CN105301223B - A kind of portable real-time monitoring soil erosion simulation experiment method - Google Patents

A kind of portable real-time monitoring soil erosion simulation experiment method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105301223B
CN105301223B CN201510772715.3A CN201510772715A CN105301223B CN 105301223 B CN105301223 B CN 105301223B CN 201510772715 A CN201510772715 A CN 201510772715A CN 105301223 B CN105301223 B CN 105301223B
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China
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soil
rainfall
soil box
water tank
gradient
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CN105301223A (en
Inventor
殷黎明
陈艳飞
李林
任松
蒲文明
陈结
魏志博
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Chongqing University
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Chongqing University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of portable real-time monitoring soil erosion simulation experiment method, step is as follows:1)To water filling in rainfall water tank, the relation between liquid level and raininess is demarcated;2)According to test requirements document soil sample is loaded to soil box layering;3)The soil box gradient is regulated, being covered in soil sample surface etc. with plastic foil tests;4)Runoff measuring device is placed, electronic scale sampling parameter is set;5)Adjust to the raininess of test requirements document, raise plastic foil and start experiment;6)In experiment, juice lever indicator tube is paid close attention to, it is found that liquid level adjusts flowmeter in time not in specified location;7)After having tested, plastic foil is covered again, preserve real-time product flow data in computer;8)Turbid liquid in runoff bucket is stood, oven for drying is put into after outwelling supernatant liquor, taken out weighing and obtain total sediment yield.The method realizes domatic soil erosion lab simulation and measurement, and experiment raininess, the soil box gradient can easily be accommodated, and method is simple and reliable, and data are accurate, the real time measure storage data.

Description

A kind of portable real-time monitoring soil erosion simulation experiment method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of soil erosion simulated rain trails method, more particularly to a kind of portable real-time monitoring water and soil It is lost in simulation experiment method.
Background technology
Soil erosion is the serious ecological problem of China.《China Environmental State Bulletin in 2010》It has been shown that, China's water and soil stream Lose area and accounted for the 37.2% of territory total area, up to 356.92 ten thousand km2.Attention with country to bringing soil erosion under control, I State is provided with typical monitoring point observation status of soil erosion in the major area of soil erosion, have accumulated substantial amounts of observation data, This provides very big support to carrying out soil erosion disaster.Before 20th century mid-terms, the research to the soil erosion is more Natural rainfall is depended on, because the time needed for natural rainfall observation is very long, and various factors is difficult to manual control, to data Collection and analysis bring certain difficulty, far can not meet needs.
Therefore, successively establishing the various artificial simulated rainfalls such as the soil erosion, runoff gathering, slip erosion both at home and abroad Room, to make up the deficiency of field trial.Its advantage:(1)Can simulate the natural rainfall of varying strength, or even the centuries one meets Extra torrential rain can also reproduce in laboratory, substantially reduce the test period.(2)Can be used using modernization test instrumentation Also there is no problem for water, thus test level is higher, can obtain high-quality experimental data.(3)Can strict Control release Condition, for the observational study soil erosion occur evolution process and with the inherent mechanism between each influence factor, have very Big superiority.
Existing soil erosion simulation test device has a many kinds, but also shortcomings, such as:(1)Simulated rainfall is filled Put big each several part volume, heaviness and use and be fixedly connected, made troubles to using and carrying;(2)During simulated rainfall, rainfall Uniformity and stability be not being met;(3)The run-off frequently resulted in soil erosion experiment is final result, no Run-off can in real time be reflected.
The content of the invention
For deficiencies of the prior art, the invention provides a kind of portable real-time monitoring soil erosion simulation Test method, the test method realizes domatic soil erosion lab simulation and measurement, and experiment raininess, the soil box gradient can easily be accommodated, Method is simple and reliable, and data are accurate, the real time measure storage data.
In order to solve the above-mentioned technical problem, present invention employs following technical scheme:
A kind of portable real-time monitoring soil erosion simulation experiment method, in the method using a kind of experimental rig, should Experimental rig includes rainfall system, soil box device and runoff data real-time collecting system;
The rainfall system includes that storage tank, feed pipe, water pump, flowmeter, tank bracket, rainfall water tank, water droplet occur Device and juice lever indicator tube;The rainfall water tank is arranged on the top of tank bracket, and the rainfall water tank is seal case, rainfall water Inlet opening is set on case, and the top of rainfall water tank sets steam vent, sealing nut, the bottom of the rainfall water tank are set on steam vent Portion is uniformly arranged several type water drop generators;The delivery port of storage tank is connected by feed pipe with the water inlet of water pump, the water The delivery port of pump is connected by feed pipe with the water inlet of flowmeter, and the delivery port of the flowmeter is by feed pipe and rainfall water The inlet opening connection of case;The juice lever indicator tube is vertically arranged in outside rainfall water tank, bottom and the rainfall water tank of juice lever indicator tube Bottom pass through pipeline connection;
The soil box device includes roller, bearing, soil box, gradient dial gauge and jack up unit;The roller is located at bearing Bottom, one end of the soil box is hinged with one end of bearing, and the jack up unit includes lifting screw and nut, the lifting The bottom of screw rod rotatably coordinates with the other end of bearing, the nut rotation set on lifting screw, the nut and soil box Other end outer wall is rotatably connected, and the gradient dial gauge is arranged on the outer wall of soil box and near the other end of soil box;
Runoff data real-time collecting system includes collecting pipe, runoff bucket, electronic scale and with onboard data logging software Notebook computer;The collecting pipe is arranged on soil box, and the least significant end of collecting pipe is located at the top of runoff bucket, and the runoff bucket is put Put on electronic scale, the electronic scale is connected by data wire with notebook computer;
The method comprises the following steps:
1)Water pump is first turned on, the sealing nut on rainfall water tank is turned on, to water filling in rainfall water tank, is indicated by liquid level Liquid level in pipe observation rainfall water tank, rainfall water tank bottom raininess is measured, to the pass between liquid level and raininess System is demarcated;
2)According to test requirements document, soil is loaded in soil box, control loads moisture content, particle diameter distribution and the density of soil, Compaction in layers, every time filling compacting 5cm, after the completion of every layer loads, by soil layer surface galling, then the filling for carrying out next layer;
3)The soil box gradient according to test requirements document, rotation and lifting screw rod observes the slope residing for soil box by gradient dial gauge Degree, the gradient of slow regulation soil box, after the gradient is regulated, the on-tests such as soil sample surface is covered in again by plastic foil with plastic foil Raise;
4)Soil box device is moved to the underface of type water drop generator, experiment rainfall region, by runoff real time data acquisition system System is placed on the side of soil box, and electronic scale is zeroed out, and sets the sampling parameter of electronic scale;
5)Water pump is again turned on, sealing nut is turned on, regulation flowmeter makes liquid level reach test requirements document raininess correspondence Liquid level, raise plastic foil after raininess stabilization and start experiment, and start timing recording contributing time;
6)In process of the test, juice lever indicator tube is paid close attention to, it is found that liquid level adjusts flowmeter in time not in specified location Liquid level is set to return to specified location, it should also be noted that whether water is enough in storage tank;
7)After the completion of experiment, plastic foil is covered again, switch off the pump and flowmeter, and sealing nut of screwing on, preserve notes Flow data is produced in this computer in real time;
8)Turbid liquid in runoff bucket is stood 4 hours, after turbid liquid layering, is suctioned out the clear liquid on upper strata with suction pipe, will be remaining Turbid liquid is put into baking oven, sets 105 DEG C of the temperature of baking oven, and taking out weighing after drying 8h obtains total sediment yield.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has the following technical effect that:
1st, simple structure, convenient disassembly, and cost is not high.
2nd, rainfall intensity stabilization is controlled by juice lever indicator tube and flowmeter, the raindrop generator being evenly arranged is so that rainfall Uniformly.
3rd, soil box lifting sets easy and effective, can manually adjust gradient size and gradient dial gauge can in real time show soil Trough slope.
4th, can in real time show runoff yield and can be deposited according to test requirements document setting frequency acquisition and then by data Storage is in notebook computer.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is a kind of structural representation of portable real-time monitoring soil erosion simulation test device.
In accompanying drawing:1-storage tank;2-feed pipe;3-water pump;4-flowmeter;5-inlet opening;6-exhaust Hole;7-sealing nut;8-rainfall water tank;9-type water drop generator;10-lifting screw;11-bearing;12-soil Groove;13-collecting pipe;14-runoff bucket;15-electronic scale;16-notebook computer;17-tank bracket;18-liquid Face indicates pipe;19-roller;20-gradient dial gauge;21-nut.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and detailed description.
A kind of portable real-time monitoring soil erosion simulation experiment method, in the method using a kind of experimental rig, should Experimental rig includes rainfall system, soil box device and runoff data real-time collecting system, as shown in Figure 1.
Rainfall system includes storage tank 1, feed pipe 2, water pump 3, flowmeter 4, tank bracket 17, rainfall water tank 8, water droplet hair Raw device 9 and juice lever indicator tube 18.Rainfall water tank 8 is arranged on the top of tank bracket 17, and rainfall water tank 8 is seal case, rainfall The length and width size of water tank 8 typically can be controlled in 15-20cm, is set on rainfall water tank 8 according to experiment rain area requirement design, height Inlet opening 5 is put, the top of rainfall water tank 8 sets steam vent 6, sealing nut 7 is set on steam vent 6, and the bottom of rainfall water tank 8 is equal Cloth sets several type water drop generators 9(In this embodiment, the bottom surface of rainfall water tank 8 is provided with precipitation hole, in matrix arrangement, Spacing is 3cm, the external raindrop generator 9 in hole between hole).Juice lever indicator tube 18 is marked with scale, can show in real time in rainfall water tank 8 Water level, steam vent 6 in process of the test on rainfall water tank 8 opens wide, and switch off the pump 3, and sealing spiral shell of screwing on during off-test Cap 7 causes that rainfall stops.The delivery port of storage tank 1 is connected by feed pipe 2 with the water inlet of water pump 3, and the delivery port of water pump 3 leads to Cross feed pipe 2 to be connected with the water inlet of flowmeter 4, the delivery port of flowmeter 4 is by feed pipe 2 and the inlet opening 5 of rainfall water tank 8 Connection;Juice lever indicator tube 18 is vertically arranged in outside rainfall water tank 8, and the bottom of juice lever indicator tube 18 leads to the bottom of rainfall water tank 8 Cross pipeline connection.The water in storage tank 1 is transported in rainfall water tank 8 by water pump 3, the reflection rainfall in real time of juice lever indicator tube 18 Water level in water tank 8, the size of flow is controlled by flowmeter 4.
Soil box device includes roller 19, bearing 11, soil box 12, gradient dial gauge 20 and jack up unit.Roller 19 is located at branch The bottom of seat 11, in the present embodiment, the surrounding leg of bearing 11 installs roller 19, can move.One end of soil box 12 and bearing 11 one end is hinged, and jack up unit includes lifting screw 10 and nut 21, the bottom of lifting screw 10 and the other end of bearing 11 Rotatable to coordinate, on lifting screw 10, nut 21 is rotatably connected the rotation set of nut 21 with the other end outer wall of soil box 12(At this In embodiment, bearing pin can be wholely set in the both sides of nut 21, two support bases, branch are set on the other end outer wall of soil box 12 Through hole is set on support seat, nut 21 is arranged between two support bases, the bearing pin of the both sides of nut 21 puts in the logical of correspondence support base It is rotatably assorted in hole and with through hole), gradient dial gauge 20 is arranged on the outer wall of soil box 12 and near the other end of soil box 12.It is logical The gradient that rotation lifting screw 10 controls soil box 12 is crossed, the gradient of soil box 12 is read by gradient dial gauge 20.
Runoff data real-time collecting system includes collecting pipe 13, runoff bucket 14, electronic scale 15 and with onboard data record The notebook computer 16 of software.Collecting pipe 13 is arranged on soil box 12, and the least significant end of collecting pipe 13 is located at the top of runoff bucket 14, Runoff bucket 14 is placed on electronic scale 15, and electronic scale 15 is connected by data wire with notebook computer 16.Collecting pipe 13 will be produced Runoff all flow into runoff bucket 14 in, by electronic scale 15 in real time display produce stream weight and the adopting according to test requirements document by data Collection frequency is transferred in notebook computer 16.
The portable real-time monitoring soil erosion simulation experiment method comprises the following steps:
1)Water pump 3 is first turned on, the sealing nut 7 on rainfall water tank 8 is turned on, to water filling in rainfall water tank 8, by liquid level The liquid level in the observation rainfall of pipe 18 water tank 8, the bottom raininess of rainfall water tank 8 is indicated to measure(Measure different liquid levels high Rainfall intensity under degree), the relation between liquid level and raininess is demarcated.
2)According to test requirements document, soil is loaded in soil box 12, control loads the moisture content of soil, particle diameter distribution and close Degree, compaction in layers, every time filling compacting 5cm, after the completion of every layer loads, by soil layer surface galling, then the filling for carrying out next layer.
3)The soil box gradient according to test requirements document, rotation and lifting screw rod 10 observes the institute of soil box 12 by gradient dial gauge 20 The gradient at place, the gradient of slow regulation soil box 12, after the gradient is regulated, the on-tests such as soil sample surface is covered in again with plastic foil Plastic foil is raised.The size of the gradient of soil box 12 is controlled by rotation and lifting screw rod 10, and institute is indicated by gradient dial gauge 20 The gradient at place.
4)Soil box device is moved to the underface of type water drop generator 9(Test rainfall region), footpath flow data is adopted in real time Collecting system is placed on the side of soil box 12, and electronic scale 15 is zeroed out, and sets the sampling parameter of electronic scale 15.
5)Water pump 3 is again turned on, sealing nut 7 is turned on, regulation flowmeter 4 makes liquid level reach test requirements document raininess pair The liquid level answered, raises plastic foil and starts experiment, and start timing recording and produce stream after raininess stabilization(It refers to produce footpath to produce stream Stream)Time.Experiment carry out a period of time after, soil body surface start produce runoff, by collecting pipe 13 flow into runoff bucket 14 in, lead to Cross electronic scale 15 in real time display run-off data and will gather the incoming notebook computer 16 of data in.
6)In process of the test, juice lever indicator tube 18 is paid close attention to, it is found that liquid level adjusts flow in time not in specified location Meter 4 makes liquid level return to specified location, it should also be noted that whether water is enough in storage tank 1.
7)After the completion of experiment, plastic foil is covered again, switch off the pump 3 and flowmeter 4, and sealing nut 7 of screwing on, preserve pen Remember real-time product flow data in this computer 16.
8)Turbid liquid in runoff bucket 14 is stood 4 hours, after turbid liquid layering, is suctioned out the clear liquid on upper strata with suction pipe, will be remaining Turbid liquid be put into baking oven, set baking oven 105 DEG C of temperature, drying 8h after take out weighing obtain total sediment yield.
By changing liquid level in rainfall water tank 8, rainfall intensity is can adjust;By the upper rising for adjusting lifting screw 10 Degree, can adjust the gradient of soil box 12.So as to carry out the comparative analysis experiment of different rainfall intensities, the different soil box gradients.
Finally illustrate, the above embodiments are merely illustrative of the technical solutions of the present invention and it is unrestricted, although with reference to compared with Good embodiment has been described in detail to the present invention, it will be understood by those within the art that, can be to skill of the invention Art scheme is modified or equivalent, and without deviating from the objective and scope of technical solution of the present invention, it all should cover at this In the middle of the right of invention.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of portable real-time monitoring soil erosion simulation experiment method, it is characterised in that tried using a kind of in the method Experiment device, the experimental rig includes rainfall system, soil box device and runoff data real-time collecting system;
The rainfall system includes storage tank (1), feed pipe (2), water pump (3), flowmeter (4), tank bracket (17), rainfall water Case (8), type water drop generator (9) and juice lever indicator tube (18);The rainfall water tank (8) is arranged on the top of tank bracket (17), The rainfall water tank (8) is seal case, and inlet opening (5) are set on rainfall water tank (8), and the top of rainfall water tank (8) sets row Stomata (6), sets sealing nut (7) on steam vent (6), the bottom of the rainfall water tank (8) is uniformly arranged several water droplets hair Raw device (9), the bottom surface of rainfall water tank (8) is provided with precipitation hole, and in matrix arrangement, spacing is 3cm between precipitation hole, outside precipitation hole Connect raindrop generator (9);The delivery port of storage tank (1) is connected by feed pipe (2) with the water inlet of water pump (3), the water pump (3) delivery port is connected by feed pipe (2) with the water inlet of flowmeter (4), and the delivery port of the flowmeter (4) is by supplying water Pipe (2) is connected with the inlet opening (5) of rainfall water tank (8);The juice lever indicator tube (18) is vertically arranged in rainfall water tank (8) outward, The bottom of juice lever indicator tube (18) passes through pipeline connection with the bottom of rainfall water tank (8);
The soil box device includes roller (19), bearing (11), soil box (12), gradient dial gauge (20) and jack up unit;It is described Roller (19) is located at the bottom of bearing (11), and one end and one end of bearing (11) of the soil box (12) are hinged, the raising dress Put including lifting screw (10) and nut (21), bottom and the other end of bearing (11) of the lifting screw (10) are rotatably matched somebody with somebody Close, nut (21) rotation set is on lifting screw (10), and the nut (21) is rotatable with the other end outer wall of soil box (12) Connection, the gradient dial gauge (20) is arranged on the outer wall of soil box (12) and near the other end of soil box (12);
Runoff data real-time collecting system includes collecting pipe (13), runoff bucket (14), electronic scale (15) and remembers with onboard data The notebook computer (16) of recording software;The collecting pipe (13) is arranged on soil box (12), and the least significant end of collecting pipe (13) is located at The top of runoff bucket (14), runoff bucket (14) is placed on electronic scale (15), the electronic scale (15) by data wire with Notebook computer (16) is connected;
The method comprises the following steps:
1) water pump (3) is first turned on, the sealing nut (7) on rainfall water tank (8) is turned on, to water filling in rainfall water tank (8), is passed through Juice lever indicator tube (18) observes the liquid level in rainfall water tank (8), and rainfall water tank (8) bottom raininess is measured, to liquid level Relation between height and raininess is demarcated;
2) according to test requirements document, soil is loaded in soil box (12), control loads moisture content, particle diameter distribution and the density of soil, Compaction in layers, every time filling compacting 5cm, after the completion of every layer loads, by soil layer surface galling, then the filling for carrying out next layer;
3) the soil box gradient according to test requirements document, rotation and lifting screw rod (10) observes soil box (12) by gradient dial gauge (20) The residing gradient, slowly adjusts the gradient of soil box (12), after the gradient is regulated, the experiment openings such as soil sample surface is covered in plastic foil Beginning again raises plastic foil;The size of soil box (12) gradient is controlled by rotation and lifting screw rod (10), and by gradient dial gauge (20) the residing gradient is indicated;
4) soil box device is moved to the underface of type water drop generator (9), runoff data real-time collecting system is placed on soil box (12) Side, electronic scale (15) is zeroed out, set the sampling parameter of electronic scale (15);
5) water pump (3) is again turned on, sealing nut (7) is turned on, regulation flowmeter (4) makes liquid level reach test requirements document raininess Corresponding liquid level, raises plastic foil and starts experiment, and start timing recording contributing time after raininess stabilization;Experiment is carried out A period of time after, soil body surface start produce runoff, by collecting pipe (13) flow into runoff bucket (14) in, by electronic scale 15) In real-time display run-off data and the incoming notebook computer of the data (16) that will be gathered;
6) in process of the test, juice lever indicator tube (18) is paid close attention to, it is found that liquid level adjusts flowmeter in time not in specified location (4) liquid level is made to return to specified location, it should also be noted that whether water is enough in storage tank (1);
7) after the completion of testing, plastic foil is covered again, switch off the pump (3) and flowmeter (4), and sealing nut of screwing on (7), preserve Flow data is produced in notebook computer (16) in real time;
8) turbid liquid in runoff bucket (14) is stood 4 hours, after turbid liquid layering, is suctioned out the clear liquid on upper strata with suction pipe, will be remaining Turbid liquid is put into baking oven, sets 105 DEG C of the temperature of baking oven, and taking out weighing after drying 8h obtains total sediment yield.
CN201510772715.3A 2015-11-12 2015-11-12 A kind of portable real-time monitoring soil erosion simulation experiment method Expired - Fee Related CN105301223B (en)

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