CN105384987A - Polyvinyl chloride reclaimed material modified acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composite material - Google Patents

Polyvinyl chloride reclaimed material modified acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composite material Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105384987A
CN105384987A CN201510783122.7A CN201510783122A CN105384987A CN 105384987 A CN105384987 A CN 105384987A CN 201510783122 A CN201510783122 A CN 201510783122A CN 105384987 A CN105384987 A CN 105384987A
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parts
polyvinyl chloride
oxide
rare earth
butadiene rubber
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CN201510783122.7A
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梁晓燕
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ANHUI GUANGYUAN TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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ANHUI GUANGYUAN TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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Publication of CN105384987A publication Critical patent/CN105384987A/en
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Abstract

The invention discloses a polyvinyl chloride reclaimed material modified acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composite material. The polyvinyl chloride reclaimed material modified acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composite material comprises acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride reclaimed material, stearic acid, zinc oxide, sulphur, dicumyl peroxide, phenolic resin reclaimed material, nano aluminium hydroxide, zinc borate, attapulgite, polyacrylonitrile fiber, an anti-aging agent MC, an anti-aging agent 4020, an anti-aging agent RD, a silane coupling agent, an accelerator, dioctyl phthalate, epoxidized soybean oil, dioctyl adipate, coumarone resin and nano rare earth oxide. The polyvinyl chloride reclaimed material modified acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composite material provided by the invention has good ageing resistance and excellent heat resistance and oil resistance; meanwhile, the polyvinyl chloride reclaimed material is added as a raw material, so that the cost is saved, and the environmental protection property is good.

Description

The renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of a kind of polyvinyl chloride
Technical field
The present invention relates to field of nitrile rubber technology, particularly relate to the renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of a kind of polyvinyl chloride.
Background technology
Paracril has good tear resistance, lower compression set, excellent wear resisting property and oil resistance, its maximum purposes produces oil resisting rubber hose, fire retarding conveying band and oil resisting rubber gasket material, has been widely used in the fields such as automobile, aerospace, oilfield chemical.As the one of elastomeric material, in the process of life-time service, can there is catabiosis in paracril, occur that sizing material hardens, surface is coking, be full of cracks, sometimes also there will be the situation of delamination, so often need modification.Along with the development of society, the consumption of paracril is rising year by year, and also day by day harsh to the requirement of its over-all properties, such as, require to have higher work-ing life; But its ageing resistance of existing nitrile rubber is not very desirable, there is work-ing life short, the defect that cost is high awaits further improvement.
Except containing except precious metal in electron wastes, also contain the recyclable resource such as glass, plastics, and plastics proportion is larger.According to data, in washing machine, plastics proportion is 43.66%, and in televisor, plastics are 22.20%.In the face of so huge electron wastes generation, wherein comprised plastic waste generation also should not be underestimated, and carries out to plastic waste the waste that renewable resource process not only reduces land resources needed for landfill, is also the one saving to petroleum resources simultaneously.But waste plastic is not a lot of for improving the research of elastomeric material at present, and effect is not still very desirable.
Summary of the invention
Based on the technical problem that background technology exists, the present invention proposes the renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of a kind of polyvinyl chloride, its ageing resistance is good, heat-resisting excellent with oil resistance, and with the addition of polyvinyl chloride reworked material as raw material, saved cost, the feature of environmental protection is good.
The renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of a kind of polyvinyl chloride that the present invention proposes, its raw material comprises following component by weight: paracril 50-80 part, polyvinyl chloride 20-35 part, polyvinyl chloride reworked material 5-20 part, stearic acid 1-3 part, zinc oxide 1-2.5 part, sulphur 0.2-0.5 part, dicumyl peroxide 0.2-1 part, resol reworked material 2-5 part, nano-aluminum hydroxide 5-10 part, zinc borate 3-12 part, attapulgite 3-10 part, polyacrylonitrile fibre 2-10 part, antioxidant MC 1-2.5 part, antioxidant 4020 0.5-1.5 part, anti-aging agent RD 0.2-1 part, silane coupling agent 3-5 part, promotor 1-3 part, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 2-6 part, epoxy soybean oil 3-5 part, Octyl adipate 2-5 part, coumarone indene resin 3-8 part, oxide nano rare earth 3-5 part.
Preferably, its raw material comprises following component by weight: paracril 68-72 part, polyvinyl chloride 27-31 part, polyvinyl chloride reworked material 10-15 part, stearic acid 1.8-2.3 part, zinc oxide 1.7-2.1 part, sulphur 0.35-0.4 part, dicumyl peroxide 0.6-0.9 part, resol reworked material 3.2-4 part, nano-aluminum hydroxide 7.2-8 part, zinc borate 6-8 part, attapulgite 5.5-7 part, polyacrylonitrile fibre 5.8-6.5 part, antioxidant MC 1.6-2 part, antioxidant 4020 0.9-1.3 part, anti-aging agent RD 0.6-1 part, silane coupling agent 3.8-4.3 part, promotor 1.7-2.2 part, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 3.8-4.3 part, epoxy soybean oil 3.7-4.1 part, Octyl adipate 3.6-4.1 part, coumarone indene resin 5.5-6.2 part, oxide nano rare earth 3.8-4.3 part.
Preferably, its raw material comprises following component by weight: paracril 70 parts, polyvinyl chloride 30 parts, polyvinyl chloride reworked material 12 parts, stearic acid 2.1 parts, 1.8 parts, zinc oxide, 0.38 part, sulphur, dicumyl peroxide 0.65 part, resol reworked material 3.6 parts, nano-aluminum hydroxide 7.5 parts, zinc borate 7.2 parts, attapulgite 6.3 parts, polyacrylonitrile fibre 6 parts, antioxidant MC 1.8 parts, antioxidant 4020 1 part, anti-aging agent RD 0.85 part, silane coupling agent 4 parts, promotor 2.1 parts, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 4 parts, epoxy soybean oil 3.85 parts, Octyl adipate 4 parts, coumarone indene resin 5.8 parts, oxide nano rare earth 4 parts.
Preferably, described polyvinyl chloride reworked material is milled into powder by after polyvinyl chloride wastes fragmentation, crosses 40 mesh sieves and obtains; Described resol reworked material is broken and be milled into powder by resol waste, crosses 40 mesh sieves and obtains.
Preferably, described promotor is one or more the mixture in accelerant CZ, promotor ETU, acceterator TE TD, vulkacit D, Vulcanization accelerator TMTD, altax.
Preferably, described oxide nano rare earth is one or more the mixture in nano lanthanum oxide, nano-cerium oxide, nano yttrium oxide.
Preferably, described oxide nano rare earth is modified Nano rare earth oxide, described modified Nano rare earth oxide is prepared according to following technique: by weight 20-50 part oxide nano rare earth is calcined 2-3h at 500-750 DEG C, be cooled to room temperature, then 3-5 part sec.-propyl three (dioctylphyrophosphoric acid acyloxy) titanic acid ester is added, 1-8 part vinyltriethoxysilane, 2-3.5 part antioxidant MC, 0.1-1 part dicumyl peroxide and 20-40 part propylene glycol, be warming up to 50-65 DEG C, 10-15min is disperseed under the rotating speed of 3000-5000r/min, filter post-drying, pulverize, sieve and obtain described modified Nano rare earth oxide.
Preferably, described oxide nano rare earth is modified Nano rare earth oxide, described modified Nano rare earth oxide is prepared according to following technique: by weight 40 parts of oxide nano rare earths are calcined 2.6h at 700 DEG C, be cooled to room temperature, then 4.3 parts of sec.-propyls three (dioctylphyrophosphoric acid acyloxy) titanic acid ester is added, 5.5 parts of vinyltriethoxysilanes, 3 parts of antioxidant MCs, 0.7 part of dicumyl peroxide and 30 parts of propylene glycol, be warming up to 60 DEG C, 12min is disperseed under the rotating speed of 4000r/min, filter post-drying, pulverize, sieve and obtain described modified Nano rare earth oxide, in the preparation process of modified Nano rare earth oxide, first oxide nano rare earth is calcined, eliminate some impurity, and reduce the granularity of oxide nano rare earth, improve the surfactivity of oxide nano rare earth simultaneously, after sec.-propyl three (dioctylphyrophosphoric acid acyloxy) titanic acid ester added afterwards coordinates with vinyltriethoxysilane, change the surface properties of oxide nano rare earth, vinyl is introduced the surface of oxide nano rare earth simultaneously, under the effect of dicumyl peroxide, vinyl wherein can react with the activity double key in antioxidant MC, thus antioxidant MC and oxide nano rare earth are combined togather, add antioxidant MC and the dispersiveness of oxide nano rare earth in system, and antioxidant MC and oxide nano rare earth have synergy, improve the ageing resistance of matrix material.
In the present invention, take paracril as major ingredient, give the mechanical property of matrix material excellence, oil-proofness and wear resistance, and cooperation with the addition of polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride reworked material is mated, by regulating the ratio of paracril and polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride reworked material, the performance of three being worked in coordination with, improves the lower temperature resistance of matrix material, dielectric properties and package stability, while not reducing composite material combination property, save cost, protect environment; After the resol reworked material added coordinates with sulphur and dicumyl peroxide, there is synergy, improve the cross-linking density of matrix material, improve the mechanical property of matrix material, saved cost simultaneously, protected environment; Nano-aluminum hydroxide, zinc borate, attapulgite, polyacrylonitrile fibre coordinate, there is synergy, improve tensile strength and the tear strength of matrix material on the one hand, improve the thermotolerance of matrix material, water tolerance and ageing resistance on the one hand, with polyvinyl chloride, there is synergy on the other hand, improve the flame retardant properties of matrix material; Oxide nano rare earth adds in system, has synergy with antioxidant MC, antioxidant 4020, anti-aging agent RD, improves ageing resistance and the thermotolerance of matrix material.
Performance Detection is carried out to the renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of polyvinyl chloride of the present invention, its tensile strength is 19.5-26.3MPa, and elongation at break is 700-750%, and Shore A hardness is 55-64, tear strength is 19.56-25.45KN/m, permanentset 3-5%; Through 136 DEG C, after 200h hot air aging, stretching strength retentivity is 97.6-98.3%, and elongation at break conservation rate is 95.8-97.6%.
Embodiment
Below, by specific embodiment, technical scheme of the present invention is described in detail.
Embodiment 1
The renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of a kind of polyvinyl chloride that the present invention proposes, its raw material comprises following component by weight: paracril 80 parts, polyvinyl chloride 20 parts, polyvinyl chloride reworked material 20 parts, stearic acid 1 part, 2.5 parts, zinc oxide, 0.2 part, sulphur, dicumyl peroxide 1 part, resol reworked material 2 parts, nano-aluminum hydroxide 10 parts, zinc borate 3 parts, attapulgite 10 parts, polyacrylonitrile fibre 2 parts, antioxidant MC 2.5 parts, antioxidant 4020 0.5 part, anti-aging agent RD 1 part, silane coupling agent 3 parts, accelerant CZ 3 parts, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 2 parts, epoxy soybean oil 5 parts, Octyl adipate 2 parts, coumarone indene resin 8 parts, oxide nano rare earth 3 parts.
Embodiment 2
The renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of a kind of polyvinyl chloride that the present invention proposes, its raw material comprises following component by weight: paracril 50 parts, polyvinyl chloride 35 parts, polyvinyl chloride reworked material 5 parts, stearic acid 3 parts, 1 part, zinc oxide, 0.5 part, sulphur, dicumyl peroxide 0.2 part, resol reworked material 5 parts, nano-aluminum hydroxide 5 parts, zinc borate 12 parts, attapulgite 3 parts, polyacrylonitrile fibre 10 parts, antioxidant MC 1 part, antioxidant 4020 1.5 parts, anti-aging agent RD 0.2 part, silane coupling agent 5 parts, promotor ETU0.3 part, acceterator TE TD0.7 part, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 6 parts, epoxy soybean oil 3 parts, Octyl adipate 5 parts, coumarone indene resin 3 parts, oxide nano rare earth 5 parts.
Embodiment 3
The renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of a kind of polyvinyl chloride that the present invention proposes, its raw material comprises following component by weight: paracril 68 parts, polyvinyl chloride 31 parts, polyvinyl chloride reworked material 10 parts, stearic acid 2.3 parts, 1.7 parts, zinc oxide, 0.4 part, sulphur, dicumyl peroxide 0.6 part, resol reworked material 4 parts, nano-aluminum hydroxide 7.2 parts, zinc borate 8 parts, attapulgite 5.5 parts, polyacrylonitrile fibre 6.5 parts, antioxidant MC 1.6 parts, antioxidant 4020 1.3 parts, anti-aging agent RD 0.6 part, silane coupling agent 4.3 parts, accelerant CZ 0.4 part, promotor ETU0.5 part, acceterator TE TD0.2 part, vulkacit D 0.2 part, Vulcanization accelerator TMTD 0.2 part, altax 0.2 part, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 4.3 parts, epoxy soybean oil 3.7 parts, Octyl adipate 4.1 parts, coumarone indene resin 5.5 parts, oxide nano rare earth 4.3 parts,
Wherein, described oxide nano rare earth is modified Nano rare earth oxide, described modified Nano rare earth oxide is prepared according to following technique: by weight 20 parts of oxide nano rare earths are calcined 2h at 750 DEG C, be cooled to room temperature, then 5 parts of sec.-propyls three (dioctylphyrophosphoric acid acyloxy) titanic acid ester is added, 1 part of vinyltriethoxysilane, 3.5 parts of antioxidant MCs, 0.1 part of dicumyl peroxide and 40 parts of propylene glycol, be warming up to 50 DEG C, 10min is disperseed under the rotating speed of 5000r/min, filter post-drying, pulverize, sieve and obtain described modified Nano rare earth oxide, wherein, described oxide nano rare earth is nano lanthanum oxide.
Embodiment 4
The renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of a kind of polyvinyl chloride that the present invention proposes, its raw material comprises following component by weight: paracril 72 parts, polyvinyl chloride 27 parts, polyvinyl chloride reworked material 15 parts, stearic acid 1.8 parts, 2.1 parts, zinc oxide, 0.35 part, sulphur, dicumyl peroxide 0.9 part, resol reworked material 3.2 parts, nano-aluminum hydroxide 8 parts, zinc borate 6 parts, attapulgite 7 parts, polyacrylonitrile fibre 5.8 parts, antioxidant MC 2 parts, antioxidant 4020 0.9 part, anti-aging agent RD 1 part, silane coupling agent 3.8 parts, accelerant CZ 0.6 part, acceterator TE TD1 part, altax 0.6 part, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 3.8 parts, epoxy soybean oil 4.1 parts, Octyl adipate 3.6 parts, coumarone indene resin 6.2 parts, oxide nano rare earth 3.8 parts,
Wherein, described polyvinyl chloride reworked material is milled into powder by after polyvinyl chloride wastes fragmentation, crosses 40 mesh sieves and obtains; Described resol reworked material is broken and be milled into powder by resol waste, crosses 40 mesh sieves and obtains;
Described oxide nano rare earth is modified Nano rare earth oxide, described modified Nano rare earth oxide is prepared according to following technique: by weight 50 parts of oxide nano rare earths are calcined 3h at 500 DEG C, be cooled to room temperature, then 3 parts of sec.-propyls three (dioctylphyrophosphoric acid acyloxy) titanic acid ester is added, 8 parts of vinyltriethoxysilanes, 2 parts of antioxidant MCs, 1 part of dicumyl peroxide and 20 parts of propylene glycol, be warming up to 65 DEG C, 15min is disperseed under the rotating speed of 3000r/min, filter post-drying, pulverize, sieve and obtain described modified Nano rare earth oxide, wherein, described oxide nano rare earth is that nano lanthanum oxide, nano-cerium oxide, nano yttrium oxide are by weight the mixture for 3:4:2.
Embodiment 5
The renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of a kind of polyvinyl chloride that the present invention proposes, its raw material comprises following component by weight: paracril 70 parts, polyvinyl chloride 30 parts, polyvinyl chloride reworked material 12 parts, stearic acid 2.1 parts, 1.8 parts, zinc oxide, 0.38 part, sulphur, dicumyl peroxide 0.65 part, resol reworked material 3.6 parts, nano-aluminum hydroxide 7.5 parts, zinc borate 7.2 parts, attapulgite 6.3 parts, polyacrylonitrile fibre 6 parts, antioxidant MC 1.8 parts, antioxidant 4020 1 part, anti-aging agent RD 0.85 part, silane coupling agent 4 parts, Vulcanization accelerator TMTD 2.1 parts, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 4 parts, epoxy soybean oil 3.85 parts, Octyl adipate 4 parts, coumarone indene resin 5.8 parts, oxide nano rare earth 4 parts,
Wherein, described oxide nano rare earth is modified Nano rare earth oxide, described modified Nano rare earth oxide is prepared according to following technique: by weight 40 parts of oxide nano rare earths are calcined 2.6h at 700 DEG C, be cooled to room temperature, then 4.3 parts of sec.-propyls three (dioctylphyrophosphoric acid acyloxy) titanic acid ester is added, 5.5 parts of vinyltriethoxysilanes, 3 parts of antioxidant MCs, 0.7 part of dicumyl peroxide and 30 parts of propylene glycol, be warming up to 60 DEG C, 12min is disperseed under the rotating speed of 4000r/min, filter post-drying, pulverize, sieve and obtain described modified Nano rare earth oxide, wherein, described oxide nano rare earth is that nano lanthanum oxide, nano-cerium oxide are by weight the mixture for 3:2.
The above; be only the present invention's preferably embodiment; but protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto; anyly be familiar with those skilled in the art in the technical scope that the present invention discloses; be equal to according to technical scheme of the present invention and inventive concept thereof and replace or change, all should be encompassed within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. the renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of polyvinyl chloride, it is characterized in that, its raw material comprises following component by weight: paracril 50-80 part, polyvinyl chloride 20-35 part, polyvinyl chloride reworked material 5-20 part, stearic acid 1-3 part, zinc oxide 1-2.5 part, sulphur 0.2-0.5 part, dicumyl peroxide 0.2-1 part, resol reworked material 2-5 part, nano-aluminum hydroxide 5-10 part, zinc borate 3-12 part, attapulgite 3-10 part, polyacrylonitrile fibre 2-10 part, antioxidant MC 1-2.5 part, antioxidant 4020 0.5-1.5 part, anti-aging agent RD 0.2-1 part, silane coupling agent 3-5 part, promotor 1-3 part, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 2-6 part, epoxy soybean oil 3-5 part, Octyl adipate 2-5 part, coumarone indene resin 3-8 part, oxide nano rare earth 3-5 part.
2. the renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of polyvinyl chloride according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, its raw material comprises following component by weight: paracril 68-72 part, polyvinyl chloride 27-31 part, polyvinyl chloride reworked material 10-15 part, stearic acid 1.8-2.3 part, zinc oxide 1.7-2.1 part, sulphur 0.35-0.4 part, dicumyl peroxide 0.6-0.9 part, resol reworked material 3.2-4 part, nano-aluminum hydroxide 7.2-8 part, zinc borate 6-8 part, attapulgite 5.5-7 part, polyacrylonitrile fibre 5.8-6.5 part, antioxidant MC 1.6-2 part, antioxidant 4020 0.9-1.3 part, anti-aging agent RD 0.6-1 part, silane coupling agent 3.8-4.3 part, promotor 1.7-2.2 part, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 3.8-4.3 part, epoxy soybean oil 3.7-4.1 part, Octyl adipate 3.6-4.1 part, coumarone indene resin 5.5-6.2 part, oxide nano rare earth 3.8-4.3 part.
3. the renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of polyvinyl chloride according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that, its raw material comprises following component by weight: paracril 70 parts, polyvinyl chloride 30 parts, polyvinyl chloride reworked material 12 parts, stearic acid 2.1 parts, 1.8 parts, zinc oxide, 0.38 part, sulphur, dicumyl peroxide 0.65 part, resol reworked material 3.6 parts, nano-aluminum hydroxide 7.5 parts, zinc borate 7.2 parts, attapulgite 6.3 parts, polyacrylonitrile fibre 6 parts, antioxidant MC 1.8 parts, antioxidant 4020 1 part, anti-aging agent RD 0.85 part, silane coupling agent 4 parts, promotor 2.1 parts, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 4 parts, epoxy soybean oil 3.85 parts, Octyl adipate 4 parts, coumarone indene resin 5.8 parts, oxide nano rare earth 4 parts.
4. the renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of polyvinyl chloride according to any one of claim 1-3, is characterized in that, described polyvinyl chloride reworked material is milled into powder by after polyvinyl chloride wastes fragmentation, crosses 40 mesh sieves and obtains; Described resol reworked material is broken and be milled into powder by resol waste, crosses 40 mesh sieves and obtains.
5. the renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of polyvinyl chloride according to any one of claim 1-4, it is characterized in that, described promotor is one or more the mixture in accelerant CZ, promotor ETU, acceterator TE TD, vulkacit D, Vulcanization accelerator TMTD, altax.
6. the renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of polyvinyl chloride according to any one of claim 1-5, is characterized in that, described oxide nano rare earth is one or more the mixture in nano lanthanum oxide, nano-cerium oxide, nano yttrium oxide.
7. the renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of polyvinyl chloride according to any one of claim 1-6, it is characterized in that, described oxide nano rare earth is modified Nano rare earth oxide, described modified Nano rare earth oxide is prepared according to following technique: by weight 20-50 part oxide nano rare earth is calcined 2-3h at 500-750 DEG C, be cooled to room temperature, then 3-5 part sec.-propyl three (dioctylphyrophosphoric acid acyloxy) titanic acid ester is added, 1-8 part vinyltriethoxysilane, 2-3.5 part antioxidant MC, 0.1-1 part dicumyl peroxide and 20-40 part propylene glycol, be warming up to 50-65 DEG C, 10-15min is disperseed under the rotating speed of 3000-5000r/min, filter post-drying, pulverize, sieve and obtain described modified Nano rare earth oxide.
8. the renewable material modified nitile-butadiene rubber composite material of polyvinyl chloride according to any one of claim 1-7, it is characterized in that, described oxide nano rare earth is modified Nano rare earth oxide, described modified Nano rare earth oxide is prepared according to following technique: by weight 40 parts of oxide nano rare earths are calcined 2.6h at 700 DEG C, be cooled to room temperature, then 4.3 parts of sec.-propyls three (dioctylphyrophosphoric acid acyloxy) titanic acid ester is added, 5.5 parts of vinyltriethoxysilanes, 3 parts of antioxidant MCs, 0.7 part of dicumyl peroxide and 30 parts of propylene glycol, be warming up to 60 DEG C, 12min is disperseed under the rotating speed of 4000r/min, filter post-drying, pulverize, sieve and obtain described modified Nano rare earth oxide.
CN201510783122.7A 2015-11-13 2015-11-13 Polyvinyl chloride reclaimed material modified acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composite material Pending CN105384987A (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107298776A (en) * 2017-07-05 2017-10-27 合肥片美环保科技有限公司 A kind of environment-friendly rubber soundproof construction composition and preparation method thereof
CN109096651A (en) * 2018-08-17 2018-12-28 佛山朝鸿新材料科技有限公司 A kind of preparation method of antibacterial wear-resisting foaming sole material

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