CN105350972B - A kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method - Google Patents

A kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method Download PDF

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CN105350972B
CN105350972B CN201510700213.XA CN201510700213A CN105350972B CN 105350972 B CN105350972 B CN 105350972B CN 201510700213 A CN201510700213 A CN 201510700213A CN 105350972 B CN105350972 B CN 105350972B
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deformation
rock
tunnel
country rock
pressing type
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CN105350972A (en
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任少强
王平安
谢江胜
冀胜利
谭忠盛
崔文镇
杨文宣
杨星智
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China Railway 20th Bureau Group Corp
China Railway Guizhou Engineering Co Ltd
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/14Layout of tunnels or galleries; Constructional features of tunnels or galleries, not otherwise provided for, e.g. portals, day-light attenuation at tunnel openings

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction methods, multiple segments are divided to carry out excavation construction to constructed Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels from the front to the back along tunnel longitudinal extension, comprising steps of maximum detecting earth stress inside one, rock mass strength and country rock;Two, the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of country rock determines;Three, tunnel deformation allowance determines: being determined according to identified extrusion pressing type large deformation grade to deformation allowance;Four, tunnel excavation is constructed: according to identified deformation allowance, carrying out excavation construction to current constructed segment;Five, next segment excavation construction;Six, step 5 is repeated several times, until completing tunnel whole excavation construction process.The method of the present invention step is simple, design is reasonable and easy for construction, using effect is good, tunnel excavation deformation allowance is determined according to the extrusion pressing type large deformation classification results of high-ground stress weak surrounding rock, and energy is easy, tunnel excavation work progress is rapidly completed and work progress is safe and reliable.

Description

A kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method
Technical field
The invention belongs to tunnel excavation technical field of construction, excavate more particularly, to a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels Construction method.
Background technique
Tunnel excavation certainly will cause the redistribution of country rock primitive stress, and the mechanical behavior of entire surrouding rock stress redistribution can To be generalized as following process: through " balance ", " relaxation " with after " loose, collapsing " three phases, reaching new balance." relaxation " and " loose " is two entirely different concepts in description stresses re-distribution process, the performance shape of country rock load during the two Formula is also different." relaxation " stage generate load be referred to as " deformation pressure ", the reduction of surrouding rock stress level at this time with enclose Rock deformation coexists, and from rock mass mechanics angle analysis, the country rock in the stage is still believed that in continuous media or like continuous media Condition;The load that " the loose, collapsing " stage generates is referred to as " loosening ", it is increased to a certain extent in surrouding rock deformation Afterwards, it collapses caused by sillar is separated with protolith or the weight stress of sillar acts on supporting generation.
Domestic and foreign scholars once carried out the type that large deformation is generated after soft rock tunnel (also referred to as Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels) construction Systematic research is crossed, and is classified from different angles to the type of large deformation, its texturing machine is pressed to large deformation tunnel below The classification of reason is illustrated.Large-deformation tunnel in soft rock can be divided into three loose type, intumescent and extrusion pressing type classes by its deformation mechanism Type, the precondition difference for inducing the serious deformation of these three types is larger, and the deformation that large deformation shows after occurring is special Sign is also different.
Wherein, loose type large deformation appears in hard rock (fragmented rock body, beded rock mass including sillar intensity Rc > 30MPa With block rock mass etc.) in the shallow tunnel of tunnel and lower earth stress, country rock relaxation is shorter, and early period, deflection was smaller, is not having When can provide enough supporting reactions in time, surrouding rock deformation will be loose after developing to a certain extent or collapses, resulting Country rock loosening acts directly in supporting construction, and the condition of upward recurvation or " jump " is presented in deformation tense curve.
The deformation mechanism in intumescent large deformation tunnel be briefly exactly dilatant mineral ingredient in soft rock in water or The phenomenon that volume increases under the action of power, constantly invades tunnel clearance.When the tunneling in the stratum containing dilatant mineral, Rock generates expansion after meeting water or moisture absorption, and magnitude may be much larger than the sum of the elastoplasticity of rock and bulking deformation amount, thus The dilatancy rock deformation pressure of generation, which becomes, induces the major reason that soft rock tunnel supporting destroys.After tunnel excavation, country rock is met Physical-chemical reaction can occur for water effect, cause volume expansion and the variation of mechanical property, form chance in tunnel perimeter country rock The different region in water breathing space and stable region two.It is enclosed caused by the natural fissure structure of water-swellable area country rock, Stress relief Lithofraction gap provides water absorption channel for soft rock and dilatant mineral, exacerbates the dilatancy of country rock, finally generates large deformation, leads Cause the destruction of tunnel structure body.
" extrusion pressing type large deformation " betides country rock relaxation stage, deformation mechanism and " loose type large deformation " and " intumescent Large deformation " difference is larger, and deformation process is extremely complex, and a large amount of expert and scholar have carried out greatly this project both at home and abroad Quantifier elimination, but building for extrusion pressing type large-deformation tunnel in soft rock is still global problem.
Wherein, the weak surrounding rock deformation with high stress background is known as " extrusion pressing type " deformation, the i.e. weakness of condition of high ground stress Surrouding rock deformation is extrusion pressing type large deformation.
International Society of Rock Mechanics (abbreviation ISRM) " tunnel squeezing rock Professional Committee " makees country rock Squeezing ground Such as give a definition: " extrusion pressing type " refers to that country rock has the large deformation of timeliness;It, which is deformed, has apparent advantage position and direction, can send out Life is in the construction stage, it is also possible to continue the long period.The essence of deformation is shearing caused by the intracorporal shear stress of rock transfinites Wriggle, these deformations can mainly be summarized as following several features: the first, the speed deformed is fast;The second, deflection is big;Third, It is long to deform duration;4th, deformation has apparent advantage position and direction.Currently, extrusion pressing type large deformation tunnel is relatively recognized Can failure mechanism have following three kinds: destruction is split in complete failure by shear, bending failure and shearing and sliding.
The probability that soft rock (i.e. weak surrounding rock) is plastically deformed is very high, often causes the headroom in tunnel to become smaller, influences just Normal constructing tunnel and use.Since the geologic property of weak surrounding rock itself is loosely organized, and stability is very poor, this is just determined It will necessarily generate a degree of deformation in tunnel construction.Due to weak surrounding rock stability is poor, in tunnel After excavation, original crustal stress balance is destroyed, is deformed so as to cause country rock.During construction, if The method of selection is improper, can not only cause the deformation of engineering construction preliminary bracing structure, or even the peace such as landslide that can cause tunnel Full accident.
Surrouding rock deformation is one of basic norm of Tunnel Design, and the important indicator of evaluation Analyses of Tunnel Wall Rock Stability.? The horizontal middle and high strong engineering rock mass for occurring significantly to deform down of stress (> 25MPa) is known as high ground stress soft rock stress higher (highstressed soft rock, abbreviation H-type).High ground stress soft rock stress serious deformation after tunnel excavation substantially undergoes three A stage: a. elastic deformation stage;B. flexible deformation and modeling row deformation coexistence phase;C. based on creep, creep, plastic deformation It coexists, while with rock convergence measure, fracture, extrusion and expansion coupling stage, a large number of studies show that weak surrounding rock is with plasticity Based on deformation and the deformation of creep.
To give full play to country rock self-supporting, allows preliminary bracing and country rock to have certain deformation, and excavation line will be designed Make appropriate widened pre- allowance, referred to as tunnel deformation allowance.Deformation allowance refer to since Tunnel construction, When basicly stable to tunnel perimeter deflection, the aggregate-value of periphery displacement.
Since soft rock has the characteristics that significant rheology, Surrounding Rock Strength are low, while under high-ground stress effect, These characteristics are more Add it is obvious, to make that tunnel deformation amount is very big, development of deformation is fast.Once Construction control is improper or deformation allowance is inadequate, easily Supporting cracking occurs, invades limit problem.It is thus determined that the deformation allowance in high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel is just even more important, it is also simultaneously Extremely difficult.
For railway, tunnel excavation construction is main to be considered deformation allowance, construction error and allows to backbreak, construction error The empirically determined value range of unit in charge of construction is generally basede on allowing to backbreak;Rule is relative complex really for tunnel deformation allowance.Mesh It is preceding for high-ground stress and the large-deformation tunnel in soft rock under highly stress condition, mature theoretical result does not determine tunnel Deformation allowance, and when use engineering analog method, such tunnel geology condition is extremely complex, and rock property is multifarious, and ground is answered Power condition is different, causes to be difficult to obtain ideal effect.
Summary of the invention
In view of the above-mentioned deficiencies in the prior art, the technical problem to be solved by the present invention is that providing a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method, method and step is simple, design is reasonable and easy for construction, using effect is good, according to height The extrusion pressing type large deformation classification results of crustal stress weak surrounding rock determine tunnel excavation deformation allowance, and energy is easy, tunnel is rapidly completed Road excavation construction process and work progress is safe and reliable.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is that: a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels is opened Cut construction method, it is characterised in that: along tunnel longitudinal extension, divide multiple segments to constructed weak surrounding rock tunnel from the front to the back Road carries out excavation construction;The excavation construction method of multiple segments is all the same;To any section in constructed Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels When Duan Jinhang excavation construction, comprising the following steps:
Step 1: maximum detecting earth stress inside rock mass strength and country rock: carrying out excavation construction to current constructed segment Before, to the maximum crustal stress σ inside the rock mass strength Rb and country rock of current constructed segment country rockmaxIt is tested respectively;
Step 2: the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of country rock determines: according to tested in step 1 the rock mass strength Rb that obtains and Maximum crustal stress σmax, the strength-stress ratio of current constructed segment country rock is calculatedIt is strong further according to what is be calculated Spend stress ratioThe extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is determined;The extrusion pressing type large deformation Grade includes four grades, and four grades are respectively without large deformation, slight large deformation, medium large deformation and serious from low to high Large deformation;
When being determined to the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock, when When, explanation The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is no large deformation;When 0.3When, illustrate current The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of constructed segment country rock is slight large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate current institute The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of construction segment country rock is medium large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate current constructed segment The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of country rock is serious large deformation;
Step 3: tunnel deformation allowance determines: according to squeezing for current constructed segment country rock identified in step 2 Die mould large deformation grade is determined the deformation allowance of current constructed segment;Identified deformation allowance includes tunnel Road arch deformation allowance C1With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2;Wherein, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=50mm~ 530mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowanceΔ C=1mm~30mm;Also, current constructed segment country rock Extrusion pressing type large deformation higher grade, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2It is equal with the value of Δ C It is bigger;
Step 4: tunnel excavation is constructed: according to the deformation allowance of current constructed segment identified in step 3, and Along tunnel longitudinal extension, excavation construction is carried out to current constructed segment from the front to the back;
Step 5: next segment excavation construction: according to method described in step 1 to step 4, being enclosed to constructed weakness Next segment in rock tunnel carries out excavation construction;
Step 6: step 5 is repeated several times, until completing whole excavation construction processes of constructed Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels.
Above-mentioned a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method, it is characterized in that: the length of each segment For 50m~200m.
Above-mentioned a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method, it is characterized in that: to currently being applied in step 1 When the rock mass strength Rb of work segment country rock is tested, laboratory test is carried out by boring sample to scene, test obtains current The country rock basic mechanical parameter of constructed segment, and rock mass strength Rb is carried out according to the country rock basic mechanical parameter that test obtains It calculates;The rock mass strength Rb of current constructed segment country rock is rock mass uniaxial compressive strength.
Above-mentioned a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method, it is characterized in that: being counted to rock mass strength Rb When calculation, calculated according to Mohr-Coulomb strength theory or Hoek-Brown strength criterion.
Above-mentioned a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method, it is characterized in that: to country rock inside in step 1 Maximum crustal stress σmaxWhen being tested, tested using hydraulic fracturing.
Above-mentioned a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method, it is characterized in that: it is pre- to carry out tunnel in step 3 When deflection being stayed to determine, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is serious large deformation, tunnel arch Deformation allowance C1=470mm~530mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2=260mm~275mm.
Above-mentioned a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method, it is characterized in that: it is pre- to carry out tunnel in step 3 When deflection being stayed to determine, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is serious large deformation, tunnel arch Deformation allowance C1=500mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2=270mm.
Above-mentioned a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method, it is characterized in that: it is pre- to carry out tunnel in step 3 When deflection being stayed to determine, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is medium large deformation, tunnel arch Deformation allowance C1=300mm~510mm.
Above-mentioned a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method, it is characterized in that: it is pre- to carry out tunnel in step 3 When deflection being stayed to determine, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is medium large deformation, tunnel arch Deformation allowance C1=450mm~510mm.
Above-mentioned a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method, it is characterized in that: it is pre- to carry out tunnel in step 3 When deflection being stayed to determine, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is no large deformation, tunnel arch is pre- Stay deflection C1=50mm~150mm;When the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is slight large deformation, Tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=150mm~250mm.
Compared with the prior art, the present invention has the following advantages:
1, method and step is simple, design is reasonable and input cost is low.
2, design is rationally and realization is convenient, and institute's construction tunnel is divided into multiple segments from the front to the back and carries out excavating respectively applying Work, and to each segment carry out excavation construction when, all in accordance with the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of identified current constructed segment Deformation allowance is determined;Identified deformation allowance is reasonable, and more meets engineering reality.
3, used extrusion pressing type large deformation grade scale design is reasonable, according to the strength-stress ratio tested and be calculated The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of country rock is determined, and the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of country rock is divided into four grades, i.e., without Large deformation, slight large deformation, medium large deformation and serious large deformation, practical classification is easy, realizes convenient, strong operability, and And identified extrusion pressing type large deformation grade can accurately reflect four kinds of degree large deformation situations of country rock, more meet engineering reality.
4, deformation allowance is determined using based on extrusion pressing type large deformation grade, determines that method and step is simple, designs It rationally and realizes conveniently, only needs the strength-stress ratio of measured in advance country rock, just can accurately determine tunnel excavation deformation allowance, and And the practical large deformation situation of country rock can effectively be combined with excavation deformation allowance is used, so that identified reserved Deflection more meets engineering reality.Thus, using it is of the invention can it is easy, fast and accurately determine tunnel excavation deflection.
5, using effect is good, practical value is high and popularization and application foreground is extensive, can effectively solve high-ground stress weak surrounding rock The deformation allowance in tunnel determines problem, can effectively be applicable in high-ground stress and the soft rock large deformation tunnel under highly stress condition During the deformation allowance in road determines, identified deformation allowance is reasonable, can effectively solve tunnel deformation allowance not enough, tunnel The problems such as backbreaking can be effectively ensured safety for tunnel engineering, reliable, and construction cost can be greatly lowered, and save the duration.
In conclusion the method for the present invention step is simple, design is reasonable and easy for construction, using effect is good, according to highly answering The extrusion pressing type large deformation classification results of power weak surrounding rock determine tunnel excavation deformation allowance, and energy is easy, tunnel is rapidly completed opens Excavation construction process and work progress is safe and reliable.
Below by drawings and examples, technical scheme of the present invention will be described in further detail.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is method flow block diagram of the invention.
Specific embodiment
A kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method as shown in Figure 1, along tunnel longitudinal extension, by Point multiple segments carry out excavation construction to constructed Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels before backward;The excavation construction method of multiple segments is equal It is identical;When carrying out excavation construction to segment any in constructed Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels, comprising the following steps:
Step 1: maximum detecting earth stress inside rock mass strength and country rock: carrying out excavation construction to current constructed segment Before, to the maximum crustal stress σ inside the rock mass strength Rb and country rock of current constructed segment country rockmaxIt is tested respectively;
Step 2: the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of country rock determines: according to tested in step 1 the rock mass strength Rb that obtains and Maximum crustal stress σmax, the strength-stress ratio of current constructed segment country rock is calculatedIt is strong further according to what is be calculated Spend stress ratioThe extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is determined;The extrusion pressing type large deformation Grade includes four grades, and four grades are respectively without large deformation, slight large deformation, medium large deformation and serious from low to high Large deformation;
When being determined to the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock, when When, explanation The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is no large deformation;When 0.3When, illustrate current The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of constructed segment country rock is slight large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate current institute The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of construction segment country rock is medium large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate current constructed segment The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of country rock is serious large deformation;
Step 3: tunnel deformation allowance determines: according to squeezing for current constructed segment country rock identified in step 2 Die mould large deformation grade is determined the deformation allowance of current constructed segment;Identified deformation allowance includes tunnel Road arch deformation allowance C1With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2;Wherein, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=50mm~ 530mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowanceΔ C=1mm~30mm;Also, current constructed segment country rock Extrusion pressing type large deformation higher grade, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2It is equal with the value of Δ C It is bigger;
Step 4: tunnel excavation is constructed: according to the deformation allowance of current constructed segment identified in step 3, and Along tunnel longitudinal extension, excavation construction is carried out to current constructed segment from the front to the back;
Step 5: next segment excavation construction: according to method described in step 1 to step 4, being enclosed to constructed weakness Next segment in rock tunnel carries out excavation construction;
Step 6: step 5 is repeated several times, until completing whole excavation construction processes of constructed Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels.
In the present embodiment, when carrying out excavation construction to current constructed segment from the front to the back, using three bench cut methods into Row excavates.It also, is specifically to use the interim inverted arch method of three steps.
When practice of construction, constructed Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels is high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel.
Also, the high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel is the soft rock tunnel positioned at high-ground stress rock stratum.Currently, domestic and foreign scholars For high-ground stress this concept define and understanding there are a great differences, such as China's current standard to be related to rock mass initial field stress It is classified or that evaluates has: " Standard for classification of engineering rock masses " (GB50218-94), " vcehicular tunnel design details " (JTG/T D70- 2010), " Railway Engineering Geological Survey specification " (TB10012-2007) and " hydraulic power project geological mapping specification " (GB Different methods 50287-2006) etc. is just used high-ground stress determine and grade classification.In the present embodiment, it is contemplated that The relationship of different rock strengths and crustal stress is just strong with rock because the elasticity modulus and energy-storage property of different rock mass are different The foundation spending the ratio (i.e. strength-stress ratio) of same crustal stress (i.e. country rock inside maximum crustal stress) as high-ground stress and defining with The standard of judgement, specially " Standard for classification of engineering rock masses " (GB50218-94) defining and being classified to high-ground stress, are detailed in table 1:
The principal phenomena that 1 high primary stress area rock mass of table occurs in digging process
In the present embodiment, the high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel refers to soft rock tunnel of the strength-stress ratio less than 7 of country rock.
Thus, high-ground stress is an opposite concept, is with respect to for Surrounding Rock Strength (i.e. Rock Mass intensity).? That is the ratio (i.e. strength-stress ratio) of the maximum crustal stress inside Surrounding Rock Strength and country rock just may be used when reaching certain level Soft rock large deformation can occur.Studies have shown that can generate and be twice than normal tunnel when strength-stress ratio is less than 0.3~0.5 Above deformation.Therefore, one be classified using the ratio (i.e. strength-stress ratio) of Surrounding Rock Strength and maximum crustal stress as large deformation A Appreciation gist is reasonable.Wherein, rock mass strength is denoted as Rb;Herein, rock mass strength is rock mass uniaxial compressive strength.It encloses Maximum crustal stress inside rock is denoted as σmax, also referred to as maximum principal stress.
About the definition of soft rock, also there are more than ten kinds of explanations both at home and abroad, what these definition were summarized is summarized as descriptive explanation, refers to The definition of mark property and engineering definition, have embodied respective superiority and inferiority in the application of different research fields.Herein, soft rock uses work Journey definition, i.e. engineering soft rock, and be that lower generate of engineering forces effect is significantly plastically deformed by this concept definition of engineering soft rock Engineering rock mass, it highlights the low-intensity characteristic that soft rock is soft, weak, loose, scattered, while project management model is combined with rock strength, The relativity essence of soft rock is determined altogether.Engineering soft rock main feature shows that engineering rock mass, project management model and rock mass significantly become Shape.Engineering rock mass mentioned here refers to the rock mass in underground engineering construction coverage;Project management model, which refers to, acts on engineering rock mass On power, mainly have from gravity, tectonic force, Engineering Disturbance etc.;Rock mass significantly deforms, and refers to based on being plastically deformed, has been more than work Journey designs permissible deformation value, and normally makes the elastoplasticity having an impact or Viscoplastic deformation to engineering body.Same engineering lotus Different rock mass under carrying, intensity shows as hard rock feature when being higher than project management model level, otherwise shows as soft rock characteristic;And it is of the same race Rock shows as hard rock characteristic in low project management model, otherwise shows as soft rock characteristic.
As shown in the above, simple high-ground stress and simple soft rock all not necessarily generate the feature of large deformation, when This feature just emerges from when the two collective effect, and only high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel can just generate extrusion pressing type large deformation.
In the present embodiment, the length of each segment is 50m~200m.It is according to specific needs, right when practice of construction The length of each segment adjusts accordingly.
In underground rock, the surrounding rock body of stress state change, referred to as country rock occur due to being influenced by excavation. Rock mass strength is to evaluate an important indicator of rock mass mechanics, it is significant to the stability of evaluation engineering rock mass.Now It is premised on the isotropism for assuming rock mass strength with more Mohr-Coulomb (i.e. Mohr-Coulomb) strength theory etc. , this is to this anisotropic material of slate using there are significant limitations.Hoek and Brown is strong in Mohr-Coulomb On the basis of topology degree, intensive parameter m and s were proposed respectively at 1980 and 1988, by the stress of the plane of fracture and c, p value phase Connection forms instantaneous strength concept and rock mass non-linear criterion of strength, provides to research and analyse the different destructive process of slate Applicable criterion of strength (i.e. Hoek-Brown strength criterion).
Establish the mechanics parameter that rock mass strength criterion first has to obtain rock mass, and the most accurate method of the acquisition of these parameters It is test in situ, but the higher cost of test in situ, realization process are more many and diverse, can not effectively be pushed away Extensively.It afterwards by the research of a large amount of scholars, forms based on laboratory test, by analyzing the joint fissure characteristic of rock mass, excluding The boundary effect of sample considers that many factors influential on rock mass strength such as water are modified the test data of rock sample, from And approximate acquisition Mechanics Parameters of Rock Mass.Common method has integrity factor Kv revised law, Fei Senkefa, Gergi method and Hoek- Brown criterion of strength, and it is the most perfect with the development of Hoek-Brown criterion of strength, and this method has comprehensively considered rock mass structure Influence to rock mass strength.Hoek is equal to carries out perfect, proposition disturbance ginseng for 2002 to previous Hoek-Brown criterion of strength The concept of number D, later, correlation scholar (such as Sonmez, Zhang Jianhai) both domestic and external is from engineering adaptability angle to Hoek- Brown criterion of strength and D value are modified.
In the present embodiment, when testing in step 1 the rock mass strength Rb of current constructed segment country rock, by right Scene, which is bored sample, carries out laboratory test, and test obtains the country rock basic mechanical parameter of current constructed segment, and according to test The country rock basic mechanical parameter obtained calculates rock mass strength Rb;The rock mass strength Rb of current constructed segment country rock is rock Body uniaxial compressive strength.
Also, when calculating rock mass strength Rb, according to Mohr-Coulomb strength theory or Hoek-Brown strength criterion It is calculated.
Wherein, when being calculated according to Mohr-Coulomb strength theory rock mass strength Rb, first live country rock is taken Sample, then uniaxial and triaxial compression test, triaxial compression test confining pressure are carried out to rock sample using RMT-150C rock mechanics experiment machine 1MPa, 2MPa, 4MPa, 8MPa and 16MPa are taken respectively.Again by carrying out analytical calculation to uniaxial and triaxial compression test data, Obtain the rock mechanics parameters of tunnel surrounding.
In the present embodiment, according to formulaCountry rock uniaxial compressive strength is calculated σcm;In formula, c is the rock mass cohesive strength of country rock,For the rock mass internal friction angle of country rock, the σ being calculatedcm=rock mass strength Rb. Thus, by laboratory test, first test out the rock mass cohesive strength c and rock mass internal friction angle of current constructed segment country rockThis two Country rock uniaxial compressive strength σ is calculated further according to formula (1-1) in a country rock basic mechanical parametercm
And when being calculated according to Hoek-Brown strength criterion rock mass strength Rb, Hoek-Brown is by " strength stress Than " it is named as " squeezing the factor ", the extruding factor of country rockσcmFor rock mass uniaxial compressive strength, P0For country rock maximum Crustal stress and P0max, using NcThe extruding degree (i.e. deformation magnitude, rate and slip region range) of country rock is carried out sentencing knowledge.Its In, P0For country rock maximum crustal stress, also referred to as maximum principal stress.
Hoek-Brown is counted according to engineering data, proposes that the classification of country rock Squeezing ground is as shown in table 2:
2 country rock Squeezing ground hierarchical table of table
In table 2, " relative deformation value " is defined as the percentage of the ratio between radial displacement and tunnel radius value.
Rock mass uniaxial compressive strength σcmThe parameter of an actually synthesis, generalization ground reflection rock mass strength, due to rock mass The complexity of structure, is overall merit rock mass strength, and Hoek-Brown gives sillar uniaxial compressive strength and rock mass strength Convert fitting formula:
In formula (1-2), σciFor sillar intensity and its use point loading instrument to measure, thus σciThe point loading of also referred to as country rock is strong Degree;miFor the intensive parameter of rock, miIt is special depending on rubbing between the material constant and its reflection rock each component of rock property Property;GSI be Geological stength index and its be reflect various geological conditions to rock mass strength weaken degree parameter.
In practical engineering application, a large amount of rock mass strength test is not still carried out or is had not been completed, in order to determine rock The intensive parameter m of stonei, by what Hoek was provided " strength of intact rock parameter m is determined by rock groupi" m is searched in tableiApproximation;mi Value it is higher, the occlusion of corresponding crystalline particle is closer and friction is bigger.Wherein, " determine that strength of intact rock is joined by rock group Number mi" see Table 3 for details for table:
Table 3 " determines strength of intact rock parameter m by rock groupi" table
GSI is the Geological stength index of Rock Mass, and the value range of GSI is from 0 (very poor rock mass) to 100 (complete rocks Body).In the present embodiment, GSI carries out corresponding selection from the GSI value table (Roclab, 2002) of Hoek-Brown criterion.
In the present embodiment, to the maximum crustal stress σ inside country rock in step 1maxWhen being tested, using hydraulic fracturing It is tested.
Also, after being tested using hydraulic fracturing the crustal stress inside current constructed segment country rock, according to survey Test result obtains the maximum crustal stress inside current constructed segment country rock.
When practice of construction, to the maximum crustal stress σ inside country rockmaxWhen being tested, can also using stress restoration, Stress relief method (main includes drilling deformation method and borehole strain method), geophysical method (mainly include wave velocity method, x-ray method And acoustic-emission), the methods of geological mapping method tested.
When progress tunnel deformation allowance determines in step 3, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation etc. of current constructed segment country rock When grade is serious large deformation, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=470mm~530mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2= 260mm~275mm.
In the present embodiment, when progress tunnel deformation allowance determines in step 3, when squeezing for current constructed segment country rock When die mould large deformation grade is serious large deformation, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=500mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2 =270mm.
Also, when progress tunnel deformation allowance determines in step 3, when the extrusion pressing type of current constructed segment country rock is big When distortion level is medium large deformation, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=300mm~510mm.
In the present embodiment, when progress tunnel deformation allowance determines in step 3, when squeezing for current constructed segment country rock When die mould large deformation grade is medium large deformation, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=450mm~510mm.Correspondingly, tunnel side Wall deformation allowance C2=240mm~255mm.Also, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1Specially 480mm, tunnel abutment wall are reserved Deflection C2=250mm.
In the present embodiment, when progress tunnel deformation allowance determines in step 3, when squeezing for current constructed segment country rock When die mould large deformation grade is no large deformation, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=50mm~150mm;When current constructed segment When the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of country rock is slight large deformation, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=150mm~250mm.
Also, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is no large deformation, tunnel abutment wall is reserved Deflection C2=30mm~80mm;When the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is slight large deformation, tunnel Hole abutment wall deformation allowance C2=80mm~140mm.
When practice of construction, according to specific needs, to tunnel arch deformation allowance C1With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2 Value size adjust accordingly.
In the present embodiment, according to the deformation allowance of current constructed segment identified in step 3 in step 4, and When carrying out excavation construction to current constructed segment from the front to the back along tunnel longitudinal extension, determined by step 3 Tunnel arch deformation allowance C1With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2, from the front to the back current constructed segment excavate and be applied Work.Also, since tunnel deformation allowance is that will design excavation line to make appropriate widened pre- allowance.Thus, it is constructed to current When segment carries out excavation construction, identified tunnel arch deformation allowance C in step 31With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2, The tunnel arch excavation contour line and tunnel left and right sides wall excavation contour line being pre-designed are expanded outward respectively.
In the present embodiment, to rock mass strength Rb and maximum crustal stress σ in step 1maxTested, test obtain Rb and σmaxUnit is all the same and the unit of the two is MPa.
In the present embodiment, the Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels constructed is positioned at Qinghai Province Men Yuanxian and overall length is 6550 pairs of linear meter(lin.m.)s The big beam tunnel of (double linear meter(lin.m.)s refer to the every linear meter(lin.m.) in tunnel and Double hole) is located in 3600 to 4200 meters of height above sea level of crossbeam SUBMOUNTAINOUS AREA, rail level highest Elevation is 3607.4 meters;Norm al discharge rate is 1.53 ten thousand sides, 4.58 ten thousand side of maximum flooding quantity;Barrel passes through sandstone, slate and F5 Fault belt.
The formation lithology of big beam tunnel is mainly slate burning into sand rock, and slate is in canescence, grey and grey black, plate structure It makes, lamelliform, essential mineral is quartz, feldspar, chlorite etc., partially visible dark brown coloured particles, joints development, surface layer windyization In fragment shape, gritty;Sandstone cinerous, light yellow, arenaceous texture, bedded structure, composition is based on quartz, feldspar etc., rock Matter is hard, and joint is relatively developed, the attitude of rocks: N45o~80oW/18o~60oN, weathered layer thickness are greater than 10m.Big beam tunnel position In in the geosyncline North Qilian fold belt of the Qilian mountains, which is CRUSTAL THICKNESS height variation area, and geological structure is complicated, neotectonic movement Strongly, and tectonic activity of more phases time, fold, fault development be experienced.1 tomography is developed in Project Areas, and development 1 is to oblique.Crossbeam The hydrogeological characteristics in tunnel are as follows: surface water: tunnel trunk earth's surface Zhigou snow and ice cover, and summer has snowmelt runoff, rainwater to converge It is poly-.Surface water is to Tunnel Engineering without directly affecting;Close Tunnel groundwater type mainly has the 4th system diving, Bedrock Crevice Water and structure Make crevice water.
The big area the beam tunnel Sui Zhi slope Shan Gao is steep, and surface relief is big, and formation lithology is complicated, by limestone, sandstone, slate interaction group At.Wherein there is 2000m long paragraph country rock based on thin layer slate, test as high crustal stress, high-ground stress, occurs squeezing Type large deformation.Thin layer slate is canescence and cinerous, and rock matter is softer, and joint is developed very much, and flaky crush texture, rock stratum can See bending phenomenon, compactness is good, and rock mass overall stability is poor, and extrusion rock feature is obvious.The barrel of big beam tunnel passes through ground Layer the predominantly the 4th is Holocene series slope, proluvial rubble class soil, sandstone, sandstone clamping plate rock and limestone clamping plate rock.Tunnel passes through the area F5 Domain property fracture belt, break bandwidth about 100m, and the band substance that breaks is mainly tomography dust.Entrance section of tunnel about 940m is located at rubble class soil In layer, outlet section sandstone of Permian is crushed and frost zone is distributed with.
By testing crustal stress inside construction location country rock locating for big beam tunnel, test result shows: actual measurement is deep It spends in range, maximum horizontal principal stress maximum value is 25.14MPa, and minimum horizontal principal stress value maximum value is 13.77MPa, vertically Crustal stress is substantially equal to upper overburden layer weight stress, and the coefficient of horizontal pressure value range in vertical hole is λ=1.89~2.08, Close Tunnel Horizontal crustal stress shows that stress field with horizontal stress is leading based on tectonic stress.
According to " Standard for classification of engineering rock masses " (national standard GB50218-94) standard to the ground of construction location locating for big beam tunnel Stress levels are divided, strength-stress ratio=0.40-2.90, show construction area for highly stressed zone;Inducer is High Ground Stress Areas.Big beam tunnel Main Engineering Geological Problems have fault disruption zone wall rock destabilization, high-ground stress and large deformation, gushing water to gush Mud etc..
The one kind of slate as soft rock (i.e. weak surrounding rock) has apparent anisotropy, and stratification development is significant, and tunnel is worn More difficulty of construction is big, risk is high on slate stratum, and when high-ground stress, underground water abundant, dilatant mineral ingredient and slate are total Large deformation easily occurs when depositing.It therefore, is very difficult for the design and construction in slate tunnel.In slate mostly containing mica, Other mineralogical compositions such as chlorite, and often coexisted with other metamorphic rocks such as sandstone, the foliation phenomenon of slate is obvious, is containing other mines Object ingredient coexists section with other metamorphic rocks and will form the weak structural faces such as apparent stratification, crack.The presence of weak structural face Further decrease the intensity of slate, under the action of tectonic stress, these structural planes can generate joint, fracture, crack etc. no Continuous interfacial.The plate of slate, layer structure make it that apparent anisotropy be presented, and each physical and mechanical parameter and intensity index exist Apparent directionality, eventually lead to slate constitutive model and criterion of strength and other rock mass difference it is very big.
It is surveyed by live crustal stress, determines that big beam tunnel is in high tectonic stress stratum and high tectonic stress stratum, It is defined according to the performance characteristic of the serious deformation as extrusion pressing type large deformation.Wherein, high stress is that extrusion pressing type is big with high stress The internal cause of deformation, the disturbance of crossbeam tunnel excavation cause original improved strain energy quick release in rock mass, at the same big beam tunnel with Based on weak thin layer slate, thinnest part thickness is less than 5cm.The elasticity modulus and compression strength of rock mass are lower, stratification, crack ratio Compared with development, (pole) high-ground stress coexists with weak thin layer slate so that crossbeam tunnel surrounding is in squeezed state, so that deformation is held Supervention exhibition.After actual measurement and analytical calculation, the Surrounding Rock Strength of big beam tunnel and maximally stress axis inside country rock 0.025~ Between 0.126.Meanwhile Engineering Disturbance is the external cause of Squeezing ground large deformation, from the angle analysis of elastic plastic theory and elastic theory, Released load after tunnel excavation reduces hole wall pressure from surrounding rock rapidly, and radial stress reduces, and tangential stress increases, and stress is concentrated Phenomenon is obvious, and under the action of compression field, sliding and dilatation occur for the matrix in rock matrix, and defect or crackle occur immediately Dilatation and shear plasticity deformation, the intracorporal shear stress of rock be more than protolith deformation bearing capacity after occur shearing wriggle, finally lead Cause significant large deformation.In addition, the soft rock stress dilatation expansion under high-ground stress effect also causes extrusion pressing type large deformation further to increase Greatly, and the attenuation of water is very important.
As shown in the above, the major influence factors of tunnel soft rock extrusion pressing type large deformation include: crustal stress condition, rock mass Intensity, Geological Structure Effect degree, underground water development characteristics, fender graded, rock expansion etc..The deformation of extrusion pressing type large deformation Destruction has a characteristic that first, deflection is big;The second, short from the steady time, initial deformation rate is big;When third, deformation continue Between it is long;4th, the range of disturbance of country rock is wide.
In the present embodiment, for simplicity, using the grade grade scale of extrusion pressing type large deformation described in step 2, and In conjunction with the statistics of field geology sketch and failure and deformation of surrounding rocks, extrusion pressing type large deformation grade scale table is obtained, see Table 4 for details:
4 extrusion pressing type large deformation grade scale table of table
In the present embodiment, using tunnel excavation construction method as shown in Figure 1, excavation construction is carried out to big beam tunnel, first Tunnel excavation deformation allowance is determined according to the extrusion pressing type large deformation classification results of high-ground stress weak surrounding rock, further according to determining Tunnel excavation deformation allowance carry out tunnel excavation construction, can it is easy, tunnel excavation work progress is rapidly completed and constructed Journey is safe and reliable.
The above is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, is not intended to limit the invention in any way, it is all according to the present invention Technical spirit any simple modification to the above embodiments, change and equivalent structural changes, still fall within skill of the present invention In the protection scope of art scheme.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method, it is characterised in that: along tunnel longitudinal extension, by rear Multiple segments are divided to carry out excavation construction to constructed Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels forward;The excavation construction method of multiple segments is homogeneous Together;When carrying out excavation construction to segment any in constructed Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels, comprising the following steps:
Step 1: maximum detecting earth stress inside rock mass strength and country rock: before carrying out excavation construction to current constructed segment, To the maximum crustal stress σ inside the rock mass strength Rb and country rock of current constructed segment country rockmaxIt is tested respectively;
Step 2: the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of country rock determines: according to testing the rock mass strength Rb obtained and maximum in step 1 Crustal stress σmax, the strength-stress ratio of current constructed segment country rock is calculatedFurther according to the strength stress being calculated ThanThe extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is determined;The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade packet Four grades are included, and four grades are respectively without large deformation, slight large deformation, medium large deformation and serious big change from low to high Shape;
When being determined to the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock, whenWhen 0.5, illustrate current institute The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of construction segment country rock is no large deformation;When When, illustrate currently to be constructed The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of segment country rock is slight large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate section of currently constructing The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of section country rock is medium large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate current constructed segment country rock Extrusion pressing type large deformation grade is serious large deformation;
Step 3: tunnel deformation allowance determines: according to the extrusion pressing type of current constructed segment country rock identified in step 2 Large deformation grade is determined the deformation allowance of current constructed segment;Identified deformation allowance includes tunnel arch Portion deformation allowance C1With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2;Wherein, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=50mm~530mm, tunnel Hole abutment wall deformation allowanceΔ C=1mm~30mm;Also, the extrusion pressing type of current constructed segment country rock is big Distortion level is higher, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2It is bigger with the value of Δ C;
When progress tunnel deformation allowance determines in step 3, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is When serious large deformation, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=470mm~530mm;
When progress tunnel deformation allowance determines in step 3, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is When medium large deformation, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=300mm~510mm;
When progress tunnel deformation allowance determines in step 3, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is When without large deformation, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=50mm~150mm;When the big change of extrusion pressing type of current constructed segment country rock When shape grade is slight large deformation, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=150mm~250mm;
Step 4: tunnel excavation is constructed: according to the deformation allowance of current constructed segment identified in step 3, and along tunnel Road longitudinal extension carries out excavation construction to current constructed segment from the front to the back;
When carrying out excavation construction to current constructed segment from the front to the back, excavated using three bench cut methods;
Step 5: next segment excavation construction: according to method described in step 1 to step 4, to constructed weak surrounding rock tunnel Next segment in road carries out excavation construction;
Step 6: step 5 is repeated several times, until completing whole excavation construction processes of constructed Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels;
The high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel refers to soft rock tunnel of the strength-stress ratio less than 7 of country rock.
2. a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method described in accordance with the claim 1, it is characterised in that: each The length of the segment is 50m~200m.
3. a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: When testing in step 1 the rock mass strength Rb of current constructed segment country rock, interior is carried out by boring sample to scene Test, test obtains the country rock basic mechanical parameter of current constructed segment, and is joined according to the country rock basic mechanical that test obtains Several couples of rock mass strength Rb are calculated;The rock mass strength Rb of current constructed segment country rock is rock mass uniaxial compressive strength.
4. a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method described in accordance with the claim 3, it is characterised in that: to rock When body intensity Rb is calculated, calculated according to Mohr-Coulomb strength theory or Hoek-Brown strength criterion.
5. a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: To the maximum crustal stress σ inside country rock in step 1maxWhen being tested, tested using hydraulic fracturing.
6. a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: When progress tunnel deformation allowance determines in step 3, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is serious When large deformation, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2=260mm~275mm.
7. a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method according to claim 6, it is characterised in that: step When progress tunnel deformation allowance determines in three, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is serious big change When shape, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=500mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2=270mm.
8. a kind of high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels excavation construction method according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: When progress tunnel deformation allowance determines in step 3, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current constructed segment country rock is medium When large deformation, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=450mm~510mm.
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