CN105409704B - A kind of implantation methods of the U.S. jujube tree in east - Google Patents

A kind of implantation methods of the U.S. jujube tree in east Download PDF

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CN105409704B
CN105409704B CN201610028190.7A CN201610028190A CN105409704B CN 105409704 B CN105409704 B CN 105409704B CN 201610028190 A CN201610028190 A CN 201610028190A CN 105409704 B CN105409704 B CN 105409704B
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tree
jujube
fruit
jujube tree
soil
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CN105409704A (en
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唐育安
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Deyang Jingyang Shuangdong Dongmei Jujube Plantation Specialized Cooperatives
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Deyang Jingyang Shuangdong Dongmei Jujube Plantation Specialized Cooperatives
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of jujube tree implantation methods, include the following steps:(1)Field addressing:Select illumination sufficient, the uniform rich soil of rainwater;(2)Nursery is established:Spring, two season of winter carry out plant work;(3)It is managed after cultivation:It waters, drenches immediately after jujube tree transplanted seedling tree, and righting nursery stock;(4)Fertilising:To before fallen leaves or next spring basal dressing after fruit picking, base manure mainly based on organic fertilizer, especially based on farm manure;(5)Water management:It pours water in time when soil drought,(6)Winter pruning:Shaping, the adjustment of branch amount and the update of branch system are carried out after fallen leaves;It is trimmed to coronule by tree-like to dredge layer shape, free spindle or happy shape tree-like;(7)Flower and fruit management:7a, bud picking and pinching, 7b, band girdle;7c, spray fertilizer and gibberellin;7d, fruit thinning rationally determine load capacity according to the age of tree, tree vigo(u)r;(8)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:It takes and wipes out disease pest branch;(9)Harvesting mid-August is harvested, in jujube fruit to half red phase harvesting.

Description

A kind of implantation methods of the U.S. jujube tree in east
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of application technology, more particularly to a kind of jujube tree implantation methods belong to agriculture field.
Background technology
Jujube (Zizyphus sp.) is Rhamnaceae jujube, and defoliation small arbor, dilute shrub, up to more than 10 rice, bark are brown Color or taupe, petiole is 1-6 millimeters long, native to China, and cultivation history is long, widely distributed.The cultivated area of jujube in China Broad variety is various, it is known that the jujube class of various regions plantation has:Rake teeth jujube, Minqin garden jujube (small jujube), plate jujube, Shaanxi benzene jujube, Linze are small Jujube, bivalve jujube, Shandong are lain jujube, osculum jujube, youth's jujube, Dali garden jujube, Zanxindazao etc..Planting patterns of the various jujube trees in various regions has There is a large amount of similitude, but conventional Plant plane can not usually ensure that all types of jujube trees reaches best quantum of output.Although Studies have reported that the implantation methods of jujube tree, but most without region, the characteristic of type, it is difficult to it promotes and applies.
It has been opened next year in year 1 to March as Chinese patent CN103563705A discloses a kind of implantation methods of jujube tree It crosses colored jujube tree side to dig pit, the hole surrounds the jujube tree, and organic fertilizer is filled in hole;4 to June, around jujube tree trunk 1 to 1.5 meters spray with phoxim liquid or are coated at butt mythimna separata medicament, and tie up a circle plastic tape smearing position;With red mould The ground of element+net mycomycin spray jujube tree is with upper bit;7 spray boron fertilizer to September, on the ground of jujube tree with upper bit;10 Month, soil is being spread apart from 10 to 50 centimeters of trunk with upper bit with gibberellin+net mycomycin spray jujube tree ground The mixture of earth, plant dead leaf and animal wastes;November to December, on the ground of jujube tree with upper bit sprinkling boron fertilizer, and every Watering in three days is primary.The implantation methods of the patent, although having certain novelty, it is primarily upon in planting process chemical The application of medicament had not both met the requirement of green agriculture, can not provide good green nourishing jujube fruit yet.
For another example Liu Yan duckweeds et al.《Loess Region jujube cultivation technical and management measure》[1]One text, concentration discuss Huang The jujube tree planting technology of native knob summarizes jujube cultivation technology and management measure for Loess Region in North Shaanxi area feature, Sustainable and healthy development for Zizhou County or even Loess Region in North Shaanxi area jujube tree industry provides scientific basis, for local characteristic fruit Kind is planted and water and soil conservation provides technological guidance.But jujube tree is planted for the area of non-loess geology and does not have good skill Art is enlightened.
Present people's quality of life is higher and higher, keeps dietotherapy etc. to have higher pursuit nutrition, is rich in fresh dates Sugar, protein, fat and minerals also increasingly have been favored by people as common nourishing food.Meanwhile for food The safety understanding of product is deepened, the requirement for pollution-free food also further increases, and has been gradually formed with environmentally protective to pursue Eating habit, it is tighter for the requirement higher of jujube fruit plantation.
The Shaanxi document [1] Liu Yanping, Liu Yaolan, the Liu Ya beautiful Loess Regions jujube cultivation technical and management measure [J] Forestry science and technology, 2010:66-68.DOI:doi:10.3969/j.issn.1001-2117.2010.01.020.)
Invention content
It is an object of the invention to overcome the jujube tree plantation pursuits for resting on yield in the prior art, or regional plantation more The developmental deficiency of technology provides a kind of green and healthy nutritional jujube fruit implantation methods.Jujube fruit provided by the invention plants skill Art can significantly improve the quality of jujube fruit in jujube tree planting process, and jujube industry is made to turn to the raising of benefit by the raising of yield. The dependence of chemical fertilizer is reduced, the green and healthy quality of jujube fruit is improved, realizes modernization sustainable agriculture development.
In order to achieve the above-mentioned object of the invention, the present invention provides following technical schemes:
A kind of jujube tree implantation methods, include the following steps:
(1) field addressing:The illumination of 400-800 meters of height above sea level of selection is sufficient, the uniform rich soil of rainwater, and ecological condition is good Good soil is as nursery field.The ecological condition refers to well having exhaust gas, waste liquid without pollution sources in 10 kilometers of attachment Or the factory of waste discharge is uniformly denoted as pollution sources.Preferably, field addressing should be the agricultural for having sustainable production capacity Production area.History that soil is pollution-free.
(2) nursery is established:Spring, two season of winter carry out plant work.According to 3~4 meters of line-spacing, 2~3 meters of spacing in the rows, dig length and width, Deep each 50~60 centimetres of planting hole, or 3~4 meters of line-spacing is dug, deep wide each 50~60 centimetres of planting furrow.Per acre plant 55~ 111 plants of jujube tree seedlings.
Further, jujube tree seedling Plant plane is as follows:First with 10~15 kilograms of good organic fertilizer with backfilled after soil mixing Ditch (cave).Then each 25~40 centimetres of planting pit of length, width and height is dug in ditch (cave), jujube tree seedling is put into planting pit, makes root system certainly So unfold, backfill side is simultaneously steady and sure, and the depth of planting is advisable so that jujube tree seedling rootstock position is equal with earth's surface.
Preferably, to transplant optimum when early March.
Preferably, the jujube tree seedling is robust plant, is had no mechanical damage, and height of seedling is more than 100 centimetres, more than graft union 5 lis Diameter is more than 1 centimetre at rice, and root system is complete, 3 millimeters of base diameter or more, the jujube tree seedling with 3 or more lateral roots.
(3) it is managed after planting:
It waters, drenches immediately after jujube tree transplanted seedling tree, and righting nursery stock.It is fixed dry, 60~80 centimetres of heading height.It is preferred that , it is transplanted if it is in spring, it is also necessary to covering with ground sheeting:It carries out before spring rudiment, waters in advance, rear cover mulch reaches and carries The purpose of High-geotemperature and soil moisture conservation.
Further, further include that intertillage is loosened the soil:Depth is intertilled generally at 5~10 centimetres.Intertillage is loosened the soil in due course after watering.Intertillage Will it is first shallow after it is deep, prevent from hindering root excessive.
Further, it does not carry out deep ploughing curing before jujube tree is colonized or planting pit is too small, it should all be several after treelet is colonized In year, in preferably 1-5, carries out deep ploughing and expand cave.Using expanding cave method year by year or next year every strain Deep turning method, in combination with basal dressing into Row.
Further, further include covering grass:Young age garden Yi Shu disks cover grass, cover grass at the gardens Ling Yuankequan.Cover 15~20 lis of careless thickness Rice.It is weeds, leaf, crop material etc. to cover grass seeds class.It covers to combine before grass and plough deeply or deep hoe watering, applied by age of tree size strain organic 0.2~0.5 kilogram of composite fertilizer.It covers grass to turn over grass after 4~5 years, then covers grass again.
(4) it applies fertilizer:To basal dressing before fallen leaves after fruit picking, base manure mainly based on organic fertilizer, especially based on farm manure, apply by treelet 30~50 kilograms/plant apply 50~100 kilograms/plant at age tree.Using ditch spread method carry out, under tree crown dig radial furrow or Annular groove, 15~20 centimetres of ditch depth, loam mixing are dug in tree crown periphery.Organic fertilizer and soil are uniformly mixed.Organic fertilizer is to ring Border is friendly, and relative to a great number of elements chemical fertilizer and micro- chemical fertilizer, nutrition is rationally balanced, can effectively keep or increase soil Microbial activity in earth fertility and soil promotes tree body to grow up healthy and sound.The farm manure be ground slag muck put processing refuel it is withered.Oil It is withered, with a kind of organic fertilizer made of residue of the more seed of various oil compositions after squeezing is deoiled, such as rape cake, cottonseed Cake, soya-bean cake, sesame-send cake, peanut cake etc., i.e. oil cake, cake fertilizer.Further, in the case of farm manure is insufficient, can be with farm manure Main, the appropriate a small amount of organic chemical fertilizer of addition and/or other organic fertilizer are used in mixed way, and the ratio of farm manure must not be less than 70% (weight).
Further, the farm manure:Including compost, make compost, barnyard manure, biogas manure, cake fertilizer, green manure, crop material fertilizer and Humic acid fertilizer.Every compost is both needed to apply without fully decomposed organic fertilizer with top fermentation 5~7 days through 50 DEG C. Preferably, it using the method applying organic manure of buried straw-returning, increases soil fertility.
Preferably, the commercial fertilizer:Including organic commercial fertilizer, microbial manure, compoiste fertilizer, inorganic (mineral) fertilizer Material etc..Other described organic fertilizer:Refer to and is free of noxious material, fertilizer made of the organic matters such as domestic birds and animals processing waste material.
Further, fertilising further comprises soil topdressing:Annual top dressing three times, before rudiment, Hua Qian, young fruit expanding stage into Row.Top dressing is based on quick-acting punchings fertilising before rudiment, and before spending and young fruit expanding stage applies phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer or efficient biofertilizer.Using more Point perforated method, waters in time after top dressing.
Further, fertilising further comprises foliage top dressing:0.3%~0.5% aqueous solution of urea is sprayed before spending;Florescence, young fruit period Spray the mixed liquor 2~3 times of state's light boron of 1200 times of liquid, state's light phosphorus and potassium dihydrogen phosphate.
(5) water management:It pours water, pours water 2~3 times in time when soil drought, divide rudiment water, Hua Qianshui, swollen fruit water.It takes Trickle irrigation, microspray irrigation and small border irrigation water law, avoid and use broad irrigation.Preferably, further include trimming gutter, improve rainy season water drainage energy Power.
The rudiment water is to water for 1-7 days before rudiment is bloomed.Jujube tree florescence soil moisture relatively lacks after overwintering, fills Water can promote rudiment and young sprout to grow, and expand leaf area, enhance photosynthesis, create conditions for flowering fruit.
It is described to spend preceding water, it is watering in 1-2 weeks before the florescence, promotes the whole growth conditions of fruit tree, improve the amount of blooming, accordingly Promote the volume increase of jujube fruit.
The swollen fruit water is in Post flowering interior watering in 1-2 weeks.When Fruit, young sprout grows vigorous, moisture content demand Greatly, leaf fruit contention moisture is easily caused, the serious problems such as shedding is caused, suitably keeps the skin wet, promote fruit growth.
(6) winter pruning:To before next spring rudiment after fallen leaves, to before rudiment at the beginning of preferably 3 months, shaping, branch are carried out Amount adjustment and the update of branch system.It is trimmed to coronule by tree-like to dredge layer shape, free spindle or happy shape tree-like.
(7) flower and fruit management:
7a, bud picking and pinching:The useless rudiment erased trunk in time, sprouted on skeleton branch, the growth of control branch system, adjustment length Gesture and branches and leaves density promote flower fruit setting and Fruit.From late April to early July, or adnation position smaller to growing space is not When jujube head, stay 2~3 jujubes to lift up into row heavy pinching;To there is the jujube head of growing space, 3~5 Secondary Branchs is stayed to carry out pinching, two Pinching when secondary branch 3~5 saves improves percentage of fertile fruit.
7b, band girdle:It is carried out when the amount of blooming reaches the 30%~40% of bud total amount, the band girdle time is generally in June 5 days~15 Day.Band girdle mouth width is the 1/8~1/10 of trunk or major branch rugosity.1~3 auxiliary support branch is left and taken when band girdle.
The auxiliary support branch, it is auxiliary support branch the raw bough on the interlayer and major branch that center is done between side shoot.Auxiliary support branch Effect is auxiliary foster tree body, and balanced tree vigo(u)r promotes result.
7c, spray fertilizer and gibberellin:1~2 day 10~15 mgs/kg of Gibberellins solution of spray or 0.2% is mixed after band girdle~ 0.3% boron fertilizer dilution.
7d, fruit thinning:It carries out after mid or late June physiological fallen fruit peak, load capacity is rationally determined according to the age of tree, tree vigo(u)r, one As a jujube hang and stay 2~3 preferable fruits of fruit type.
Wherein, 7a~7d is between each other without sequencing.
(9) it harvests
Mid-August harvests, in jujube fruit to half red phase harvesting.Preferably, it harvests by stages, ripe a batch, harvesting a batch;Classification Harvesting, according to fruit size and coloring degree, with harvesting with classification.
Further, using artificial harvesting, left hand is done a good job of it jujube and is hung, and the right hand holds jujube fruit properly, and thumb nips jujube handle, upwards firmly, It is selected while harvesting, avoiding wounding as possible, it is beautiful to influence jujube fruit.
Further, including step (8) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:Take wipe out disease pest branch, remove dry branches and fallen leaves, turn over tree disk, It covers the measures such as careless overlay film, applying organic manure and mitigates pest and disease damage.When necessary, according to pest biological characteristics, take sugar-vinegar liquid, The methods of trapping lamp, insect sticker (plate) insect-killing trapping.Using frequency trembler lamps, insect-sticking plate, frequency trembler lamps are to Lepidoptera, elytrum Mesh, Homoptera various pests there is stronger trapping to act on.
Further, biological control can also be used:Artificial trichogramma releases helps and moves and protect ladybug, Chrysopa, Predatory Mites etc. Natural enemy, soil application muscardine prevent small heart-eating peach worm, are trapped and killed using insect extra-sexual hormone or adult is interfered to mate.
Further, when pest and disease damage is serious, botanical pesticide, animal pesticide, microbial pesticide and mine may be used Material resource pesticide is sterilized.Each is at most used 1 time every year.Last time dispenser should be at 45 days or more away from picking time interval.Choosing When selecting pesticide variety, administration time and method of administration, it shall be noted that protect the natural enemy of pest.
Compared with prior art, beneficial effects of the present invention:
1. the jujube tree implantation methods of the present invention, field addressing has the agricultural producing areas of sustainable production capacity, can Enough coordinate existing sustainable development ecological agriculture garden environment, and Ecological Development agriculture in garden can be promoted, has The feature of green economy agricultural.
2. the jujube tree implantation methods of the present invention, buried in the root of jujube tree plantation using farm organic fertilizer as base manure application In soil, the growing environment of sapling can be effectively converted, improves jujube growth speed, improves environmental aspect.Moreover, of the invention It avoids using chemical fertilizer as possible, there is prominent meaning, the life in garden for the environmental ecology sustainable development in plantation Waste waste liquid etc. is cured into the farm manure of high-quality, the pollutant process of the garden not only solved by biofermentation, but also improves Economic benefit.
3. the basic procedure situation of the jujube tree implantation methods combination jujube fruit growth and maturity of the present invention, in due course top dressing ensures fertility It is effectively converted into fruit after absorption, builds up fertility using transformation efficiency, light is avoided to come into leaves, fruitless defect.
4. the jujube tree implantation methods of the present invention provide the conversion that jujube tree yields positive results the interference of science, the growth of branch system is adjusted Whole to control, flower seat Fruit degree is suitable.Rationally determine that load capacity, percentage of fertile fruit are high according to the age of tree, tree vigo(u)r, the product of jujube fruit as It is good.
Specific implementation mode
With reference to test example and specific implementation mode, the present invention is described in further detail.But this should not be understood It is only limitted to embodiment below for the range of the above-mentioned theme of the present invention, it is all that this is belonged to based on the technology that the content of present invention is realized The range of invention.
Embodiment 1
400-600 meters of height above sea level is selected, illumination is sufficient, the uniform rich soil of rainwater, 3 mu of the good soil of ecological condition, As nursery field.Without pollution sources in 10 kilometers of attachment, the factory with exhaust gas, waste liquid or waste discharge is uniformly denoted as pollution Source.
According to 3 meters of line-spacing, 2 meters of spacing in the rows is dug length and width, deep each 50 centimetres of planting hole, is transplanted in mid-March in spring Work, the jujube tree seedling of 1-1.3 meters of plant.It waters, drenches, and righting nursery stock immediately after the completion of plant.It is fixed dry, heading height 60 ~80 centimetres.Water rear cover mulch, achievees the purpose that improving ground mildly preserves soil moisture.Plantation carries out intertillage after 2-3 months and loosens the soil, depth 5~10 centimetres.It carries out covering careless work after the completion of intertillage:Young age garden Yi Shu disks cover careless 50%~70% (area), if it is at age Yuan Zequan covers grass in garden.Cover 15~20 centimetres of careless thickness.It is weeds, leaf, crop material etc. to cover grass seeds class.
Basal dressing after first year fruit picking, for base manure based on farm manure, treelet applies 30~50 kilograms/plant.Using the method for ditch spread It carries out, radial furrow is dug under tree crown or digs annular groove, 15~20 centimetres of ditch depth, loam mixing in tree crown periphery.
The farm manure includes:Compost, make compost, barnyard manure, biogas manure, cake fertilizer, green manure, crop material fertilizer and humic-acid kind Fertilizer.Every compost is both needed to apply without fully decomposed organic fertilizer with top fermentation 5~7 days through 50 DEG C.Basal dressing Buried straw-returning simultaneously, increases soil fertility.
Water management:It pours water, pours water 2~3 times in time when soil drought, divide rudiment water, Hua Qianshui, swollen fruit water.Take drop Filling, microspray irrigation and small border irrigation water law, avoid and use broad irrigation.Further, if moisture is abundant/excessive, it is also necessary to gutter is rebuild, Rainy season water drainage ability is improved, is prevented trouble before it happens.
Winter pruning:To before next spring rudiment after fallen leaves, at the beginning of 3 months to most preferably, carrying out shaping, branch amount tune before rudiment The update of whole and branch system.The tree-like coronule that is trimmed to is dredged into layer shape or free spindle.
Bud picking and pinching:The useless rudiment erased trunk in time, sprouted on skeleton branch, control branch system growth, adjusts growing way With branches and leaves density, promote flower fruit setting and Fruit.From late April to early July, or adnation position smaller to growing space is improper Jujube head, stay 2~3 jujubes to lift up into row heavy pinching;To there is the jujube head of growing space, 3~5 Secondary Branchs is stayed to carry out pinching, it is secondary Pinching when branch 3~5 saves improves percentage of fertile fruit.
Band girdle:When 30%~40% (quantity) that the amount of blooming reaches bud total amount carries out, the band girdle time is generally June 5 ~15 days.Band girdle mouth width is the 1/8~1/10 of trunk or major branch rugosity.1~3 auxiliary support branch is left and taken when band girdle.
Mid-August harvests, red to half red phase harvesting putting, and harvests by stages, ripe a batch, harvesting a batch.Using manually adopting It receives, left hand is done a good job of it jujube and hung, and the right hand holds jujube fruit properly, and thumb nips jujube handle, upwards firmly, selects while harvesting, avoids as possible Wounding, it is beautiful to influence jujube fruit.
Embodiment 2
In the agricultural producing areas of 500-700 meters of sustainable production capacity of height above sea level, the fertile soil of illumination abundance is selected 3 mu of ground, as nursery field.According to 3~4 meters of line-spacing, deep wide each 50~60 centimetres of planting furrow, first with good organic fertilizer 10 ~15 kilograms with soil mixing after back-filling trench (cave).Then each 25~40 centimetres of planting pit of length, width and height is dug in ditch (cave), it will Jujube tree seedling is put into planting pit, and root system is made to unfold naturally, and backfill side is simultaneously steady and sure, and the depth of planting is with jujube tree seedling rootstock position and earth's surface It is equal to be advisable.It waters, drenches immediately after jujube tree transplanted seedling tree, and righting nursery stock.
Plantation carries out intertillage and loosens the soil after 2-3 months, intertillage will it is first shallow after it is deep, prevent from hindering root excessive.It is carried out after the completion of intertillage Cover careless work:Young age garden Yi Shu disks cover grass 50%~70%, cover grass if it is at the gardens Ling Yuanzequan.Cover 15~20 lis of careless thickness Rice.It covers to combine before grass and plough deeply or deep hoe watering, 0.2~0.5 kilogram of compoiste fertilizer is applied by age of tree size strain.
Make between jujube garden:The cloudy resistance to cool short stalk crop of the happinesses such as young age garden cultivates peanut between in the ranks, vegetables, strawberry, and periodically to jujube Garden weeding.
To preceding or next spring basal dressing of falling leaves after fruit picking, base manure is based on farm manure, addition 10%-20% a great number of elements fertilizer, Treelet applies 30~50 kilograms/plant, and 50~100 kilograms/plant are applied at age tree.It is carried out using the method for ditch spread, radiation is dug under tree crown Shape ditch digs annular groove, 15~20 centimetres of ditch depth, loam mixing in tree crown periphery.
Soil topdressing:Three times, before rudiment, Hua Qian, young fruit expanding stage carry out for annual top dressing.Top dressing is with quick-acting punchings before rudiment Based on fertilising, before spending and young fruit expanding stage applies phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer or efficient biofertilizer.Using multiple spot perforated method, poured in time after top dressing Water.
Foliage top dressing:0.3%~0.5% (weight) aqueous solution of urea is sprayed before spending;Florescence, young fruit period spray the state of 1200 times of liquid The mixed liquor of light boron, state's light phosphorus and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2~3 times.
Water management:Pour water in time when soil drought, especially before and after budding period, florescence, fruit expanding period pay attention to taking precautions against drought, and It is poured water.
Winter pruning:To progress shaping, the adjustment of branch amount and the update of branch system before rudiment at the beginning of 3 months.The tree-like coronule that is trimmed to is dredged Layer shape, free spindle or happy shape are tree-like.
Flower and fruit management:The useless rudiment erased trunk in time, sprouted on skeleton branch, the growth of control branch system, adjustment growing way and Branches and leaves density promotees flower fruit setting and Fruit.Band girdle, band girdle mouth width are carried out when the amount of blooming reaches the 30%~40% of bud total amount Degree is the 1/8~1/10 of trunk or major branch rugosity, and when band girdle leaves and takes 1~3 auxiliary support branch.
Further, 1~2 day 10~15 mgs/kg of Gibberellins solution of spray or 0.2%~0.3% is mixed after band girdle Boron fertilizer dilution.
Further, it is carried out after mid or late June physiological fallen fruit peak, rationally determines load capacity according to the age of tree, tree vigo(u)r, generally One jujube, which is hung, stays 2~3 preferable fruits of fruit type.
Mid-August harvests, and using artificial harvesting, left hand is done a good job of it jujube and hung, and the right hand holds jujube fruit properly, and thumb nips jujube handle, upwards Firmly, it is selected while harvesting, avoiding wounding as possible, it is beautiful to influence jujube fruit.Classification harvesting, according to fruit size and coloring journey Degree, with harvesting with classification.
Embodiment 3
Implementation process includes mainly the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control with embodiment 2:It takes and wipes out disease pest branch, remove dry branches and fallen leaves, turn over Tree disk covers the measures such as careless overlay film, applying organic manure and mitigates pest and disease damage.Key position in the ranks be arranged sugar-vinegar liquid, trapping lamp, Insect sticker insect-killing trapping.
Embodiment 4
In the agricultural producing areas of 400-700 meters of sustainable production capacity of height above sea level, select illumination sufficient, rainwater is uniform Rich soil, 3 mu of the good soil of ecological condition, as nursery field.According to 3~4 meters of line-spacing, 2~3 meters of spacing in the rows, dig it is long, Wide, deep each 50~60 centimetres of planting hole, carries out plant work, first with 10~15 kilograms of good organic fertilizer and soil in spring Planting hole is backfilled after mixing.Then each 25~40 centimetres of planting pit of length, width and height is dug in planting hole, and jujube tree seedling is put into field planting Cave makes root system unfold naturally, and backfill side is simultaneously steady and sure.The jujube tree seedling is robust plant, is had no mechanical damage, and height of seedling is more than 100 Centimetre, more than graft union 5 centimeters diameters are more than 1 centimetre, and root system is complete, 3 millimeters of base diameter or more, with 3 or more lateral roots Jujube tree seedling.
It waters, drenches immediately after jujube tree transplanted seedling tree, and righting nursery stock, cover mulch.It is fixed dry, 60~80 lis of heading height Rice.After treelet is colonized in several years, carries out deep ploughing and expand cave, using cave method is expanded year by year, basal dressing while expanding cave of deep ploughing.
After fruit picking the organic commercial fertilizer of 15% (weight), treelet are added based on farm manure to basal dressing before fallen leaves, base manure 30~50 kilograms/plant are applied, 50~100 kilograms/plant are applied at age tree.It is carried out using the method for ditch spread, radial furrow is dug under tree crown Or dig annular groove, 15~20 centimetres of ditch depth, loam mixing in tree crown periphery.Every year before rudiment, Hua Qian, young fruit expanding stage top dressing Three times.Top dressing is based on quick-acting punchings fertilising before rudiment, and before spending and young fruit expanding stage applies phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer or efficient biofertilizer.Using Multiple spot perforated method, waters in time after top dressing.In addition 0.3%~0.5% aqueous solution of urea is sprayed before the florescence;Florescence, young fruit period spray The mixed liquor of state's light boron of 1200 times of liquid, state's light phosphorus and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2~3 times.
Water management:Trickle irrigation method is taken to pour water nursery, it is stringent to take precautions against arid.
Winter pruning:To before next spring rudiment after fallen leaves, at the beginning of 3 months to most preferably, carrying out shaping, branch amount tune before rudiment The update of whole and branch system.It is trimmed to coronule by tree-like to dredge layer shape, free spindle or happy shape tree-like.
Flower and fruit management:The useless rudiment erased trunk in time, sprouted on skeleton branch, the growth of control branch system, adjustment growing way and Branches and leaves density promotees flower fruit setting and Fruit.From late April to early July, to giving birth to position improperly jujube head, 2~3 jujubes are stayed Lift up into row heavy pinching;To there is the jujube head of growing space, 3~5 Secondary Branchs are stayed to carry out pinching, pinching when Secondary Branch 3~5 saves carries High percentage of fertile fruit.It is carried out after mid or late June physiological fallen fruit peak, load capacity, a general jujube is rationally determined according to the age of tree, tree vigo(u)r It hangs and stays 2~3 preferable fruits of fruit type.The above flower and fruit management work does not have sequencing between each other, can be according to actual production Working condition is adjusted.
Biological control pest:Artificial trichogramma releases helps and moves and protect the natural enemies such as ladybug, Chrysopa, Predatory Mites, soil application Muscardine prevents small heart-eating peach worm, is trapped and killed using insect extra-sexual hormone or adult is interfered to mate.Further, when pest and disease damage is serious When, animal pesticide, microbial pesticide or sulphur preparation in mineral source pesticide may be used and copper agent is prevented, select When pesticide variety, administration time and method of administration, it shall be noted that protect the natural enemy of pest.
Mid-August harvests, and red to half red phase harvesting putting, using artificial harvesting, left hand is done a good job of it jujube and hung, and the right hand holds jujube properly Fruit, thumb nip jujube handle, upwards firmly, are selected while harvesting, and avoiding wounding as possible, it is beautiful to influence jujube fruit.
Embodiment 5
Implementation process helps with embodiment 4, including control of insect, artificial trichogramma releases and moves and protect ladybug, Chrysopa, catches The natural enemies such as mite are eaten, soil application muscardine prevents small heart-eating peach worm, is trapped and killed using insect extra-sexual hormone or adult is interfered to mate.Into Botanical pesticide desinsection may be used when pest and disease damage is serious in one step, sprays 1 time, is spaced 1-2 weeks.Last time dispenser It afterwards must not picking fruit in 45 days.
Comparative example 1
The back of the body east orientation west of 500-600 meters of height above sea level of selection, illumination is sufficient, and rainwater is uniform, 3 mu of the rich soil kind of neutral meta-alkali Jujube tree nursery.Jujube fruit is directly cultivated using conventional scheme, jujube fruit is not cultivated particularly, is finally similarly manually adopting Jujube fruit is received, when harvesting harvests from bottom to top, and accident collision when picking operation for fruit is avoided to damage.
Test case
It is picked in the late August in season of harvest to being picked in the jujube woods nursery of a kind of plant of embodiment 1-5 and comparative example Mode is as follows:10 jujube trees are randomly choosed, and pick 50 fruit jujube fruits at random on every jujube tree.By the obtained jujube fruit of picking into right Than analysis, the average weight of jujube fruit is weighed, compares the whole pattern performance of jujube fruit, concrete outcome is as shown in table 1 below.
1 jujube fruit matter of table and pattern comparison
Compared by embodiment 1-5 as it can be seen that the weight of the single jujube fruit of jujube woods fruit of implantation methods using the present invention Increase, 16.4 grams of average quality of single jujube fruit or more, jujube fruit shape looks performance fruit is very large, and pulp is plump, good appearance.And it is right Ratio 1 uses general planting scheme, and the yield of jujube fruit and single jujube fruit average quality are slightly lower general with the performance of jujube fruit shape looks, do not have There are outstanding advantages, major defect to be that appearance is general, without the prominent effect for causing consumer's appetite, so the present invention plants The jujube fruit harvest yield and quality of method plantation are better than traditional cultivation method.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of jujube tree implantation methods, include the following steps:
(1)Field addressing:The illumination of 400-800 meters of height above sea level of selection is sufficient, the uniform rich soil of rainwater, and ecological condition is good Soil is as nursery field;
(2)Nursery is established:Spring, two season of winter carry out plant work;According to 3~4 meters of line-spacing, it is each to dig length and width, depth for 2~3 meters of spacing in the rows 50~60 centimetres of planting hole;Or 3 ~ 4 meters of line-spacing is dug, deep wide each 50~60 centimetres of planting furrow;55~111 plants are transplanted per acre Jujube tree seedling;
The jujube tree seedling is robust plant, is had no mechanical damage, and height of seedling is more than 100 centimetres, and more than graft union 5 centimeters diameters are more than 1 centimetre, root system is complete, 3 millimeters of base diameter or more, the jujube tree seedling with 3 or more lateral roots;
(3)It is managed after cultivation:
It waters, drenches immediately after jujube tree transplanted seedling tree, and righting nursery stock;It is fixed dry, 60~80 centimetres of heading height;
Intertillage is loosened the soil:Intertill 5~10 centimetres of depth;
(4)Fertilising:To basal dressing before fallen leaves after fruit picking, mainly based on organic fertilizer, treelet applies 30~50 kilograms/plant to base manure, at age tree Apply 50~100 kilograms/plant;
Using ditch spread method carry out, under tree crown dig radial furrow or tree crown periphery dig annular groove, 15~20 centimetres of ditch depth, Loam mixing;
(5)Water management:It pours water, pours water 2 ~ 3 times in time when soil drought, divide rudiment water, Hua Qianshui, swollen fruit water;Take trickle irrigation, Microspray irrigation or small border irrigation water law;
(6)Winter pruning:To before next spring rudiment, carrying out shaping, the adjustment of branch amount and the update of branch system after fallen leaves;It is repaiied tree-like It is tree-like to be cut into the thin layer shape of coronule, free spindle or happy shape;
(7)Flower and fruit management:
7a, bud picking and pinching:The growth of branch system is controlled, growing way and branches and leaves density are adjusted, promotees flower fruit setting and Fruit;
From late April to early July, or adnation position smaller to growing space improperly jujube head stays 2~3 jujubes to lift up into row weight Pinching;
To there is the jujube head of growing space, 3~5 Secondary Branchs are stayed to carry out pinching, pinching when Secondary Branch 3~5 saves improves percentage of fertile fruit;
7b, band girdle:It is carried out when the amount of blooming reaches the 30%~40% of bud total amount, the band girdle time is generally 5~15 June;Ring Shell 1/8~1/10 that mouth width degree is trunk or major branch rugosity;1~3 auxiliary support branch is left and taken when band girdle;
7c, spray fertilizer and gibberellin:1~2 day 10~15 mgs/kg of Gibberellins solution of spray or 0.2%~0.3% is mixed after band girdle Boron fertilizer dilution;
7d, fruit thinning:It carries out after mid or late June physiological fallen fruit peak, load capacity is rationally determined according to the age of tree, tree vigo(u)r, general one A jujube, which is hung, stays 2 ~ 3 preferable fruits of fruit type;
Wherein, 7a ~ 7d is between each other without sequencing;
(8)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:It takes and wipes out disease pest branch, remove dry branches and fallen leaves, turn over tree disk, cover careless overlay film and applying organic manure Measure mitigates pest and disease damage;
(9)Harvesting
Mid-August harvests, in jujube fruit to half red phase harvesting.
2. jujube tree implantation methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step(2)In, jujube tree seedling Plant plane is as follows:First With back-filling trench or cave after 10~15 kilograms of good organic fertilizer and soil mixing;Then length, width and height each 25 ~ 40 are dug in ditch or cave Centimetre planting pit, jujube tree seedling is put into planting pit, root system is made to unfold naturally, backfill side is simultaneously steady and sure, and the depth of planting is with jujube tree Seedling rootstock position is equal with earth's surface to be advisable.
3. jujube tree implantation methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step(2)In, the jujube tree plant time is early March.
4. jujube tree implantation methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step(3)In, it transplants if it is in spring, also needs Want covering with ground sheeting:It carries out before spring rudiment, waters in advance, rear cover mulch.
5. jujube tree implantation methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step(3)In, further include that intertillage is loosened the soil:Middle tilling depth Degree is generally at 5~10 centimetres;Intertillage is loosened the soil in due course after watering.
6. jujube tree implantation methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step(3)In, depth is not carried out before jujube tree is colonized It ploughs curing or planting pit is too small, should all carry out deep ploughing after treelet is colonized in 1-5 and expand cave.
7. jujube tree implantation methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step(4)In, fertilising further comprises soil topdressing: Three times, before rudiment, Hua Qian, young fruit expanding stage carry out for annual top dressing;
Top dressing is based on quick-acting punchings fertilising before rudiment;
Before spending and young fruit expanding stage applies phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer or efficient biofertilizer.
8. jujube tree implantation methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step(4)In, fertilising further comprises foliage top dressing: 0.3%~0.5% aqueous solution of urea is sprayed before spending;Florescence, young fruit period spray state's light boron of 1200 times of liquid, state's light phosphorus and potassium dihydrogen phosphate Mixed liquor 2 ~ 3 times.
9. jujube tree implantation methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step(8)In, using biological control:Artificial release Trichogramma helps and moves and protect ladybug, Chrysopa.
10. jujube tree implantation methods as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step(8)In, when disease is serious, using plant Source pesticide, animal pesticide, microbial pesticide and mineral source pesticide are sterilized.
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