CN105284380A - Construction method for configuring gradient of aquatic plants of water-level-fluctuating zone - Google Patents

Construction method for configuring gradient of aquatic plants of water-level-fluctuating zone Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105284380A
CN105284380A CN201510763463.8A CN201510763463A CN105284380A CN 105284380 A CN105284380 A CN 105284380A CN 201510763463 A CN201510763463 A CN 201510763463A CN 105284380 A CN105284380 A CN 105284380A
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water
plant
clump
planting
plants
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陈煜初
赵勋
谢泉
周世荣
沈燕
余冠春
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ZHEJIANG HUMANITIES LANDSCAPE Co Ltd
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ZHEJIANG HUMANITIES LANDSCAPE Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of planting, particularly relating to and disclosing a construction method for configuring gradient of aquatic plants of a water-level-fluctuating zone. The construction method comprises the following steps: prospecting terrains and modifying side slope grade; grasping an annual cycle change rule of a water level of the water-level-fluctuating zone and determining planting time of various plants; measuring and selecting suitable water quality and bottom mud; selecting plants which are high in adaptability and high in stress resistance, and grow fastly; performing planting construction: planting submerged plants when the water level is relatively low, selecting positions which are distant from a water surface by a distance smaller than 20 cm to plant the submerged plants, and selecting positions which are distant from the water surface by a distance smaller than 30 cm to plant floating-leaved plants; and planting emergent aquatic plants in a drought period, and planting at positions which are distant from the water surface by 10-15 cm and distant from a water surface of a normal water level by a distance smaller than 55 cm. Planting of floating plants is not limited by the water level, the floating plants are cultured in a captive mode by enclosures, and the enclosures are higher than the water surface of the normal water level by 10-20 cm. The construction method for configuring gradient of aquatic plants of the water-level-fluctuating zone has the advantages of water level change adaptability, good growing and high sustainability.

Description

A kind of falling zone water plants gradient configuration construction method
Technical field
The present invention relates to planting technology field, particularly relate to a kind of falling zone water plants gradient configuration construction method.
Background technology
Falling zone is also called water levels fluctuating zone, swelling and subsiding zone etc., is due to seasonal fluctuation in stage in river, lake, reservoir, and makes the soil periodically exposure water surface that do not had by water logging, becomes one section of special area on land, belongs to wetland category.Falling zone is very remarkable to the purification function of pollutant.In protection reservoir, lake and river water etc., falling zone also plays vital effect.The current restoration of the ecosystem to falling zone, main at falling zone planting plants, to play falling zone ecological restoration function, but find to have planted a large amount of very water, floating plant when constructing, in a short time, plant growing way is better, landscape effect is better, after a growth cycle, then shows undergrowth, the ecology service cycle is short, often needs again to plant phenomenon.Cause construction and maintenance cost to increase, falling zone plant ecological service function weakens.
Summary of the invention
There is falling zone plant growth growing way for prior art bad, the defect of sustainability difference, the invention provides a kind of adaptation SEA LEVEL VARIATION, growth growing way is good, a kind of falling zone water plants gradient configuration construction method that sustainability is strong.
For achieving the above object, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A kind of falling zone water plants gradient configuration construction method, comprises the steps:
1) reconnoitre falling zone landform, transform its grade of side slope and be less than 60 degree;
2) grasp falling zone water level Seasonal Variation, measure ordinary water level, dry season and the same period water level to determine the various water plant planting time;
3) measure and select suitable water quality, bed mud thickness;
4) select plant, with the aquatic adaptability of water plants for foundation, selection adaptation be strong, strong stress resistance, submerged plant that growth is fast, floating plant, floatingleaved plant, emergent aquactic plant;
5) plantation construction: submerged plant: can plant when water level is lower, chooses plantation point and plants when water surface distance is less than 20cm; Floatingleaved plant: choose plantation point and plant when water surface distance is less than 30cm; Emergent aquactic plant: in dry season or the plantation of reduction water level, plantation point, to water surface distance 10-15cm, is planted point and is less than 55cm with ordinary water level water surface distance; Floating plant: plantation, not by the restriction of water level, with going along with sb. to guard him stable breeding, goes along with sb. to guard him height higher than ordinary water level water surface 10-20cm.
Falling zone grade of side slope transformation is conducive to bed mud and piles up, and has enough bed muds to be more suitable for plant growth.
Grasp water body SEA LEVEL VARIATION, also can determine various water plant planting time and planting location roughly accordingly, choose suitable water plants.
Submerged plant is planted when water level is lower and is easy to operation, can be planted in bottom falling zone, and water level goes up does not affect its growth, also can not lack of water wither when water level declines gradually; The plantation of floatingleaved plant can ensure that it adapts to SEA LEVEL VARIATION, can not be submerged lethal also can not because of lack of water undergrowth; Emergent aquactic plant is in dry season or reduce water level plantation, select suitable plantation point, the rudiment of emergent aquactic plant, growth can adapt to the change of rising that disappears of water level, plant has enough height to be submerged and lethal, if non-annual, the coming year goes up with water level also can sprout growth again, and continuation is good.Floating plant can not affect by water level, and fence ensures that it is housed in limited range.
As preferably, suitable water quality described in step 3) is: water pH value is between 6.0 ~ 9.0, and water body CODMn is less than 15, and water body salt content is less than 1.5 ‰, the plantation depth of water requires that with water transparency ratio be below 1:1, and the growth depth of water requires that with transparency ratio be below 2:1; Suitable earth thickness is: bed mud thickness requirement at more than 20cm, quality with as well soft, more than middle fertility.Such water quality and bed mud are applicable to the growth of water plants.
As preferably, the submerged plant described in step 4) select in black algae, eel grass, water caltrop, waterweed watermifoil one or more; Floatingleaved plant selects water lily, Gorgon fruit, the chrysanthemum fire hose, water opium poppy, one or more in spatterdock; Emergent aquactic plant selects that lotus, reed, again power flower, Hai Shouhua, yellow flag, cattail, parasol are careless, one or more in Lythrum salicaria; Floating plant select in Eichhornia crassipes, great Piao, water standing grain, frogbit one or more.These plants adapt to strong, strong stress resistance, growth is fast, are adapted at growing in the environment of falling zone.
As preferably, the specification of described submerged plant is: more than eel grass 6 leaf, and more than black algae 10 buds/clump, more than waterweed, water caltrop 4 buds/clump, p.malaianus 4 buds/clump, more than watermifoil 4 buds/clump; Floatingleaved plant specification: the long 5-8cm of water lily rhizome, the long 8-10cm of spatterdock rhizome, long more than the 50cm of chrysanthemum fire hose stem, water opium poppy 3-5 bud/clump; Emergent aquactic plant specification: lotus 3 saves kind of lotus root containing terminal bud, then power flower 6-10 bud/clump, sea longevity flower 3-5 bud/clump, yellow flag 3-5 bud/clump, Lythrum salicaria 3-6 bar/strain; Floating plant specification is: the long 40-50cm of water standing grain stem, and internode number 16-20 saves, root system 7 joint, and internode number 20-30 saves, and the fluffy footpath of large Piao is greater than 15cm, and phoenix eyes seedpod of the lotus footpath is greater than 20cm, the fluffy footpath 4-6cm of frogbit.
As preferably, in step 5), submerged plant planting density is: black algae 9-16 clump/m 2, watermifoil 6-10 clump/m 2, waterweed 25-35 clump/m 2, eel grass 16-25 clump/m 2, water caltrop 25-35 clump/m 2, planting patterns: the sowing of dormancy brood body, grafting or cuttage; Floatingleaved plant planting density: water lily 1 strain/m 2, spatterdock 1 strain/m 2, chrysanthemum fire hose 16-20 strain/m 2, gold and silver lotus flower 12-20 strain/m 2, water opium poppy 12-20 strain/m 2, Gorgon fruit 2 strains/10m 2, planting patterns: directly planting method, container planting method or container seedling planting method; Emergent aquactic plant planting density: lotus 2 strains/m 2, then power flower 3-4 clump/m 2, yellow flag 9-12 clump/m 2, sea longevity flower 9-10 clump/m 2, Lythrum salicaria 6-9 clump/m 2, reed 25-30 clump/m 2, cattail 25-30 clump/m 2, planting patterns: directly planting method, container planting method or container seedling planting method; Floating plant planting density: water standing grain 35-50 strain/m 2, great Piao 20-30 strain/m 2, Eichhornia crassipes 20-30 strain/m 2, frogbit 50-60 strain/m 2, planting patterns: seedling is evenly put into the water surface, handles with care, and guarantee that root system is complete, blade face is intact.
Submerged plant dormancy brood body seeding method sows before the budding period, and such as water caltrop is in the 10-11 month, and black algae was sowed in the 3-4 month.During sowing, the depth of water is within 10cm, and before sowing, seed wants vernalization to exposing white point, and mixing fine earth broadcasts sowing.Submerged plant grafting and cuttage, all carry out in vegetative period, and root system is directly planted in bed mud by grafting, planting depth 5cm ~ 10cm, and 2-3 joint, in direct clip cuttings in vegetative period, inserts in bed mud, compacting after inserting by cuttage.
Floatingleaved plant is planted at temperature 25 degrees centigrade, and the direct planting method of floatingleaved plant is directly planted in the bed mud of water body root system, rhizome etc., and bed mud thickness requirement is not less than 30cm; Floatingleaved plant container planting method is first planted in a reservoir at root system, rhizome etc., and band container submerged is also carried out fixing; Floatingleaved plant container seedling planting method is planted in the bed mud of water body after seedling is taken off basin.
The direct planting method of emergent aquactic plant, container planting method or container seedling planting method identical with floatingleaved plant.
Floating plant fence height is determined according to plant corpus size, water surface mobility size and stormy waves height etc., can prevent the unordered drift of floating plant and spread.
A kind of falling zone of the present invention water plants gradient configuration construction method, based on falling zone water level cycle variation law, depth of water adaptability according to water plants selects plant, and make the growth rhythm of plant be ahead of water level variation, make the growth change of water plants adapt to SEA LEVEL VARIATION, thus the Ecosystem Service of water plants is played, there is adaptation SEA LEVEL VARIATION, growth growing way is good, the advantage that sustainability is strong.
Embodiment
Below by embodiment, the present invention is described further.
A kind of falling zone water plants gradient configuration construction method, comprises the steps:
1) reconnoitre falling zone landform, transform its grade of side slope 45 degree;
2) grasp falling zone water level Seasonal Variation, measure ordinary water level, dry season and the same period water level to determine the various water plant planting time;
3) measure and select suitable water quality, bed mud thickness; Water pH value is 6.0, water body CODMn=10, water body salt content 2.0 ‰, and the plantation depth of water and transparency ratio are 0.8:1, and the growth depth of water and transparency ratio are 1.5:1; Bed mud thickness 25, quality is soft, more than middle fertility;
4) select plant, with the aquatic adaptability of water plants for foundation, selection adaptation be strong, strong stress resistance, submerged plant that growth is fast, floating plant, floatingleaved plant, emergent aquactic plant; Submerged plant chooses eel grass, black algae, watermifoil, and wherein eel grass rhizome diameter is greater than 6cm, and black algae specification is more than 10 buds/clump, and watermifoil specification is more than 6 buds/clump;
Floatingleaved plant is selected: water lily, spatterdock, gold and silver lotus flower, the long 5-8cm of water lily rhizome, the long 8-10cm of spatterdock rhizome, gold and silver lotus flower 5 buds/clump;
Emergent aquactic plant is selected: lotus, Hai Shouhua, yellow flag, and wherein lotus 3 saves kind of lotus root containing terminal bud, and the sea longevity spends 5 buds/clump, yellow flag 5 buds/clump;
Floating plant is selected: water standing grain, Eichhornia crassipes, large Piao, the long 40-50cm of water standing grain stem, internode number 16-20 saves, root system 7 joint, and internode number 20-30 saves, and the fluffy footpath of large Piao is greater than 15cm, and phoenix eyes seedpod of the lotus footpath is greater than 20cm.
5) plantation construction: submerged plant: can plant when water level is lower, chooses plantation point and is less than the plantation of 20cm place to water surface distance; Eel grass planting density 20 clumps/m 2, black algae 9-16 clump/m 2, watermifoil 6-10 clump/m 2,eel grass uses the plantation of dormancy brood body seeding method, and black algae, watermifoil use grafting plantation.
Floatingleaved plant: choose plantation point and be less than the plantation of 30cm place to water surface distance; Water lily planting density 1 strain/m2, spatterdock 1 strain/m2, gold and silver lotus flower 12-20 strain/m2, water lily and spatterdock adopt the sowing of dormancy brood body, and gold and silver lotus flower adopts grafting plantation.
Emergent aquactic plant: in plantation in dry season in spring, plantation point is to water surface distance 10-15cm, and plantation point is less than 55cm with ordinary water level water surface distance; Lotus planting density 2 strains/m 2, yellow flag 9-12 clump/m 2, sea longevity flower 9-10 clump/m 2, all adopt grafting plantation.
Floating plant: plantation, not by the restriction of water level, with going along with sb. to guard him stable breeding, goes along with sb. to guard him height higher than water surface 10-20cm.Water standing grain planting density 35-50 strain/m 2, great Piao 20-30 strain/m 2, Eichhornia crassipes 20-30 strain/m 2.
The maintenance management of above falling zone water plants:
Fertilising, the plant of novel species is not generally applied fertilizer.When growing more weak, can optionally suitably apply fertilizer.Foundation is topdressed: select plant desired nutritional element, be wrapped in non-woven fabrics, imbed corresponding fertilizer around foundation.
Delete and cut, during routine servicing operation, tackle withered and yellow, withered and lodging plant prune in time, overstocked plant should be cooked suitably to delete and cut.Before sprouting to the beginning of spring after Winter Solstice, the withered branches and leaves of reply carry out deleting cutting.After-culture, needs the timely after-culture of defect plant according to view.
Safeguard measure, not affecting under landscape conditions, arranges envelope network, places floatingleaved plant drift and escapes.
This technical operation is simple, mainly grasps water level variation, according to the growth characteristics of plant, at lowstand period planting plants, makes the vigorous period of plant before ordinary water level, make the growth rhythm of plant be ahead of water level variation.According to this technology, make plant growth at relatively suitable water level.The ecological functions of plant are effectively played.
Be only preferred embodiment of the present invention in sum, be not used for limiting practical range of the present invention, all equivalences done according to the content of the application's the scope of the claims change and modify, and all should be technology category of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. a falling zone water plants gradient configuration construction method, is characterized in that: comprise the steps: 1) prospecting falling zone landform, transform its grade of side slope and be less than 60 degree;
2) grasp falling zone water level Seasonal Variation, measure ordinary water level, dry season and the same period water level to determine the various water plant planting time;
3) measure and select suitable water quality, bed mud thickness;
4) select plant, with the depth of water adaptability of water plants for foundation, selection adaptation be strong, strong stress resistance, submerged plant that growth is fast, floating plant, floatingleaved plant, emergent aquactic plant;
5) plantation construction: submerged plant: can plant when water level is lower, chooses plantation point and plants when water surface distance is less than 30cm; Floatingleaved plant: choose plantation point and plant when water surface distance is less than 30cm; Emergent aquactic plant: in plantation in dry season, plantation point is to water surface distance 10-15cm, and plantation point is less than 55cm with ordinary water level water surface distance; Floating plant: plantation, not by the restriction of water level, with going along with sb. to guard him stable breeding, goes along with sb. to guard him height higher than water surface 10-20cm.
2. a kind of falling zone according to claim 1 water plants gradient configuration construction method, it is characterized in that: the suitable water quality described in step 3) is: water pH value is between 6.0 ~ 9.0, water body CODMn is less than 15, water body salt content is less than 2 ‰, the plantation depth of water requires that with water transparency ratio be below 1:1, and the growth depth of water requires that with transparency ratio be below 2:1; Suitable earth thickness is: bed mud thickness requirement at more than 20cm, quality with as well soft, more than middle fertility.
3. a kind of falling zone according to claim 1 water plants gradient configuration construction method, is characterized in that: the submerged plant described in step 4) select in black algae, eel grass, water caltrop, waterweed, p.malaianus, watermifoil one or more; Floatingleaved plant selects water lily, Gorgon fruit, the chrysanthemum fire hose, water opium poppy, spatterdock, one or more in gold and silver lotus flower; Emergent aquactic plant selects lotus, reed, again power flower, Hai Shouhua, yellow flag, cattail, Lythrum salicaria, one or more in wild rice; Floating plant select in Eichhornia crassipes, great Piao, water standing grain frogbit one or more.
4. a kind of falling zone according to claim 3 water plants gradient configuration construction method, it is characterized in that: the specification of described submerged plant is: more than eel grass 6 leaf, more than black algae 10 buds/clump, more than waterweed, water caltrop 4 buds/clump, p.malaianus 4 buds/clump, more than watermifoil 4 buds/clump; Floatingleaved plant specification: the long 5-8cm of water lily rhizome, the long 8-10cm of spatterdock rhizome, long more than the 50cm of chrysanthemum fire hose stem, water opium poppy 3-5 bud/clump; Emergent aquactic plant specification: lotus 3 saves kind of lotus root containing terminal bud, then power flower 6-10 bud/clump, sea longevity flower 3-5 bud/clump, yellow flag 3-5 bud/clump, Lythrum salicaria 3-6 bar/strain; Floating plant specification is: the long 40-50cm of water standing grain stem, and internode number 16-20 saves, root system 7 joint, and internode number 20-30 saves, and the fluffy footpath of large Piao is greater than 15cm, and phoenix eyes seedpod of the lotus footpath is greater than 20cm, the fluffy footpath 4-6cm of frogbit.
5. a kind of falling zone according to claim 3 water plants gradient configuration construction method, is characterized in that: in step 5), submerged plant planting density is: black algae 9-16 clump/m 2, watermifoil 6-10 clump/m 2, waterweed 25-35 clump/m 2, eel grass 16-25 clump/m 2, water caltrop 25-35 clump/m 2, planting patterns: the sowing of dormancy brood body, grafting or cuttage; Floatingleaved plant planting density: water lily 1 strain/m 2, spatterdock 1 strain/m 2, chrysanthemum fire hose 16-20 strain/m 2, gold and silver lotus flower 12-20 strain/m 2, water opium poppy 12-20 clump/m 2, Gorgon fruit 2 strains/10m 2, planting patterns: directly planting method, container planting method or container seedling planting method; Emergent aquactic plant planting density: lotus 2 strains/m 2, then power flower 3-4 clump/m 2, yellow flag 9-12 clump/m 2, sea longevity flower 9-10 clump/m 2, Lythrum salicaria 6-9 clump/m 2, reed 25-30 clump/m 2, cattail 25-30 clump/m 2, planting patterns: directly planting method, container planting method or container seedling planting method; Floating plant planting density: water standing grain 35-50 strain/m 2, great Piao 20-30 strain/m 2, Eichhornia crassipes 20-30 strain/m 2, frogbit 50-60 strain/m 2, planting patterns: seedling is evenly put into the water surface, handles with care, and guarantee that root system is complete, blade face is intact.
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CN107409720A (en) * 2017-08-25 2017-12-01 重庆市风景园林科学研究院 A kind of falling zone ecological restoring method
CN108293660A (en) * 2018-02-02 2018-07-20 吉林师范大学 A kind of inland sabkha ring-band shape phytobiocoenose restoration methods
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CN111705743A (en) * 2020-05-25 2020-09-25 杭州易大景观设计有限公司 Water shoreline configuration method with purification function

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106613092A (en) * 2016-10-11 2017-05-10 中国科学院武汉植物园 Plant community establishing method for city waterscape ecological embankment
CN107409720A (en) * 2017-08-25 2017-12-01 重庆市风景园林科学研究院 A kind of falling zone ecological restoring method
CN108293660A (en) * 2018-02-02 2018-07-20 吉林师范大学 A kind of inland sabkha ring-band shape phytobiocoenose restoration methods
CN108551947A (en) * 2018-02-27 2018-09-21 淳安县新安江开发总公司 Endure the care method of water tree kind stem adventitious root in falling zone
CN108901723A (en) * 2018-07-03 2018-11-30 安徽大学 A kind of intercropping method of emergent aquactic plant
CN109729931A (en) * 2018-12-29 2019-05-10 内蒙古蒙草生态环境(集团)股份有限公司 A kind of building method in flood discharge buffering lake
CN110002705A (en) * 2019-04-10 2019-07-12 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所 The endogenous nitrogen load cutting method of lakeside zone bed mud based on water-level fluctuation
CN111705743A (en) * 2020-05-25 2020-09-25 杭州易大景观设计有限公司 Water shoreline configuration method with purification function

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