CN105241454A  System and method for pedestrian navigation based on multiple sensors  Google Patents
System and method for pedestrian navigation based on multiple sensors Download PDFInfo
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 CN105241454A CN105241454A CN201510695799.5A CN201510695799A CN105241454A CN 105241454 A CN105241454 A CN 105241454A CN 201510695799 A CN201510695799 A CN 201510695799A CN 105241454 A CN105241454 A CN 105241454A
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Classifications

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01C—MEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
 G01C21/00—Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00  G01C19/00
 G01C21/10—Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00  G01C19/00 by using measurements of speed or acceleration
 G01C21/12—Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00  G01C19/00 by using measurements of speed or acceleration executed aboard the object being navigated; Dead reckoning
 G01C21/16—Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00  G01C19/00 by using measurements of speed or acceleration executed aboard the object being navigated; Dead reckoning by integrating acceleration or speed, i.e. inertial navigation
 G01C21/165—Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00  G01C19/00 by using measurements of speed or acceleration executed aboard the object being navigated; Dead reckoning by integrating acceleration or speed, i.e. inertial navigation combined with noninertial navigation instruments

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01S—RADIO DIRECTIONFINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCEDETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
 G01S19/00—Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
 G01S19/38—Determining a navigation solution using signals transmitted by a satellite radio beacon positioning system
 G01S19/39—Determining a navigation solution using signals transmitted by a satellite radio beacon positioning system the satellite radio beacon positioning system transmitting timestamped messages, e.g. GPS [Global Positioning System], GLONASS [Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System] or GALILEO
 G01S19/42—Determining position
 G01S19/48—Determining position by combining or switching between position solutions derived from the satellite radio beacon positioning system and position solutions derived from a further system
 G01S19/49—Determining position by combining or switching between position solutions derived from the satellite radio beacon positioning system and position solutions derived from a further system whereby the further system is an inertial position system, e.g. looselycoupled
Abstract
Description
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of navigation technology, particularly based on the pedestrian navigation network system realization of multisensor.
Background technology
Many activities of the mankind as ground observation, other places go on business, Scene Tourist etc. is not complete in fixing place, when we are in, just to seem particularly to the demand of position & navigation information in foreign environment urgent.Pedestrian navigation system can measure the action message of pedestrian by handheld or Wearable sensor combinations module, resolve, finally determine real time position and the speed of pedestrian via navigational computer.
The pedestrian navigation system major part of current development is equipped with the GPS device for navigating, but the motion feature of pedestrian is complicated, motion path has unpredictability, when being in the lane, street in city, indoor, underground installation and dense woods region, the navigation performance of GPS will reduce significantly, cannot normal position & navigation.Just need to adopt integrated positioning and airmanship to be assisted to realize independent navigation, minimizing external interference etc.
Pedestrian navigation system is based on newton law of inertia, with MEMS inertial sensor for core devices, the multiplesensor integration system be made up of mems accelerometer, MEMS gyro instrument, three axle magnetic compasses, barometer, temperature sensor etc., for realizing light, reliable position & navigation function.Complete independent positioning and navigation are carried out to personnel motion trail, be applicable to complete position & navigation task when gps signal is blocked by buildings or dense vegetation, until gps signal recovers normal, reach the object that assistant GPS completes location and navigation, be specially adapted to individualsoldier system, also can be applicable in the equipment configurations of People's Armed Police, fire fighters.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve the technical matters existed in prior art, the invention provides a kind of pedestrian navigation system organically blended by the multisensor informations such as GPS, MEMS gyro instrument, mems accelerometer, magnetic compass, barometer and thermometer of design, there is light, reliable position & navigation function.Also the task of personnel motion trail being carried out to complete independent positioning and navigation can be completed when gps signal is blocked by buildings or dense vegetation.While ensureing degree of accuracy, greatly reduce the complexity that algorithm calculates, pedestrian navigation positioning function can be realized accurately in real time in actual environment.
In order to realize abovementioned technical purpose, technical scheme of the present invention is:
Pedestrian navigation system, primarily of sensor assembly, signal processing module, navigation computer module and output display terminal four part composition, should be fixed on the ankle position of pedestrian based on the pedestrian navigation system of multisensor.Sensor assembly is made up of GPS, three single shaft mems accelerometers, three single shaft MEMS gyro instrument, three axle magnetic compasses, barometric altimeter and temperature sensors etc.In the outdoor of spaciousness, no signal is blocked, and now pedestrian navigation system adopts GPS device to carry out navigator fix; When being in the particular surroundingss such as indoor, gps signal lost efficacy, then merge the technical method of multisensor, carry out dead reckoning, calculate pedestrian at threedimensional movement locus.The algorithm of the present invention involved by indoor navigation has: paces detect, course calculates and altitude location, the Data Detection of MEMS accelerograph collection is utilized to go out the paces number of pedestrian in indoor walking, MEMS gyro instrument and magnetic compass simple combination calculate the course of pedestrian's walking, can be realized the pedestrian movement's trajectory calculation in plane by meter step number and course, mems accelerometer and barometer combine and obtain the movement locus of pedestrian in short transverse.
1, calculate pedestrian movement's track in plane mainly to solve paces and to detect and course calculates two parts problem, the last effective position location information of the lower GPS of pedestrian navigation system accounting record, and as plane motion track t _{0}initial value (the X in moment _{0}, Y _{0}).By the distance S that measurement row people walks _{0}and azimuth angle theta _{0}, subsequent time t can be extrapolated _{1}position, S _{0}and θ _{0}represent that pedestrian is from t respectively _{0}moment position (X _{0}, Y _{0}) walk t _{1}moment position (X _{1}, Y _{1}) displacement and absolute course.So pedestrian is at moment t _{k}movement locus can be expressed as: , , wherein, X _{k}represent the position of k moment Xdirection, X _{k1}represent the position of k1 moment Xdirection, Y _{k}represent the position of k moment Ydirection, Y _{k1}represent the position of k1 moment Ydirection, S _{k}represent the displacement between the k1 moment to k moment.S _{k}=n _{k1}p _{k1}, n _{k1}represent the paces number of walking between the k1 moment to k moment, P _{k1}represent steplength, θ _{k}for course angle.
(1) paces detection can by carrying out a series of digital filtering, peakvalue's checking, dynamic threshold, dynamic accuracy to the acceleration evaluation gathered, and paces count, get rid of invalid paces counting etc. arranges and obtains Steps.
1. in order to make the signal waveform of accelerometer more level and smooth, " data smoothing algorithm " can be applied and carry out digital filtering.It is in the onedimension array of 100 that first step continuous acquisition 100 data points leave capacity in; Second step is shifted to array from high to low successively, removes No. 0 element of data, by the most significant digit of the deposit data of uptodate collection in array; 3rd step is averaged to this 100 number, is filtered data.Followup often collection second and third step of Data duplication can realize digital filtering.
2. determine dynamic threshold, pedestrian navigation system often samples the data of No. 100 accelerometers by the maximal value of renewal 3 axle acceleration and minimum value, and its mean value is called " dynamic threshold ".
3. dynamic accuracy precision [i] is determined, first the peaktopeak value Vpp [i] of 3 axes accelerometers in these 100 times samplings is calculated, then dynamic accuracy is obtained by peaktopeak value, wherein i=0,1,2, expression is the acceleration of 3 axis, wherein Y1 ~ Y3, X1 ~ X4 are experience exercise values, and Y1>Y2>Y3>, X1>X2>X3>X4, needs the worth situation of change by gathering repeatedly accelerometer to determine.
If Vpp [i] >=Y1, so precision [i]=X1;
If Y2≤Vpp [i] < is Y1, so precision [i]=X2;
If Y3≤Vpp [i] < is Y2, so precision [i]=X3;
Otherwise precision [i]=X4.
4. paces counting, mainly be divided into three steps: linear displacement eliminates high frequency noise, define two new array old_fixed [3] and new_fixed [3], value when new sampled data arrives in new_fixed [i] unconditionally moves in old_fixed [i], if corresponding axial acceleration information change is more than or equal to predefine precision precision [i] simultaneously, to be moved in new_fixed [i], otherwise the value in new_fixed [i] will remain unchanged; The peakvalue's checking of 3 axes accelerometers, judges x, and y, z triaxle that acceleration change is maximum in axle is as current effective meter step axle; Dynamic threshold is adjudicated, and accelerating curve strides across dynamic threshold dc [i], and the slope of accelerating curve is negative value, and the paces number Steps of meter step register is by increase by step.
5. invalid paces counting is got rid of, real rhythmical paces must be found to get rid of invalid vibration, the velocity that usual people are the fastest is 5 steps per second, and the slowest walking speed is every 2 seconds 1 steps, and the time interval of such two effective paces is within time window [0.2s2.0s].But have employed the sampling rate (5ms) of 200Hz in this meter step algorithm, if the data break of two paces is between 40 ~ 400, then the time between two steps of illustrating is within valid window.
Steplength is more doubt variable in pedestrian navigation system, not only varies with each individual, also because of time and different, vary in different localities, this patent adopts and estimates initial value, and the method for online tuning correction obtains, suppose that the moving step sizes of pedestrian is L, then in pedestrian navigation system, the relative shift of pedestrian is S _{k}=n _{k1}p _{k1}=Steps × L.
(2) course angle θ _{k}calculating whether is according to motion course the course that larger change state comes choice for use gyroscope integration course or choice for use magnetic compass.Certain threshold value is set, if when the integration of gyro data is greater than this threshold value in the current short time, then can thinks that motion course is in variable condition, select gyro data integral and calculating current course value; Otherwise, if when the integration of gyro data is less than this threshold value in the current short time, then thinks that motion course is in stable or less variable condition, adopt magnetic compass data to calculate current course value.
2, height and position H _{k}calculating is obtained by vertical direction accelerometer and barometer simple combination, first obtains elemental height H by barometer _{0}, then use the increment △ H in the acceleration information computed altitude direction of vertical direction, i.e. H _{k}=H _{k1}+ △ H, H in formula _{k}for the height in k moment, H _{k1}for the height in k1 moment.
the advantage of the invention and the effect reached:
(1) this patent merges multisensor information and builds pedestrian navigation system, overcome rely on single gps signal indoor or have a shelter time performance reduce, cannot the inferior position of normal navigation and location.
(2) the multisensor pedestrian navigation system be made up of MEMS gyro instrument, mems accelerometer, magnetic compass and barometer, meets the requirement that personal navigation instrument volume is little, cost is low, is more suitable for the pedestrian navigation scheme of walking.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 pedestrian navigation System Working Principle figure;
Fig. 2 digital filter;
Fig. 3 course angle correction process flow diagram;
Fig. 4 rectilinear line test trails figure;
Fig. 5 goes upstairs test trails figure.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the invention will be further described.Following examples only for technical scheme of the present invention is clearly described, and can not limit the scope of the invention with this.
Pedestrian navigation system forms primarily of sensor assembly, signal processing module, navigation computer module and output display terminal four part.This patent merges multisensor information and builds pedestrian navigation system, overcome rely on single gps signal indoor or have a shelter time performance reduce, cannot the inferior position of normal navigation and location, its principle of work as shown in Figure 1.
When pedestrian steps into building or have buildings to block, gps signal lost efficacy and just cannot normally locate, the last effective position location information of the lower GPS of now pedestrian navigation system accounting record, and as t _{0}initial value (the X in moment _{0}, Y _{0}).By the distance S that measurement row people walks _{0}and azimuth angle theta _{0}, subsequent time t can be extrapolated _{1}position, S _{0}and θ _{0}represent that pedestrian is from t respectively _{0}moment position (X _{0}, Y _{0}) walk t _{1}moment position (X _{1}, Y _{1}) displacement and absolute course.So pedestrian is at t _{k}moment movement locus can be expressed as: , .But the travel distance of pedestrian is difficult to directly directly be measured by sensor, is also not easy to calculate according to the mode of integrated acceleration, therefore in pedestrian navigation system, the main product of step number and steplength that adopts obtains relative shift, that is: S _{k}=n _{k1}p _{k1}, in formula, n _{k1}represent the step number of walking, P _{k1}represent steplength.Step number can by carrying out a series of digital filtering to the acceleration evaluation gathered, peakvalue's checking, dynamic threshold, dynamic accuracy, paces count, get rid of invalid paces counting etc. processes and obtains, steplength is more doubt variable in pedestrian navigation system, not only vary with each individual, also because of time and different, vary in different localities, often adopt and estimate initial value, the method for online tuning correction obtains.Course angle θ _{k}calculating whether is in larger change state according to motion course to come choice for use gyroscope integration course or choice for use magnetic course.Height H _{k}positional information is obtained by vertical direction accelerometer and barometer simple combination, first obtains initial height position information H by barometer _{0}, then use the increment △ H in the accekeration computed altitude direction of vertical direction.
(1) the relative displacement P of pedestrian in indoor walking is calculated _{k}
Pedestrian navigation system involved by this patent is the ankle position being worn on pedestrian, and pedestrian in the process of walking navigational computer obtains the paces number n of walking by processing in three axes accelerometers the axis value with relatively large periodic accelerations change _{k1}.
(1) in order to make the signal waveform of accelerometer more level and smooth, " data smoothing algorithm " can be applied and carry out digital filtering, as shown in Figure 2.It is in the onedimension array of 100 that first step continuous acquisition 100 data points leave capacity in; Second step is shifted to array from high to low successively, removes No. 0 element of data, by the most significant digit of the deposit data of uptodate collection in array; 3rd step is averaged to this 100 number, is filtered data.Followup often collection second and third step of Data duplication can realize digital filtering.
(2) dynamic threshold is determined.Pedestrian navigation system is often sampled and is upgraded maximal value and the minimum value of 3 axle accelerations for 100 times, and the two mean value is called " dynamic threshold ", leaves in the array of dc [3].Ensuing 100 samplings utilize this threshold value to judge whether wearer steps paces, simultaneously in these 100 times samplings the maximal value of generation and the mean value of minimum value again as " dynamic threshold " next time.
dc[i]=(Max[i]+Min[i])/2；
Vpp[i]=Max[i]Min[i]。
Wherein i=0,1,2, expression is the acceleration of 3 axis.Deposit " dynamic threshold " in dc [i], deposit the difference of the maxima and minima of 3 axial accelerations upgraded for 100 times of often sampling in Vpp [i], i.e. peaktopeak value.
(3) dynamic accuracy precision [i] is determined.
If Vpp [i] >=Y1, so precision [i]=X1;
If Y2≤Vpp [i] < is Y1, so precision [i]=X2;
If Y3≤Vpp [i] < is Y2, so precision [i]=X3;
Otherwise precision [i]=X4.
Wherein i=0,1,2, expression is the acceleration of 3 axis.Y1 ~ Y3, X1 ~ X4 are experience exercise values, and Y1>Y2>Y3>, X1>X2>X3>X4, needs the worth situation of change by gathering repeatedly accelerometer to determine.
(4) meter step algorithm carries out paces counting.
1. eliminate high frequency noise by linear displacement, first define two new array old_fixed [3] and new_fixed [3], new sampled data leaves in array adresult [3].Value when new sampled data arrives in new_fixed [i] unconditionally moves in old_fixed [i].But whether new sampled data moves into new_fixed [i] depends on whether corresponding axial acceleration change is more than or equal to dynamic accuracy precision [i], the sampled result uptodate if satisfied condition will be moved in new_fixed [i], otherwise the value in new_fixed [i] will remain unchanged.
old_fixed[i]=new_fixed[i]；
If abs(new_fixed [i]adresult [i]) >=precision [i], then new_fixed [i]=adresult [i].
2. the peakvalue's checking of 3 axial acceleration data, meter step algorithm will walk according to carrying out meter according to x, y, z trinumber of axle that acceleration change is maximum in axle.
Vpp [0] >=Vpp [1] & & Vpp [0] >=Vpp [2], xaxis acceleration change is maximum, will as calculating axle;
Vpp [1] >=Vpp [0] & & Vpp [1] >=Vpp [2], yaxis acceleration change is maximum, will as calculating axle;
Vpp [2] >=Vpp [0] & & Vpp [2] >=Vpp [1], zaxis acceleration change is maximum, will as calculating axle.
3. dynamic threshold judgement, calculates axle acceleration curve and stride across dynamic threshold dc [i], and the slope of accelerating curve is negative value, and meter step register Steps is by increase by step.
old_fixed[i]≥dc[i]&&new_fixed[i]＜dc[i]
Wherein i is x, y, z triaxle that acceleration change is maximum in axle.
(5) invalid paces counting is got rid of.In order to prevent the reason outside due to walking or running; acceleration is very fast or when slowly vibrating; also can think that it is a step; just must find real rhythmical paces, adopt pre_count and new_count register to record previous paces respectively and always upgrade number and current pace always upgrades number.Suppose that the velocity that people are the fastest is 5 steps per second, the slowest walking speed is every 2 seconds 1 steps, and the time interval of such two effective paces is within time window [0.2s2.0s].But have employed the sampling rate (5ms) of 200Hz in this meter step algorithm, if be interposed between 40 ~ 400 between two paces, then the time between two steps of illustrating is within valid window.
If 40≤(new_count – new_count)≤400, then new_count=pre_count;
Otherwise new_count=pre_count, Steps=Steps1.
Steplength is more doubt variable in pedestrian navigation system, adopts and estimates initial value, and the method for online tuning correction obtains, and supposes that the training pace of certain tester is L, so to sum up can obtain the paces parameter n of current time _{k1}=Steps, steplength P _{k1}=L, the relative shift S of pedestrian _{k}=n _{k1}p _{k1}=Steps × L.
(2) the course angle θ of pedestrian's walking is calculated _{k}
The method calculating course in this patent adopts the simple combination method being used alternatingly gyroscope and magnetic compass, whether is according to motion course the course that larger change state comes choice for use gyro data integration course or choice for use magnetic compass.Due to gyro data, integral contrast is accurate at short notice, and magnetic compass data are comparatively accurate under longtime stable state.So when motion course is in change state, then gyro data integration is obtained the course angle of course as current dead reckoning of moving; When motion course is in stable or less variable condition, then using the course angle of the motion course of magnetic compass data as current dead reckoning.Situation for the change of motion course can be judged by gyrostatic short time integration, and certain threshold value is set, if when in the current short time, the integration of gyro data is greater than this threshold value, then judge that motion course is in variable condition, otherwise, if when the integration of gyro data is less than or equal to this threshold value in the current short time, then judge that motion course is in stable or less variable condition.Concrete combined method flow process is as shown in Figure 3:
(3) planar line walk test (E, N)
Do not consider GPS last effective location data during demonstration test, initial value is set to (0.0,0.0) unit rice, i.e. X _{0}=0.0, Y _{0}=0.0, concrete computing formula is as follows. , , as shown in Figure 4, the terminal that algorithm calculates is positioning error with the distance that differs between starting point to experimental results, negligible within experiment allowed band.
(4) calculate pedestrian in room walking height and position H _{k}
In this patent, chamber height positional information is obtained by vertical direction accelerometer and barometer simple combination, first obtains initial height position information H by barometer _{0}, then use the increment △ H in the accekeration computed altitude direction of vertical direction.Adopt array Accz [3] to deposit 3 continuous print accelerometer datas, wherein Accz [1] is the current data that will judge to process.Also there is effective and invalid vibration in stair climbing process simultaneously, this just needs to get rid of invalid vibration by " data window ", always upgrade total renewal number when number and current time are topped bar when once topping bar before register T and t records respectively, h_flag represents current effective marker of topping bar.
If Accz [1] >=K1 & & Accz [1]≤K2 & & Accz [1] >=Accz [0] & & Accz [1] >=Accz [2] & & M≤(tT)≤N, then T=t, h_flag=1;
Otherwise h_flag=0.
Wherein K1, K2, M, the setting of N is different because of people and equipment, need to be obtained by many experiments, minimum acceleration when wherein K1 represents that pedestrian tops bar, peak acceleration when K2 represents that pedestrian tops bar, M represents that the slowest time that pedestrian steps to a new level, N represent the fastest time that pedestrian steps to a new level.When judging next group data, need to carry out shifting function to the data in array Accz [3], the accelerometer data of the vertical direction of uptodate collection is deposited in i.e. Accz [0]=Accz [1], Accz [1]=Accz [2], Accz [2].The increment △ H=h_flag × h in present level direction, h represents the average height of single step.
Elemental height H when definition pedestrian begin column is walked _{0}, the height of subsequent time is H _{1}, then the height of subsequent time is H _{2}, analogize in proper order, the height in k moment is H _{k}, the moving track calculation method of short transverse is H _{1}=H _{0}+ △ H, H _{2}=H _{1}+ △ H ..., H _{k}=H _{k1}+ △ H, concrete test findings as shown in Figure 5.
The above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention; it should be pointed out that for those skilled in the art, under the prerequisite not departing from the technology of the present invention principle; can also make some improvement and distortion, these improve and distortion also should be considered as protection scope of the present invention.
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