assemble welding Compressor.
For support part, ZL200810163887.0, ZL200810163886.6 patent, bearing is divided into two portions Point, outer layer is the good material of weldability, the generally material of low-carbon or highdensity powder metallurgy green compact, and internal layer is high-carbon Green compact, ectonexine are linked together by the way of laser welding after sintering soldering or sintering.Using powder metallurgy sintered soldering Method and transition block and bearing matrix are realized and welded together, reached that bearing matrix location is high and positioning precision is accurate and even Connect the good requirement of intensity;Whole welding process is simple and easily operated.But it is poor there is globality, number of molds is more, Part is more, the problem of batch production is difficult to coordinate be present.Bearing simple shape, it is desirable to good integrity, it is difficult to by segmentation side Formula carries out structure optimization.
For iron-base powder metallurgy material, it is to improve one important direction of weldability to improve product density.In general, Density is more than 7.3g/cm3Powdered metallurgical material weldability it is suitable with common iron.But the raising of density, it is limited by production Function, chemical composition, iron powder performance, forming technology, sintering process and the after-processing technology (powder hotforging etc.) of product, therefore, with The part of cast iron manufacture is compared, and the cost increase of product, powder metallurgical technique is basic, without competitive advantage.
The content of the invention
The technical problems to be solved by the invention are to provide a kind of powder easy to make, technique is simple and production cost is low The manufacture method of metallurgical bearing.
Technical scheme is used by the present invention solves above-mentioned technical problem:A kind of manufacture method of powder metallurgy support, It is characterized by orderly comprising following steps:
1) designing material forms:For the material that bearing uses for sintered steel, composition is carbon:0~1.2%, copper:0~5%, nickel: 0~2%, molybdenum:0~2%, chromium:0~3%, manganese:0~3%, the inevitable impurity no more than 2%, iron:Surplus;
Wherein, chromium, molybdenum, copper, nickel, manganese are added in the form of ferroalloy or foundry alloy or element powder, and carbon is added with form of graphite Enter, then add the lubricant that mass percentage content is 0.1~1%;
2) it is 6.2~7.2g/cm above-mentioned mixed powder to be pressed into density on press3Bearing green compact, pressing pressure is big In 400MPa;
3) bearing green compact are sintered in 1000 DEG C~1350 DEG C of temperature, the time of sintering is 5~180 minutes;
4) annealed in non-oxidizing atmosphere, annealing temperature is 750~1080 DEG C, 5~200 points of soaking time of annealing Clock is annealed, and HRB100 bearing is less than for hardness after sintering, annealing operation can be alternatively;
5) extrude:Extruded on the press reequiped by single lead screw ex truding briquetting machine or sizing rolling machine, its extrusion deformation degree is straight It is more than or equal to 2% on the direction of footpath, extrusion die former and plug are at least divided into two parts of guide section and sizing section;
6) required according to accessory size, process end face and internal diameter, and steam treatment is carried out as requested to part after processing, The temperature of steam treatment is 550~570 DEG C, is incubated 70~90 minutes, and steaming step is in the airtight sexual satisfaction requirement of bearing Under the conditions of can be alternatively.
As an improvement, the lubricant and graphite in the step 1) are added using bonding processing mode.
As an improvement, the compacting of the step 3) is to use warm-pressing formation or mould thermoforming.
As an improvement, the step 3) step 4) be sintered in vacuum sintering furnace carry out either based on nitrogen, The ratio of hydrogen is to be carried out in 1~90vol% sintering furnace.
As an improvement, the step 4) annealing, from annealing temperature to 300 DEG C cooling velocity be less than 2 DEG C/S.
Improve again, the step 3), the sintering of step 4) and annealing two procedures can be combined into one, after sintering terminates Temperature control is incubated in annealing temperature, room temperature is dropped to according to the time and cooling requirement of annealing
Improve again, centre bore may be selected for the extruding of the step 5) and other holes are as extruded object, compression tool Plug, its extrusion deformation degree are more than or equal to 2% in diametric(al), for the endoporus with keyway or not rounded endoporus, can used non- Uniformly extruding, then its maximum extrusion deformation degree is diametrically more than or equal to 2%.
Improve again, being squeezed on sizing rolling machine for the step 5) is carried out.
Further improve, the temperature of the step 6) steam treatment is 560 DEG C, is incubated 80 minutes, steaming step exists Can be alternatively under conditions of the airtight sexual satisfaction requirement of bearing.
Compared with prior art, the advantage of the invention is that:Manufacture craft is simple, has precision height, surfaces externally and internally bright and clean Spend, effectively eliminate the excessive problem of laser welding part after sintering welding or sintering, solder is reduced, so as to reduce life Cost is produced, improves production efficiency.Compared with prior powder metallurgy technique, the density of product is higher, and local areal density can be with More than 7.60g/cm3, close to the level of forged steel, surface relative density can reach more than 99%, realize surface compact substantially Change, can so ensure to be not required to adjust welding procedure during part welding, welding assembly be carried out according to common iron, with traditional casting Make part to compare, intensity is higher, and element precision is higher, reduces substantial amounts of machining processes.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation produced by the present invention with steam vent bearing;
Fig. 2 is the structural representation produced by the present invention without steam vent bearing;
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of extruding former (cavity plate);
Fig. 4 is the outer peripheral hole photo of the bearing of embodiment 1;
Fig. 5 is the relation curve of density and mechanical property.
Embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with accompanying drawing embodiment.
Embodiment one:(band steam vent bearing)
1., get out raw material, the i.e. mixed powder of siderochrome molybdenum and carbon, its proportioning is:(chromium 3.0%, molybdenum are ferroalloy 0.5%, other inevitable materials, less than 1%, iron is surplus) it is 99.0%;Carbon is 0.40%, then adds content and is 0.60% lubricant;
Wherein, chromium, molybdenum are added in the form of ferroalloy or foundry alloy or element powder, and carbon is added with form of graphite, Ran Houjia Enter lubricant;Lubricant and graphite are added using bonding processing mode;
2., above-mentioned mixed powder is compressed to density 6.65g/cm under 600MPa pressure3Bearing green compact;
3., sintering, the support part is sintered in 1200 DEG C of temperature, the time of sintering is 20 minutes, is sintered in Carried out in vacuum sintering furnace;
4., annealing:Annealing temperature is 850 DEG C;Atmosphere is nitrogen, and annealing soaking time is 60 minutes, from annealing after annealing Temperature to the cooling velocity between 300 DEG C be 0.1 DEG C/S;
5., extruding (finishing):Extruded on the press reequiped by single lead screw ex truding briquetting machine or sizing rolling machine, extrusion deformation degree It is more than 5% in diametric(al), i.e. extrusion deformation degree (Φ 1Extrusion-Φ1Sintered part)/Φ1Sintered part× 100% >=5%, Φ 1Sintered partTo burn Tie the external diameter of state, Φ 1ExtrusionFor the external diameter of As-extruded;Extrusion die former 3 (as shown in Figure 3) and plug are at least divided into guide section 31 With 32 two parts of sizing section;
6., required according to accessory size, process end face and internal diameter, and other sizes.
7., steam treatment:Steaming temperature is 560 DEG C, is incubated 80 minutes.
By the outward flange cutting and polishing of bearing 1, its hole photo is shown in Fig. 4, from fig. 4, it can be seen that the outer rim of bearing 1 is realized substantially Densification.
8., measurement outer surface roughness, the Ra of compressive surface is 0.1, Rz 1.35, and the surface not extruded is that Ra is 0.9, Rz 6.5, roughness is substantially improved.
Embodiment two:(without steam vent bearing)
1. getting out raw material, i.e. the mixed powder of siderochrome molybdenum and carbon, its proportioning is:(chromium 3.0%, molybdenum are iron alloy powder 0.5%, other inevitable materials, less than 1%, iron is surplus) it is 50%, straight iron powder 49.3%;Carbon is 0.3%, so The lubricant that content is 0.4% is added afterwards;
Wherein, chromium, molybdenum are added in the form of ferroalloy or foundry alloy or element powder, and carbon is added with form of graphite, Ran Houjia Enter lubricant;Lubricant and graphite are added using bonding processing mode;
2. above-mentioned mixed powder is compressed to density 6.8g/cm under 600MPa pressure3Bearing green compact;
3. sintering, the support part is sintered in 1120 DEG C of temperature, the time of sintering is 20 minutes, be sintered in Based on nitrogen, the ratio of hydrogen carries out in 10vol% sintering furnace;
4. extrude (finishing):Extruded on the press reequiped by single lead screw ex truding briquetting machine or sizing rolling machine, extrusion deformation degree It is more than 6% in diametric(al), i.e. extrusion deformation degree (Φ 1Extrusion-Φ1Sintered part)/Φ1Sintered part× 100% >=6%, Φ 1Sintered partTo burn Tie the external diameter of state, Φ 1ExtrusionFor the external diameter of As-extruded;Extrusion die former 3 is at least divided into two parts:Guide section 31 and sizing section 32;
5. steam treatment:Required according to accessory size, process end face and internal diameter, and to being carried out after processing according to part requirements Steam treatment, steaming temperature are 560 DEG C, are incubated 80 minutes.
6. measuring the roughness of outer surface, the Ra of compressive surface is 0.1, Rz 1.65, and the surface not extruded is that Ra is 0.9, Rz 6.5, roughness is substantially improved.
Embodiment three:
1. raw material is got out, i.e. the mixed powder of iron and carbon:(other inevitable materials are less than 1% to iron powder, and iron is remaining Amount) it is 99.0%;Carbon is 0.5%, then adds the lubricant that content is 0.5%;
Carbon is added with form of graphite, then adds lubricant;Lubricant and graphite are added using bonding processing mode;
2. temperature and pressure are density 7.10g/cm under 600MPa pressure by above-mentioned mixed powder3Bearing green compact;Compacting is to adopt Use warm-pressing formation;
3. sintering, the support part is sintered in 1120 DEG C of temperature, the soaking time of sintering is 30 minutes;
4. extrude (finishing):Extruded on the press reequiped by single lead screw ex truding briquetting machine or sizing rolling machine, extrusion deformation degree It is more than 4% in diametric(al), i.e. (Φ 1Extrusion-Φ1Sintered part)/Φ1Sintered part× 100% >=4%, Φ 1Sintered partFor the outer of sintered state Footpath, Φ 1ExtrusionFor the external diameter of As-extruded;Extrusion die former 3 is at least divided into two parts:Guide section 31 and sizing section 32;
5. steam treatment:Required according to accessory size, process end face and internal diameter, and to being carried out after processing according to part requirements Steam treatment, steaming temperature are 560 DEG C, are incubated 80 minutes.
6. measuring the roughness of outer surface, the Ra of compressive surface is 0.1, Rz 1.60, and the surface not extruded is that Ra is 0.9, Rz 6.5, roughness is substantially improved.
Example IV:
1. raw material is got out, i.e. the mixed powder of iron and carbon:(other inevitable materials are less than 1% to iron powder, and iron is remaining Amount) it is 98.6%;Carbon is 0.8%, then adds the lubricant that content is 0.6%;
Carbon is added with form of graphite, then adds lubricant;Lubricant and graphite are added using bonding processing mode;
2. temperature and pressure are density 6.40g/cm under 600MPa pressure by above-mentioned mixed powder3Bearing green compact;Compacting is to adopt With warm-pressing formation or mould thermoforming;
3. sintering, the support part is sintered in 1120 DEG C of temperature, the soaking time of sintering is 30 minutes;
4. extrude (finishing):Extruded on the press reequiped by single lead screw ex truding briquetting machine or sizing rolling machine, extrusion deformation degree It is more than 10% in diametric(al), i.e. (Φ 1Extrusion-Φ1Sintered part)/Φ1Sintered part× 100% >=10%, extrusion die former 3 at least divides For two parts:Guide section 31 and sizing section 32;
5. steam treatment:Required according to accessory size, process end face and internal diameter, and to being carried out after processing according to part requirements Steam treatment, steaming temperature are 560 DEG C, are incubated 80 minutes.
6. measuring the roughness of outer surface, the Ra of compressive surface is 0.1, Rz 1.64, and the surface not extruded is that Ra is 0.9, Rz 6.5, roughness is substantially improved.
Embodiment five:
1. raw material is got out, i.e. the mixed powder of iron, copper and carbon:(other inevitable materials are less than 1% to iron powder, and iron is Surplus) it is 97.0%;Copper is 2%;Carbon is 0.5%, then adds the lubricant that content is 0.5%;
Wherein, copper is added in the form of ferroalloy or foundry alloy or element powder, and carbon is added with form of graphite, then adds profit Lubrication prescription;Lubricant and graphite are added using bonding processing mode;
2. temperature and pressure are density 7.00g/cm under 600MPa pressure by above-mentioned mixed powder3Bearing green compact;Compacting is to adopt With warm-pressing formation or mould thermoforming;
3. sintering, the support part is sintered in 1120 DEG C of temperature, the soaking time of sintering is 30 minutes;
4. extrude (finishing):Extruded on the press reequiped by single lead screw ex truding briquetting machine or sizing rolling machine, extrusion deformation degree It is more than 5% in diametric(al), i.e. (Φ 1Extrusion-Φ1Sintered part)/Φ1Sintered part× 100% >=5%, extrusion die former 3 is at least divided into Two parts:Guide section 31 and sizing section 32;
5. steam treatment:Required according to accessory size, process end face and internal diameter, and to being carried out after processing according to part requirements Steam treatment, steaming temperature are 560 DEG C, are incubated 80 minutes.
6. measuring the roughness of outer surface, the Ra of compressive surface is 0.1, Rz 1.61, and the surface not extruded is that Ra is 0.9, Rz 6.5, roughness is substantially improved.
Embodiment six:
1. raw material is got out, i.e. the mixed powder of iron, copper and carbon:(other inevitable materials are less than 1% to iron powder, and iron is Surplus) it is 96.5%;Copper is 2%;Carbon is 0.8%, then adds the lubricant that content is 0.7%;
Wherein, copper is added in the form of ferroalloy or foundry alloy or element powder, and carbon is added with form of graphite, then adds profit Lubrication prescription;Lubricant and graphite are added using bonding processing mode;
2. temperature and pressure are density 6.80g/cm under 600MPa pressure by above-mentioned mixed powder3Bearing green compact;Compacting is to adopt With warm-pressing formation or mould thermoforming;
3. sintering, the support part is sintered in 1120 DEG C of temperature, the soaking time of sintering is 30 minutes;
4. extrude (finishing):Extruded on the press reequiped by single lead screw ex truding briquetting machine or sizing rolling machine, extrusion deformation degree It is more than 7% in diametric(al), i.e. (Φ 1Extrusion-Φ1Sintered part)/Φ1Sintered part× 100% >=7%, extrusion die former 3 is at least divided into Two parts:Guide section 31 and sizing section 32;
5. steam treatment:Required according to accessory size, process end face and internal diameter, and to being carried out after processing according to part requirements Steam treatment, steaming temperature are 560 DEG C, are incubated 80 minutes.
6. measuring the roughness of outer surface, the Ra of compressive surface is 0.1, Rz 1.62, and the surface not extruded is that Ra is 0.9, Rz 6.5, roughness is substantially improved.
Embodiment seven:
1. getting out raw material, i.e. the mixed powder of iron molybdenum cupro-nickel and carbon, its proportioning is:(molybdenum is iron copper-molybdenum nickel alloy part powder 0.50%, nickel 1.75%, copper 1.5%, other inevitable materials, less than 1%, iron is surplus) it is 98.6%;Carbon is 0.9%, then add the lubricant that content is 0.5%;
Wherein, molybdenum, copper, nickel are added in the form of ferroalloy or foundry alloy or element powder, and carbon is added with form of graphite, then Add lubricant;Lubricant and graphite are added using bonding processing mode;
2. temperature and pressure are density 6.90g/cm under 600MPa pressure by above-mentioned mixed powder3Bearing green compact;Compacting is to adopt With warm-pressing formation or mould thermoforming;
3. sintering, the support part is sintered in 1120 DEG C of temperature, the soaking time of sintering is 30 minutes;
4. anneal:Annealing temperature is 880 DEG C;Atmosphere is nitrogen, and annealing soaking time is 60 minutes, from annealing temperature after annealing The cooling velocity spent between 300 DEG C is 0.3 DEG C/S;
5. extrude (finishing):Extruded on the press reequiped by single lead screw ex truding briquetting machine or sizing rolling machine, extrusion deformation degree It is more than 6% in diametric(al), i.e. (Φ 1Extrusion-Φ1Sintered part)/Φ1Sintered part× 100% >=6%, extrusion die former 3 is at least divided into Two parts:Guide section 31 and sizing section 32;
6. steam treatment:Required according to accessory size, process end face and internal diameter, and to being carried out after processing according to part requirements Steam treatment, steaming temperature are 560 DEG C, are incubated 80 minutes.
7. measuring the roughness of outer surface, the Ra of compressive surface is 0.1, Rz 1.60, and the surface not extruded is that Ra is 0.9, Rz 6.5, roughness is substantially improved.
Embodiment eight:
1. getting out raw material, i.e. the mixed powder of Fe, Mn, Cu and carbon, its proportioning is:Ferromanganese powder (manganese 73%, inevitably Other materials, less than 3%, iron is surplus) it is 3%;Straight iron powder is 94.7%;Carbon is 0.3%;Copper is 1.5%;Then add and contain Measure the lubricant for 0.5%;
Wherein, manganese, copper are added in the form of ferroalloy or foundry alloy or element powder, and carbon is added with form of graphite, Ran Houjia Enter lubricant;Lubricant and graphite are added using bonding processing mode;
2. above-mentioned mixed powder is compressed to density 7.1g/cm under 600MPa pressure3Bearing green compact, compacting be use Warm-pressing formation or mould thermoforming;
3. sintering, the support part is sintered in 1120 DEG C of temperature, the soaking time of sintering is 60 minutes;
4. extrude (finishing):Extruded on the press reequiped by single lead screw ex truding briquetting machine or sizing rolling machine, extrusion deformation degree It is more than 3% in diametric(al), i.e. (Φ 1Extrusion-Φ1Sintered part)/Φ1Sintered part× 100% >=3%, extrusion die former 3 is at least divided into Two parts:Guide section 31 and sizing section 32;
5. steam treatment:Required according to accessory size, process end face and internal diameter, and to being carried out after processing according to part requirements Steam treatment, steaming temperature are 560 DEG C, are incubated 80 minutes.
6. measure the roughness of compressive plane:The roughness Ra of compressive surface is 0.11, Rz 1.40.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of manufacture method of powder metallurgy support, it is characterised in that in turn include the following steps:
1) designing material forms:For the material that bearing uses for sintered steel, the mass percent of sintered steel ingredient is carbon:0~ 1.2%, copper:0~5%, nickel:0~2%, molybdenum:0~2%, chromium:0~3%, manganese:0~3%, it is inevitable no more than 2% Impurity, iron:Surplus;
Wherein, chromium, molybdenum, copper, nickel, manganese are added in the form of ferroalloy or foundry alloy or element powder, and carbon is added with form of graphite, so The lubricant that mass percentage content is 0.1~1% is added afterwards, obtains mixed powder;
2) it is 6.2~7.2g/cm above-mentioned mixed powder to be pressed into density on press3Bearing green compact, pressing pressure is more than 400MPa;
3) bearing green compact are sintered in 1000 DEG C~1350 DEG C of temperature, the time of sintering is 5~180 minutes;
4) annealed in non-oxidizing atmosphere, annealing temperature is 750~1080 DEG C, annealing soaking time 5~200 minutes;
5) extrude:Extruded on the press reequiped by single lead screw ex truding briquetting machine or sizing rolling machine, its extrusion deformation degree is in diameter side It is more than or equal to 2% upwards, extrusion die former and plug are at least divided into two parts of guide section and sizing section;
6) required according to accessory size, process end face and internal diameter, and steam treatment, steam are carried out as requested to part after processing The temperature of processing is 550~570 DEG C, is incubated 70~90 minutes.
2. manufacture method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the lubricant and graphite in the step 1) are using viscous Connect processing mode addition.
3. manufacture method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the compacting of the step 3) be using warm-pressing formation or Mould thermoforming.
4. manufacture method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the sintering of the step 3) is in vacuum sintering furnace Carry out either based on nitrogen, the ratio of hydrogen is to be carried out in 1~75vol% sintering furnace.
5. manufacture method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step 4) annealing, from annealing temperature to 300 DEG C Between cooling velocity be less than 2 DEG C/S.
6. manufacture method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step 3), the sintering of step 4) and annealing twice Process is combined into one, and is incubated temperature control in annealing temperature after sintering terminates, will according to the time and cooling of annealing Ask and drop to room temperature.
7. manufacture method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step 5) extruding selection centre bore and its As extruded object, compression tool is plug for his hole, and its extrusion deformation degree is more than or equal to 2% in diametric(al), for keyed The endoporus of groove or not rounded endoporus, using non-homogeneous extruding, then its maximum extrusion deformation degree is diametrically more than or equal to 2%.
8. manufacture method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that being squeezed on sizing rolling machine for the step 5) is carried out.
9. manufacture method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the temperature of the step 6) steam treatment be 550~ 570 DEG C, it is incubated 70~90 minutes.
10. manufacture method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that carry out step 3) branch of the hardness less than HRB100 afterwards Seat, without step 4).
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CN101927348A (en) * 2009-06-24 2010-12-29 东睦新材料集团股份有限公司 Method for manufacturing pneumatic or electric tool taping block
CN102000824A (en) * 2009-09-02 2011-04-06 东睦新材料集团股份有限公司 Manufacturing method of cam of engine camshaft
CN102430609A (en) * 2011-11-04 2012-05-02 西北工业大学 Equal-passage variable-cross-section extruding mold and extrusion forming method for pipes

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