CN105332685B - A kind of proppant multistage spread method for improving coal seam complex fracture support effect - Google Patents

A kind of proppant multistage spread method for improving coal seam complex fracture support effect Download PDF

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CN105332685B
CN105332685B CN201510778950.1A CN201510778950A CN105332685B CN 105332685 B CN105332685 B CN 105332685B CN 201510778950 A CN201510778950 A CN 201510778950A CN 105332685 B CN105332685 B CN 105332685B
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coal seam
complex fracture
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hugger
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CN105332685A (en
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郭建春
何颂根
张龙胜
赵志红
熊炜
徐骞
赖建林
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Petroleum Engineering Technology Research Institute East China Petroleum Branch Of China Petroleum & Chemical Corp
Southwest Petroleum University
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Abstract

The invention discloses it is a kind of improve coal seam complex fracture support effect proppant multistage spread method, including:A, the coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring M that brittleness constituent content W influences is calculated1;B, the coal seam complex fracture type classification that calculating uniaxial strengeth influences than R scores M2;C, the coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring M that calculated level stress difference coefficient δ influences3;D, average hugger density is calculatedThe coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring M of influence4;E, the coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring M that hugger approaches angle beta influence is calculated5;F, the coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring M that in summary five factors influence is calculated, so as to demarcate coal seam complex fracture type;G, design is for the multistage laying of more grain size proppants combination of each types of fractures.The principle of the invention is reliable, easy to operate, can be laid for proppant optimization in bed gas reservoir hydraulic fracturing conceptual design and provide guidance, obtained and reservoir and the more matched support effect of hydraulic fracture system with this.

Description

A kind of proppant multistage spread method for improving coal seam complex fracture support effect
Technical field
Proppant in being designed the present invention relates to the hydraulic fracturing of oil field bed gas reservoir optimizes spread method, to ensure to prop up Support agent can effectively support coal seam complex fracture, improve fracturing yield increasing effect.
Background technology
China's coal bed gas resource very abundant, buried depth 2000m is with shallow total resources up to 36.8 trillion sides.It produces in China coal seam Amount keeps good volume increase situation at present, but total output is not still high, exploitation yield only 3,600,000,000 sides of drilling well in 2014.It is comprehensive next It sees, China's cbm development has a high potential, and is still badly in need of research of technique and improves development effectiveness.
The occurrence status of coal bed gas include ADSORPTION STATE, free state and solubilised state, and wherein 75-90% is with ADSORPTION STATE preservation in coal In layer.High degree of water in coal seam simultaneously, the extraction of coal bed gas need to pass through draining, desorption, diffusion, seepage flow, the several processes of output.Cause How this, which maximizes, improves stratum filtration condition, promotes the core that drainage and step-down desorption is cbm development design.In addition, China's coalbed methane reservoir has low gas content saturation degree, low-permeability, the " three-lows " feature of low-pressure.
For reservoir characteristic more than coal bed gas, hydraulic fracturing is formed by the way that highly pressurised liquid is injected coal seam in reservoir Man-made fracture and communication extension coal seam hugger;The liquid for carrying proppant is injected into dynamic crack therewith, through the row's of returning rear support Agent is stayed in complex fracture, and forming coal seam has the high speed seepage channel of certain flow conductivity;It is final to expand seepage flow and decompression Area, so as to promote draining, decompression, desorption, diffusion, seepage flow whole process so that the quick output of coal bed gas.Waterpower pressure as a result, It is cleaved into one of key technology for being capable of economical and effective exploitation for coal bed gas.
The laying mode of proppant is the importance of coal bed gas hydraulic fracturing design, is referred from conventional reservoir hydraulic fracturing Make the mentality of designing in a long crack of high flow conductivity, coalbed methane reservoir hydraulic fracturing at present is still added with single particle size based on sand, It is effectively supported with the single-stage for realizing major fracture.
It is controlled by coal seam component and cement structure, coal seam mechanical property is more crisp, frangible so as to cause coal petrography;Compared with routine The more shallow buried depth of reservoir, coal seam crustal stress is relatively lower, is conducive to fracture extension;Coal seam is developed a large amount of hugger and (is cut by end simultaneously The orthogonal fracture system that reason and face cleat are composed);And coal bed fracturing technique is based on lower-cost riverfrac treatment at present; Under low viscous fracturing fluid (clear water) effect, hugger is easily linked up and extends to form Fracture System.Therefore, the actual hydraulic fracture in coal seam Form is complex.Complex fracture has the larger trunk crack of aperture in coal seam, also has the smaller secondary crack of aperture and the aperture micro- Small microcrack.Single particle size single-stage, which is uniformly laid, as a result, is difficult to carry out complex fracture effectively support, it is necessary to according to a variety of grains Footpath based on coal seam fracture complicated type, rationally designs more grain size multistage-combinations and lays so that master-secondary-microcrack in complex fracture It is respectively provided with enough flow conductivities and efficient combination matches.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide it is a kind of improve coal seam complex fracture support effect proppant multistage spread method, This method principle is reliable, easy to operate, can be laid for proppant optimization in bed gas reservoir hydraulic fracturing conceptual design and provide finger It leads.
To reach more than technical purpose, the present invention provides following technical scheme.
The present invention is according to coal seam brittleness constituent content, flatly uniaxial strengeth ratio, stress difference coefficient, average hugger density And hugger approaches angle, and coal seam complex fracture type is divided into four kinds of groups, for different coal seam complex fracture types, sets respectively The different multistage supports of proppant combination is counted, is obtained and reservoir and the more matched support effect of hydraulic fracture system with this.
A kind of proppant multistage spread method for improving coal seam complex fracture support effect, comprises the following steps successively:
A, according to the height of the brittleness constituent content W in coal seam, the coal seam complex fracture class that brittleness constituent content W influences is calculated Type grade scoring M1, standards of grading are as follows:
Work as W<When 10%, M1=0;
As 10%≤W<When 20%, M1=1;
As 20%≤W<When 30%, M1=2;
As 30%≤W<When 40%, M1=3;
As W >=40%, M1=4;
B, according to size of the uniaxial strengeth in coal seam than R, uniaxial strengeth is calculated than R coal seam complex fracture types influenced etc. Grade scoring M2, standards of grading are as follows:
Work as R<When 10, M2=0;
As 10≤R<When 15, M2=1;
As 15≤R<When 20, M2=2;
As 20≤R<When 25, M2=3;
As R >=25, M2=4;
C, according to the size of the horizontal stress coefficient of variation δ in coal seam, the coal seam that calculated level stress difference coefficient δ influences is answered Miscellaneous types of fractures grade scoring M3, standards of grading are as follows:
As δ >=0.48, M3=0;
As 0.36≤δ<When 0.48, M3=1;
As 0.24≤δ<When 0.36, M3=2;
As 0.12≤δ<When 0.24, M3=3;
Work as δ<When 0.12, M3=4;
D, according to the average hugger density in coal seamCalculate average hugger densityCoal seam complex fracture type of influence etc. Grade scoring M4, standards of grading are as follows:
WhenWhen, M4=0;
WhenWhen, M4=1;
WhenWhen, M4=2;
WhenWhen, M4=3;
WhenWhen, M4=4;
E, angle beta is approached according to the hugger in coal seam, calculates the coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring that hugger approaches angle beta influence M5, standards of grading are as follows:
As 72 °≤β<At 90 °, M5=0;
As 54 °≤β<At 72 °, M5=1;
As 36 °≤β<At 54 °, M5=2;
As 18 °≤β<At 36 °, M5=3;
As 0 °≤β<At 18 °, M5=4;
F, the coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring M influenced according to each factor calculated respectively in step A~E1、M2、 M3、M4、M5, using the following formula calculating coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring M that in summary five factors influence:
In formula:MiRefer to M respectively1、M2、M3、M4、M5;biFor M1、M2、M3、M4、M5Shared weight, be respectively 0.15,0.15, 0.25、0.25、0.2。
Using following standard, coal seam complex fracture type is demarcated according to M values:
As 0≤M≤1, coal seam complex fracture type is A types (double-vane seam type);
When 1<During M≤2, coal seam complex fracture type is Type B (multiple cracking type);
When 2<During M≤3, coal seam complex fracture type is c-type (dendritic);
When 3<During M≤4, coal seam complex fracture type is D types (network-type);
G, according to the coal seam complex fracture type demarcated in step F, design is supported for more grain sizes of each types of fractures Agent combination is multistage to lay:
1. for A types (double-vane seam type) crack, 20/40 mesh of design, 30/50 mesh, 40/70 mesh proppant volume ratio are 7: 2:1;
2. for B (multiple cracking type) type crack, 20/40 mesh of design, 30/50 mesh, 40/70 mesh proppant volume ratio are 3: 2:1;
3. for c-type (dendritic) crack, 20/40 mesh of design, 30/50 mesh, 40/70 mesh proppant volume ratio are 4:3: 2;
4. for D types (network-type) crack, 20/40 mesh of design, 30/50 mesh, 40/70 mesh proppant volume ratio are 1:1: 1。
Above 1.~note order is 4. pumped in situation fracturing process is first pump 40/70 mesh proppant of note, then pump 30/50 mesh of note Proppant finally pumps 20/40 mesh proppant of note.
In the present invention, in the step A, brittleness constituent content W is inertinite content and non-clay inorganic mineral in coal seam The summation (%) of content.Brittleness constituent content is the internal factor for determining coal petrography mechanical characteristics in coal seam, so as to also influence coal seam Crack complex characteristic.Brittleness constituent content is higher, and coal seam fracture is more complicated, M1It is higher.
In the step B, uniaxial strengeth is coal seam uniaxial compressive strength σ than RcWith uniaxial tensile strength σtRatio (it is no because It is secondary).Coal petrography single shaft Compressive Strength σcWith tensile strength sigmatDifference reflection coal petrography mechanics brittleness, difference is bigger, and brittleness is stronger, coal Rock is easier fragmentation, and coal seam fracture is more complicated, M2It is higher.
In the step C, horizontal stress coefficient of variation δ is the maximum horizontal principal stress σ in coal seamHWith minimum horizontal principal stress σhDifference divided by minimum horizontal principal stress σhIncome value (zero dimension).The flatly stress difference of coal seam under formation conditions Smaller, i.e., horizontal stress coefficient of variation δ is smaller, and crack meets with the easier steering of coal seam hugger and prolongs hugger extension, thus coal seam Crack is more complicated, M3It is higher.
In the step D, the average hugger density in coal seamTo hold hugger density ωsWith face cleat density ωfBe averaged Value.Hugger density is that the hugger under unit length develops item number (item/m), and coal seam hugger is divided into the end hugger for moving towards mutually orthogonal And face cleat, coal seam hugger are more developed, hugger density is higher, the easier communication cleat system of hydraulic fracture, and coal seam fracture is more multiple It is miscellaneous, M4It is higher.
In the step E, hugger approaches angle beta and is calculated by following formula:
β=| θfs|=| (90- θs)-θs|=| 90-2 θs|
In formula:θfFor face cleat trend with orientation of principal stress angle, °,
θsTo hold hugger trend and orientation of principal stress angle, °.
When major fracture extending direction (horizontal biggest principal stress direction) and the angle of hugger (end hugger and face cleat) trend Extend close to 0 ° of time delay hugger;Extend when major fracture extending direction and hugger trend vertical in 90 ° directly through hugger;Work as master Fracture extension direction is moved towards with hugger at 45 ° or so, is easiest to major fracture and hugger extends to form fracture network simultaneously, coal seam is split Slit state is most complicated.Since end hugger and face cleat move towards mutually orthogonal, it is smaller that hugger approaches angle beta, major fracture extension Direction is with hugger trend closer to 45 °, and coal seam fracture is more complicated, M5It is higher.
In the step G, A types (double-vane seam type) crack, based on single major fracture, secondary-microcrack is few in crack, thus with Based on 20/40 mesh proppant is laid, 30/50 mesh, 40/70 mesh proppant use less.From A types~D types crack, fracture pattern by Gradual change is complicated, and the larger trunk crack proportion of aperture continuously decreases, and the smaller secondary crack of aperture and small micro- of aperture Crack proportion gradually increases, thus 30/50 mesh, 40/70 mesh use ratio gradually increase.The final combination for causing proppant Multistage lays the multistage effectively support of major fracture in matching complex fracture, secondary crack, microcrack, efficient so as to improve support, And then improve fracturing effect.
Compared with existing single-stage spread method, the invention has the advantages that:Existing single-stage spread method has been only capable of Effect support A types (double-vane seam type) crack, for the more complicated Type B of fracture pattern (multiple cracking type), c-type (dendritic), D types (network-type) crack, is supported by inefficient.The present invention can design different more according to the difference of coal seam complex fracture type Grade lays mode, so as to meet effective support of different type coal seam fracture so that the proppant in Fracturing Project lays design More targetedly, the pressure break demand in coal seam under different geologic features is met.
Specific embodiment
With reference to embodiment detailed description of the present invention embodiment.With Yanchuan south coal bed gas field coal bed gas well YX wells Exemplified by, the well vertical depth 1420m, reservoir thickness 4.6m.
A, the brittleness constituent content W in coal seam is obtained according to core test as 30.8% (inertinite content 23.6%, non-clay Inorganic mineral content 7.2%), calculate the coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring M that brittleness constituent content W influences1=3;
B, coal seam uniaxial compressive strength σ is obtained according to core testcFor 17.5MPa, uniaxial tensile strength σtFor 0.93MPa, It is 18.8 that uniaxial strengeth, which is calculated, than R, and the coal seam complex fracture type classification that calculating uniaxial strengeth influences than R scores M2=2;
C, reservoir maximum horizontal crustal stress σHFor 28.4MPa, minimum horizontal principal stress σhFor 21.3MPa, calculated level stress Coefficient of variation δ is 0.33, the coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring M that calculated level stress difference coefficient δ influences3=2;
D, count to obtain coal seam end hugger density ω by rock coresFor 70/m, face cleat density ωfIt 120/m, calculates Average hugger densityFor 95/m, average hugger density is calculatedThe coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring M of influence4=3;
E, the horizontal maximum principal stress orientation in this area is NE95 °, and end hugger moves towards NE62 °, and face cleat moves towards NE152 °, θf For 57 °, θsFor 33 °.Hugger is calculated using formula (1) and approaches angle beta as 24 °, and the coal seam complexity that calculating hugger approaches angle beta influence is split Stitch type classification scoring M5=3;
F, according to the M of calculating1、M2、M3、M4、M5, using formula (2), calculate the coal seam that in summary five factors influence and answer Miscellaneous types of fractures grade scoring M=2.6 (2<M≤3), calibration coal seam complex fracture type is c-type (dendritic);
G, according to coal seam complex fracture type calibration result be c-type crack (dendritic), select 20/40 mesh, 30/50 mesh, 40/70 mesh proppant ratio is 4:3:2 carry out multistage support, and note order is pumped in fracturing process first to pump 40/70 mesh proppant of note, 30/50 mesh proppant of note is pumped again, finally pumps 20/40 mesh proppant of note.
The coal bed gas field in Yanchuan south expands the secondary field conduct application of more than 30 wells to this method at present, achieves good effect Fruit.Compared with block is adjacent not using the coal bed gas well of this method, averagely producing tolerance daily using initial stage after this method increases 185.3m3/ d, gas breakthrough time averagely shift to an earlier date 108d.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of proppant multistage spread method for improving coal seam complex fracture support effect, comprises the following steps successively:
A, according to the brittleness constituent content in coal seamWHeight, calculate brittleness constituent contentWCoal seam complex fracture type of influence etc. Grade scoringM 1, standards of grading are as follows:
WhenW<When 10%,M 1=0;
When 10%≤W<When 20%,M 1=1;
When 20%≤W<When 30%,M 1=2;
When 30%≤W<When 40%,M 1=3;
WhenWWhen >=40%,M 1=4;
The brittleness constituent contentWFor inertinite content in coal seam and the summation of non-clay inorganic mineral content;
B, according to the uniaxial strengeth in coal seam ratioRSize, calculate uniaxial strengeth ratioRThe coal seam complex fracture type classification of influence is commented PointM 2, standards of grading are as follows:
WhenR<When 10,M 2=0;
When 10≤R<When 15,M 2=1;
When 15≤R<When 20,M 2=2;
When 20≤R<When 25,M 2=3;
WhenRWhen >=25,M 2=4;
The uniaxial strengeth ratioRFor coal seam uniaxial compressive strengthWith uniaxial tensile strengthRatio;
C, according to the horizontal stress coefficient of variation in coal seamSize, calculated level stress difference coefficientThe coal seam complexity of influence is split Stitch type classification scoringM 3, standards of grading are as follows:
WhenWhen >=0.48,M 3=0;
When 0.36≤<When 0.48,M 3=1;
When 0.24≤<When 0.36,M 3=2;
When 0.12≤<When 0.24,M 3=3;
When<When 0.12,M 3=4;
The horizontal stress coefficient of variationFor the maximum horizontal principal stress in coal seamWith minimum horizontal principal stressDifference divided by Minimum horizontal principal stressIncome value;
D, according to the average hugger density in coal seam, calculate average hugger densityThe coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring of influenceM 4, standards of grading are as follows:
When<When 25,M 4=0;
When 25≤<When 50,M 4=1;
When 50≤<When 75,M 4=2;
When 75≤<When 100,M 4=3;
WhenWhen >=100,M 4=4;
The average hugger density in the coal seamTo hold hugger densityWith face cleat densityAverage value;
E, angle is approached according to the hugger in coal seam, calculate hugger and approach angleThe coal seam complex fracture type classification scoring of influenceM 5, Standards of grading are as follows:
When 72 °≤<At 90 °,M 5=0;
When 54 °≤<At 72 °,M 5=1;
When 36 °≤<At 54 °,M 5=2;
When 18 °≤<At 36 °,M 5=3;
When 0 °≤<At 18 °,M 5=4;
The hugger approaches angleIt is calculated by following formula:
In formula:For face cleat trend with orientation of principal stress angle, °,
To hold hugger trend and orientation of principal stress angle, °;
F, the coal seam complex fracture type classification that in summary five factors influence is calculated using following formula to scoreM
In formula:b i ForM 1M 2M 3M 4M 5Shared weight is respectively 0.15,0.15,0.25,0.25,0.2,
So as to basisMValue calibration coal seam complex fracture type:
When 0≤MWhen≤1, coal seam complex fracture type is A types, i.e. double-vane seam type;
When 1<MWhen≤2, coal seam complex fracture type is Type B, i.e. multiple cracking type;
When 2<MWhen≤3, coal seam complex fracture type is c-type, i.e. dendritic;
When 3<MWhen≤4, coal seam complex fracture type is D types, i.e. network-type;
G, according to coal seam complex fracture type, design is for the multistage laying of more grain size proppants combination of each types of fractures:
For A types crack, 20/40 mesh of design, 30/50 mesh, 40/70 mesh proppant volume ratio are 7: 2: 1;
For Type B crack, 20/40 mesh of design, 30/50 mesh, 40/70 mesh proppant volume ratio are 3: 2: 1;
For c-type crack, 20/40 mesh of design, 30/50 mesh, 40/70 mesh proppant volume ratio are 4: 3: 2;
For D types crack, 20/40 mesh of design, 30/50 mesh, 40/70 mesh proppant volume ratio are 1: 1: 1.
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CN103133028A (en) * 2013-03-12 2013-06-05 河南理工大学 Underground coal seam hydrofracture crack oriented developing method
CN103995947A (en) * 2013-04-08 2014-08-20 中国矿业大学(北京) Improved coal seam floor water inrush vulnerability evaluation method
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