CN105344949A - New steel smelting-die casting technology - Google Patents

New steel smelting-die casting technology Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105344949A
CN105344949A CN201510819152.9A CN201510819152A CN105344949A CN 105344949 A CN105344949 A CN 105344949A CN 201510819152 A CN201510819152 A CN 201510819152A CN 105344949 A CN105344949 A CN 105344949A
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power
steel
iron
crucible
die casting
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CN105344949B (en
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彭政务
李烈军
高吉祥
郭如峰
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South China University of Technology SCUT
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South China University of Technology SCUT
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D7/00Casting ingots, e.g. from ferrous metals

Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of metal manufacturing, and discloses a new steel smelting-die casting technology. The technology comprises the steps that a, needed raw materials are prepared, pretreatment is carried out, the main raw materials are placed in a crucible, and the crucible is arranged in an induction coil of a vacuum smelting furnace; b, vacuumizing is carried out, and power transmission is carried out for preheating; c, the power is increased to 60-80 KW, power transmission is carried out for 20-30 min, the power continues to be increased to 80-100 kW, and the power is kept unchanged till furnace burden is completely melted; d, the temperature is measured and controlled, argon is introduced, sampling is carried out for detection, and basic components are determined; e, refining and alloying treatment is carried out, sampling is carried out for detection, and chemical components in molten steel are determined; f, power is reduced, and after a large number of gathered films occur on the surface of the molten steel, power is cut, and the molten steel is cooled along with the furnace, or step solidification is carried out; and g, demolding is carried out. The casting link is removed, and a high-cleanliness ingot casting is obtained; and meanwhile the technology is simple, safety is good, adopted materials are low in cost, energy is saved, and efficiency is high.

Description

A kind of manufacture of iron and steel by melting-die casting new technology
Technical field
The invention belongs to metal and manufacture manufacture field, relate to a kind of manufacture of iron and steel by melting-die casting new technology.
Background technology
Mold casting forming is a kind of important way manufacturing metal forging stock and strip plate, is particularly useful for the production of the alloy forging stock of small lot batch manufacture or little tonnage.The quality of strand depends primarily on degree of purity and the density of metal.Traditional technique is: vacuum melting furnace smelting-upper method casting ingot-forming.Can form turbulent flow in casting process, molten steel surface slag is directly involved in steel ingot inside with steel stream, clevis foreign material; In addition, molten steel has souring to tundish or casting moulds, and the refractory material peeled off also can enter steel ingot inside, and clevis foreign material eventually reduce the quality of strand.There is the possibility being involved in slag inclusion in casting process, is the process of secondary pollution, even if it is still not ideal enough to install filtration mouth of a river effect additional at tundish.Therefore, how to control the slag in pouring into a mould, even eliminate to be involved in and be mingled with process and just seem meaningful especially.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome the shortcoming and defect of prior art, the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of elimination casting process, avoiding slag, improve the manufacture of iron and steel by melting-die casting new technology of cleanliness.
Object of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of manufacture of iron and steel by melting-die casting new technology, comprises the following steps:
A) get the raw materials ready: get steel grade needed raw material ready, carry out pretreatment; Crucible will be placed in through pretreated main material, then crucible be placed in the induction coil of vacuum melting furnace; Be provided with packing layer and heat-insulation layer successively between described crucible and induction coil, described heat-insulation layer is arranged on the inner side of induction coil; Described packing layer is magnesia, and described heat-insulation layer is asbestos cloth;
B) prepare before fusing: by vacuum melting stove evacuation, make vacuum be 10 ~ 30Pa, start power transmission, carry out preheating; Described power transmission power is 30KW, and described preheating time is 25 ~ 35min;
C) melt: hoisting power to 60 ~ 80KW, power transmission 20 ~ 30min, continue hoisting power to 80 ~ 100kW, keep power constant, until furnace charge melts completely;
D) sample: the furnace charge after fusing is carried out to thermometric and is 1560 ~ 1600 DEG C by the temperature of furnace charge after regulating power controlled melting, is filled with argon gas, sampling detects, and determines to melt rear furnace charge basis;
E) refining and alloying: after sampling detection completes, bottom blowing argon gas is adopted to make vacuum be 3000 ~ 5000Pa, it is 1560 ~ 1580 DEG C that regulating power makes to melt rear charge-temperature, then add alloy raw material and carry out Alloying Treatment, sampling detects, and determines chemical composition in the molten steel after Alloying Treatment;
F) solidify: reduce power, when a large amount of conjunctiva appears in molten steel surface, have a power failure, molten steel is cooled with stove; Or adopt ladder to solidify, then have a power failure, molten steel is cooled with stove; Described reduction power refers to is down to 40kW by power, and after described reduction power, conduction time is 5 ~ 10 minutes, and described cool time is 1 ~ 3h;
G) demoulding: be separated with vacuum melting furnace box hat by crucible, takes out steel ingot and removes epidermis in crucible.
Step a) described main material is the raw material that can not volatilize under low vacuum; Described main material comprises graphite and pure iron.Step e) described alloy raw material comprises ferrosilicon, manganese metal and aluminum shot; Also comprise ferrotianium, ferrochrome, ferronickel, ferro-niobium and/or vanadium iron.
Step a) described pretreatment refers to the oxide-film removing iron block in steel grade raw material, and carries out drying and preheating process respectively to other raw materials in steel grade raw material.The temperature of described drying and preheating process is 350 ~ 500 DEG C, and the described drying and preheating time is 1h.
Step a) described main material needs first to be added by cobbing to level up when adding in crucible to add bulk material again, ensures " lower tight upper pine ", reduces and put up a bridge and splash.
Step a) described crucible is corundum crucible, and composition is aluminium oxide is main refractory material, is placed in smelting furnace box hat, directly contacts in order to replace traditional heap lining up with molten steel, simultaneously as the ingot mould of follow-up coagulation forming.
Steps d) and step e) described in sampling should note can carrying out operating to improve accuracy after the basic calmness of liquid level, and repeatedly to measure as required.
Step e) described in refining refer to remove oxygen nitrogen hydrogen by argon bottom-blowing, evenly and equilibrium temperature; The operating process of described alloying is: add the alloys such as ferrosilicon, manganese metal and/or ferrochrome according to quantity first as required, melting 5 ~ 8 minutes, then sample analysis regulate its constituent content to meet component requirements, finally add aluminum shot and carry out deoxidation, after 2min, add the alloys such as ferro-niobium, vanadium iron or ferrotianium according to quantity as required.
Step f) described in solidify and preferably adopt ladder to solidify, improve Shrinkage cavity.Described ladder solidifies: be set to by the induction coil of smelting furnace many groups (each group induction coil adopts parallel circuit to control), be labeled as 1# ~ N# circle (1# circle is bottom smelting furnace) from lower to upper respectively, when solidifying beginning, reduce the power of each coil, 1# encloses power and reduces to zero, pass after 2 ~ N# encloses power reduction is that the power of 2# is less than 3#, and 3# is less than 4#, the like; After 15 ~ 25min, the power that 2# encloses is reduced to zero, the corresponding reduction of other coil powers the power meeting 2# is less than 3#, 3# is less than 4#, the like, reduce to zero when N# encloses power, then have a power failure, open vacuum, cool with stove.
Described induction coil is preferably set to 4 groups, when cooling stage starts, and 1# circle power reduces to zero, 2# circle for 10kW, 3# enclose bottom is 35kW, and the 4# circle of the top is 60kW; After 20 minutes, it is 10kW that 2# circle power is down to zero, 3# circle, and 4# circle is topmost 50kW; Again after 20 minutes, 3# encloses power and is down to zero, and 4# circle is topmost down to zero gradually by 50kW, has a power failure subsequently, breaks vacuum, cool with stove.
Step g) described separation refer to release magnesia just crucible can be separated with vacuum melting furnace.
In strand, the existence of field trash destroys the continuity of steel, produces adverse influence, bring great harm to product quality to the performance of ferrous materials.Thus, melting-die casting process stress asks the field trash eliminated and reduce in steel, to meet the quality requirement of product.
Pass through the test of many times to conventional die castings moulding process and analysis, a large amount of field trash is involved in the process of cast, mainly C class-Silicate inclusion.At present, vacuum drying oven casting process generally adopts upper method, and ingot mould has refractory-material dies and steel die two kinds.In casting process, steel flows through chute and flows directly in steel ingot die, steel stream parabolically shape, and molten steel drop point to fascinate constantly change with stove, and steel ingot die is put slightly deviation Gang Shui Liu Red and hit mould side wall, burns out mould; Even if first inject tundish, also souring is surrounded by centre, and brings tundish epidermis into and be mingled with.Meanwhile, stove molten steel surface slag directly enters punching block with steel stream and is involved in steel ingot inside, causes inner inclusion, and this is that any pouring procedure institute is unescapable.In addition, the time of placing vacuum chamber due to tundish is long, easily occurs cold bag; Mouth of a river material is magnesium carbonaceous, and heat conduction is fast, often occurs freezing bag in casting process.For this reason, need to improve induction furnace tapping temperature, and strengthen the baking outside tundish vacuum chamber; This has added certain loss to the energy.
Method of the present invention eliminates cast operation, substantially increases degree of purity and the quality of steel ingot.This technique adopts built-in crucible to replace furnace lining, and simultaneously as steel ingot die, after molten steel melting, direct cooling forming, avoids the not smooth flow of molten steel, greatly reduces the probability being involved in slag; Blowing argon gas can be continued in liquid steel refining process stir simultaneously, remove more fully and be mingled with.Through steel billet inclusion behavior≤C0.5 that new technology obtains, be far superior to the billet quality that other technique obtains.
This technique slightly adjusts and can realize under the appointed condition of general mold casting forming technique, and this technique is more effectively convenient.This technique adopts built-in crucible and crucible, thus eliminates the operations such as the ramming of furnace lining, drying, baking; Take crucible as steel ingot die coagulation forming, thus eliminate cast operation, without the need to using and toasting tundish, require to reduce to the degree of superheat of molten steel, the probability wearing stove accident also decreases simultaneously.Test repeatedly proves, this technique can control liquid steel temperature and have a power failure cooling close to steel grade liquidus temperature again, and this controllability is all extremely superior in all kinds of coagulation forming method, has good use value.
Consider from security, this technological operation is easy, and manual operation link reduces, and does not have casting process, and avoid high temperature and to fascinate the operation of stove, security is more secure.Molten steel leaves standstill in the process of cooling in body of heater, and there is not special thermal field and the field of force, is a process of freely solidifying; That is, molten steel solidifies from outside, once form steel billet watchcase, will eliminate the possibility of bleed-out further.Meanwhile, in the process of cooling, steel billet convergent force is inside, can not expand or cause unsafe factor.
In sum, the present invention has the following advantages: 1, eliminate cast link, obtain high-cleanness, high ingot casting; 2, overall melting material therefor is with low cost, efficient energy-saving.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of the vaccum sensitive stove of built-in crucible of the present invention.
Detailed description of the invention
For understanding the present invention better, below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing, the invention will be further described, but it should be noted that, embodiment does not form limiting the scope of the present invention.
Embodiment
The present invention adopts 200Kg multifunctional vacuum induction furnace, and built-in crucible adopts Al 2o 3be that main refractory material is made by vacuum drying oven box hat size, test steel grade is titanium micro-alloyed steel, and composition is: 0.05%C-0.25%Si-1.0%Mn-0.10%Ti.
Concrete implementation step is:
A) get the raw materials ready: get pure iron 150kg, ferrosilicon 500g (containing 75%Si), manganese metal 1500g, ferrotianium 375g (containing 40%Ti), aluminum shot 100g, graphite electrode slab 200g ready; Pure iron block angle grinding machine scale removal, other raw materials carry out drying and preheating respectively in heating furnace, and temperature is 400 DEG C, and the time is 1 hour;
B) major ingredient is sent: send in built-in crucible by 150kg pure iron and 100g graphite electrode slab, note first with cobbing furnace bottom being leveled up adding bulk material again, ensure " lower tight upper pine ", reduce and put up a bridge and splash, then built-in crucible is placed in the induction coil of smelting furnace, between built-in crucible and induction coil, inserts magnesia; The schematic diagram of the vaccum sensitive stove of built-in crucible as shown in Figure 1;
C) prepare before fusing: before fusing, suction reaches 20Pa, start power transmission, power transmission power 30KW, powers about 30 minutes, carries out hot stove;
D) melt: hoisting power arrives 70kW, power transmission 30 minutes, and then power continues to rise to 90kW, keep power constant, until furnace charge melts completely;
E) temperature measuring and adjustment: thermometric is carried out to molten steel with fast thermocouple, liquid steel temperature requires arrival 1560 ~ 1600 DEG C, and by regulating power size, control temperature is stabilized in claimed range;
F) sample: applying argon gas protection before sampling, applying argon gas final vacuum degree is 4000Pa, then carries out sampling with sampling gun and detects, determine molten steel basis, so that follow-up refining and composition adjustment;
G) refining and alloying: carry out refining and alloying operation according to step f sample analysis result, described refining refers to remove oxygen nitrogen hydrogen by argon bottom-blowing, and temperature controls at 1560 ~ 1580 DEG C, and vacuum remains within the scope of 3000 ~ 5000Pa; The operating process carrying out alloying after refining is: first add ferrosilicon 500g, manganese metal 1500g, melting 6min, then sample analysis regulate C, Si, Mn constituent content to meeting component requirements, finally adds aluminum shot 100g and carries out deoxidation, add 375g ferro-titanium after 2min;
H) composition and temperature is determined: sampling confirms that molten steel reaches predetermined chemical composition (0.05%C-0.25%Si-1.0%Mn-0.10%Ti; Measure temperature and determine that temperature stabilization is at 1560 ~ 1580 DEG C; Otherwise repetition step g;
I) solidify: power is dropped to 40kW, be energized 8 minutes, have a power failure with stove cooling when a large amount of conjunctiva appears in molten steel surface, about 3 hours cool times;
J) demoulding: release magnesia, built-in crucible is separated with smelting furnace box hat, takes out steel ingot and remove epidermis in crucible.
Technique of the present invention and general technology are compared, correction data is as shown in table 1.
General technology: (1) does not add the situation of tundish: to get the raw materials ready-feeding-molten before preparation-fusing-refining and alloying-Ding composition and temperature-be directly poured into punching block-cooling forming-demoulding.
(2) add the situation of tundish: to get the raw materials ready-feeding-molten before preparations-fusing-refining and alloying-Ding composition and temperature-flow through tundish injection mould-cooling forming-demoulding.
Through test repeatedly and analysis, the billet quality that the present invention obtains is better than the steel billet (table 1 is part correction data) that general technology obtains.Wherein, C class-silicates is most important comparative run, comes from refractory material and the ore slag of tundish and steel ingot die.
Mold casting forming obtains the technique of steel billet to be had and is directly poured into mould and flows through basket pouring two kinds, and steel ingot die generally has refractory-material dies and steel die two class.As seen from Table 1, be all use steel die, installed the steel billet field trash grading average out to C1.0 of tundish additional, do not add the steel billet field trash grading average out to C2.0 of tundish.This is because the existence of tundish has cushioned rapid steel fusant, make steel stream vertically inject mould, reduce turbulent flow, avoid molten steel washing away mould wall, it has played good effect to the control of field trash.Practice shows, steel ingot die type select no less important.As seen from Table 1, coexist install tundish additional condition under, use the steel billet inclusion behavior that obtains of refractory-material dies unstable and all belong to and be slightly, badly damaged billet quality.In comparison, the rank that is mingled with of the steel billet of steel die acquisition is comparatively stablized with tiny.Certainly, also there is certain gap in this and high-quality high-cleanness steel billet.
The present invention directly eliminates cast operation, avoids rapid flowing and the souring of steel fusant, makes slag and is mingled with abundant emersion and dispels.Steel billet inclusion behavior after improvement is optimized to≤C0.5, improves a class.
Table 1 the present invention grades with the field trash under general technology condition and compares
Note: 1, field trash grading performs by standard GB/T10561-2005/ISO4967:1998 (E) " the bioassay standard judge picture microexamination method of nonmetallic inclusionsin steel content "; 2, category-A-sulfide-based; Category-B-alumina type; C class-silicates; D class-spherical oxide class; The spherical class of DS class-individual particle; E-is slightly.

Claims (10)

1. manufacture of iron and steel by melting-die casting new technology, is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:
A) get the raw materials ready: get steel grade needed raw material ready, carry out pretreatment; Crucible will be placed in through pretreated main material, then crucible be placed in the induction coil of vacuum melting furnace;
B) prepare before fusing: by vacuum melting stove evacuation, make vacuum be 10 ~ 30Pa, start power transmission, carry out preheating;
C) melt: hoisting power to 60 ~ 80KW, power transmission 20 ~ 30min, continue hoisting power to 80 ~ 100kW, keep power constant, until furnace charge melts completely;
D) sample: the furnace charge after fusing is carried out to thermometric and is 1560 ~ 1600 DEG C by the temperature of furnace charge after regulating power controlled melting, is filled with argon gas, sampling detects, and determines to melt rear furnace charge basis;
E) refining and alloying: after sampling detection completes, bottom blowing argon gas is adopted to make vacuum be 3000 ~ 5000Pa, it is 1560 ~ 1580 DEG C that regulating power makes to melt rear charge-temperature, then add alloy raw material and carry out Alloying Treatment, sampling detects, and determines chemical composition in the molten steel after Alloying Treatment;
F) solidify: reduce power, when a large amount of conjunctiva appears in molten steel surface, have a power failure, molten steel is cooled with stove; Or adopt ladder to solidify, then have a power failure, molten steel is cooled with stove;
G) demoulding: be separated with vacuum melting furnace box hat by crucible, takes out steel ingot and removes epidermis in crucible.
2. manufacture of iron and steel by melting according to claim 1-die casting new technology, is characterized in that: step a) described main material needs first to be added by cobbing to level up when adding in crucible to add bulk material again; Step a) described crucible is corundum crucible.
3. manufacture of iron and steel by melting according to claim 1-die casting new technology, it is characterized in that: step a) is provided with packing layer and heat-insulation layer between described crucible and induction coil successively, described heat-insulation layer is arranged on the inner side of induction coil;
Step a) described main material is the raw material that can not volatilize under low vacuum.
4. manufacture of iron and steel by melting according to claim 3-die casting new technology, is characterized in that: described packing layer is magnesia, and described heat-insulation layer is asbestos cloth; Step a) described main material comprises graphite and pure iron.
5. manufacture of iron and steel by melting according to claim 1-die casting new technology, is characterized in that: step a) described pretreatment refers to the oxide-film removing iron block in steel grade raw material, and carries out drying and preheating process respectively to other raw materials in steel grade raw material.
6. manufacture of iron and steel by melting according to claim 5-die casting new technology, is characterized in that: the temperature of described drying and preheating process is 350 ~ 500 DEG C, and the described drying and preheating time is 1h.
7. manufacture of iron and steel by melting according to claim 1-die casting new technology, is characterized in that: step e) described alloy raw material comprises ferrosilicon, manganese metal and aluminum shot.
8. manufacture of iron and steel by melting according to claim 7-die casting new technology, is characterized in that: step e) described alloy raw material also comprises ferrotianium, ferrochrome, ferronickel, ferro-niobium and/or vanadium iron.
9. manufacture of iron and steel by melting according to claim 1-die casting new technology, is characterized in that: step b) described power transmission power is 30KW, described preheating time is 25 ~ 35min; Step f) described reduction power refers to and power is down to 40kW; Step f) described cool time is 1 ~ 3h.
10. manufacture of iron and steel by melting according to claim 1-die casting new technology, it is characterized in that: step f) described ladder solidifies and refers to: the induction coil of smelting furnace is set to many groups, each group of induction coil adopts parallel circuit to control, induction coil group is labeled as 1# ~ N# circle from lower to upper respectively, when solidifying beginning, reduces the power of each coil groups, 1# encloses power and reduces to zero, pass after 2 ~ N# encloses power reduction is that the power of 2# is less than 3#, and 3# is less than 4#, the like; After 15 ~ 25min, the power that 2# encloses is reduced to zero, the corresponding reduction of other coil powers the power meeting 2# is less than 3#, 3# is less than 4#, the like, reduce to zero when N# encloses power, then have a power failure, open vacuum, molten steel is cooled with stove.
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Cited By (2)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109402325A (en) * 2018-11-26 2019-03-01 抚顺特殊钢股份有限公司 A kind of vaccum sensitive stove removes the control method of pernicious gas in steel
CN110514004A (en) * 2019-08-29 2019-11-29 中国人民解放军国防科技大学 A kind of the directional solidification smelting equipment and method of smelting of infusibility high-entropy alloy

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CN109402325A (en) * 2018-11-26 2019-03-01 抚顺特殊钢股份有限公司 A kind of vaccum sensitive stove removes the control method of pernicious gas in steel
CN110514004A (en) * 2019-08-29 2019-11-29 中国人民解放军国防科技大学 A kind of the directional solidification smelting equipment and method of smelting of infusibility high-entropy alloy

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