CN105210827B - Phase in early spring Yew cuttage method for culturing seedlings - Google Patents

Phase in early spring Yew cuttage method for culturing seedlings Download PDF

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CN105210827B
CN105210827B CN201510639316.XA CN201510639316A CN105210827B CN 105210827 B CN105210827 B CN 105210827B CN 201510639316 A CN201510639316 A CN 201510639316A CN 105210827 B CN105210827 B CN 105210827B
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cuttage
branch
mud
bed
matrix
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CN105210827A (en
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马维成
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Gansu Senmao agriculture and Forestry Technology Development Co.,Ltd.
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马维成
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G5/00Fertilisers characterised by their form
    • C05G5/40Fertilisers incorporated into a matrix
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10Process efficiency
    • Y02P20/133Renewable energy sources, e.g. sunlight

Abstract

The invention discloses phase in early spring Yew cuttage method for culturing seedlings, including step:1) select to cuttage;2) fatten to cuttage and desinsection;3) bed is built:According to cuttage landform, at least two cutting beds are built into hollow brick, cutting bed is above ground level, and pavement is set between cutting bed and cutting bed;4) matrix is backfilled;5) canopy is built;6) gather and handle cuttage bar:No disease and pests harm, robust growth elite stand on gather the branch of then raw semi-lignified, the branch sheared is classified binding, then dips compounding mud;After branch is taken out from mud, mud one end is not dipped in paraffin closing branch, mud end is exposed, and is placed 2~3 days, hestening rooting;7) cuttage:By in the insertion cutting medium handled well, after the completion of cuttage, with blank space between rice straw mulching branch;8) manage and protect.The inventive method is simple to operate, and expense cost is low, and rooting rate is fast, and survival rate is high, and seedling quality is high, can implement in winter snow-up terrain.

Description

Phase in early spring Yew cuttage method for culturing seedlings
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of plant growing technology, specifically phase in early spring Yew cuttage method for culturing seedlings.
Background technology
Chinese yew also known as yew, " living fossil " being referred to as in vegetable kingdom, because of its resource scarcity, it is rare to be listed in the world Seeds are protected by.Chinese yew integrates medicinal, timber-used, viewed and admired, and has high value of exploiting and utilizing.From bark of Ramulus et folium taxi cuspidatae It is anticarcinogen generally acknowledged in the world with the taxol extracted in branches and leaves, taxol is used to treat advanced breast cancer, lung cancer, oophoroma And incidence cancer, soft tissue cancer and digestive system cancer;Branches and leaves of yew is used to treat leukaemia, ephritis, diabetes and more capsules Nephrosis.Chinese yew natural resources is deficient, and medicine source is in short supply, it is often more important that and under field conditions (factors), growth of taxol speed is slow, then Raw ability, various regions are all carrying out extensive research and development to it.
At present, artificial growth Chinese yew broadcasts two methods of nursery and cuttage and seedling culture including seed, and seed broadcasts nursery and following lack be present Point:1) Chinese yew seed has to pass through the dormancy awakening phase, and the cycle is longer;2) protection of artificial treatment seed hull is had to pass through Layer, is otherwise not easy to germinate, not only time-consuming but also increase cost;3) seed, which is broadcast, to be carried out after the beginning of spring, and the good temperature of GPRS and wet Degree, otherwise seed does not germinate or rotted, and survival rate is low.Therefore, cuttage and seedling culture is because of the advantages that time saving and energy saving, expense is low, survival rate is high, Paid close attention to by people.In recent years, cuttage and seedling culture breed Chinese yew report it is more, include dry bed cutting seedling, nutritive cube skewer Nursery and hotbed cuttage and seedling culture etc. are inserted, as the A of patent CN 103109666 disclose Chinese yew dry-bed cutting seedling method, is disclosed " including step:1) prepare to educate bed:Selection humidity contains acid plot 40%, is organized into and educates bed, then covers educating a surface 3cm thick dry loess or sandy soil are covered, dry loess or sandy soil must be loosely in small, broken bits, and clear by 1 with one before cuttage:500 Ratio is diluted with water, and is sprayed with sprayer and is carried out soil deinsectization processing;2) branch is selected:From the Chinese yew of more than the 7 years age of trees On cut 1~2 year raw no disease and pests harm branch, select the branch of even thickness to be cut into 5~6cm small limb, protected on small limb Stay 3 small branch;3) pre-treatment is inserted:1 is pressed with the methyl α-naphthyl acetate of content 50%:500 ratio is configured to treatment fluid after being diluted with water, The small limb sheared in step 2) is put into treatment fluid and soaked 3~5 minutes;4) cuttage on the spot:What is soaked in step 3) Small limb inserting step 1) in it is ready educate on bed, and cuttage it is complete after can not water;5) sterilized after inserting:With content 25% Prochloraz presses 1:2000 ratio is diluted with water, then presses 1 with the carbendazim of content 50%:500 ratio is diluted with water, and is used respectively Sprayer is sprayed in sprig cured leaf face, sterilize and fresh-keeping;6) heat and moisture preserving:After cuttage, made on bed is educated of bamboo strip Overarch hut, then with covered rearing with plastic film good seal;7) follow-up management:The Chinese yew of cuttage took root at 50~60 days, treated The fork that sends forth branches can progressively remove film, and water in good time " dry bed cutting seedling method, the method shortens the dormancy awakening phase, The survival rate of Chinese yew is improved, and is advanced by the result time of Chinese yew significantly.But due to using dry loess or sandy soil as educating Bed, and be watered and handled with insecticide, in actual mechanical process, water consumption controls improper easily cause to educate bed board knot, and And do not carry out seedbed fattening during cuttage and seedling culture, and the problem of subalimentation occurs unavoidably, it is often more important that, this method will Cuttage after branch is handled with single root-growing agent, and sterilization processing is carried out after cuttage, although only handling branch with root-growing agent Also can hestening rooting, but the control of root-growing agent dosage is improper to produce irreversible damage to branch, and root-growing agent is adhered to branch On bar, during cuttage due to soil dilution influence.The A of patent CN 103283460 disclose the cuttage of Taxus x media Method, disclose " including step:1) selection on cuttage ground:Physical features is flat for selection, wind sheltering, have abundant water resources, illumination is few and manager Just place;2) bed is built:Surrounding on cuttage ground is built into cutting bed with fragment of brick, and cutting bed is above ground level, cutting bed and cutting bed Between pavement is set;3) cutting medium in cutting bed is mixed by perlite and turfy soil, and is sprayed on cutting medium Carbendazim solution carries out disinfection;4) no disease and pests harm, robust growth elite stand on gather the branch of then raw semi-lignified, will Cuttings is made in branch, and the lower cut of cuttings is angular cut or circle otch, and top retains a complete band leaf branch section, by cuttings bottom 2/3 blade removal;5) the cuttings base portion after processing is soaked 2~2.5 hours with ABT1 rooting powder solutions, soaking depth is 2~3cm;6) cuttings is inserted in cutting medium, has often inserted one plant of cuttings and poured a water, and lid plastic canopy enters above cuttings The cuttage and seedling culture method of row shade, and carry out the management such as moisture, air humidity, temperature ", party's normal direction educate in bed backfill cuttage base Seedling management after matter, and cuttage, ensure the survival rate of cuttage, but due to being watered leaching root processing using single root-growing agent, still The risk that root-growing agent dosage is difficult to control and damages branch be present, although this method has carried out water and fertilizer management in seedling stage, chasing after When fertile and insecticidal bactericide is not added with, the risk that pollution nursery stock be present.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to:Offer one kind is taken root, and fast, nursery stock is healthy and strong, pest and disease damage incidence is low, land utilization ratio is high Yew cuttage method for culturing seedlings, root-growing agent, bactericide are dissolved in mud, then with mud leaching root processing branch, finally use Seal with wax and vernalization processing is carried out at mud, both played a part of, to branch sterilizing, promoting branch rudiment again, and accelerated branch life Root, moreover it is possible to solve winter snow cover and cause unnecessary loss.
To achieve these goals, the present invention uses following technical scheme:
Phase in early spring Yew cuttage method for culturing seedlings, comprises the following steps:
1) select to cuttage:Landform indentation is selected, physical features is flat, has abundant water resources, and skewer is made in the deciduous tree forest land of back of the body sun naturally Insert ground;
2) fatten to cuttage and desinsection:Before plantation the year before last soil is freeze-up, by cuttage deep plough 25~35cm, freezes soil It is ripe;At the beginning of 2~3 months next years, soil applies organic fertilizer 50~100kg/ mus after thawing, then ridging, the high 5~7cm in ridge, clear span 1.2 ~1.3m, length are determined depending on landform;After insecticide is watered into dilution, with pouring cuttage, by complete wetting ground, 3~5mm is defined;
3) bed is built:According to cuttage landform, at least two cutting beds are built into hollow brick, cutting bed above ground level 15~ 20cm, the gutter that width is 8~10cm is set between cutting bed and cutting bed;
4) matrix is backfilled:The mixed-matrix that stirs of 7~9cm thickness is backfilled into cutting bed, then rake, pour it is permeable, Uniformly the liquor potassic permanganate of 500 times of sprinkling carries out disinfection on mixed-matrix again, finally shines bed 24 hours;Described mixed base Matter includes following components:Pollution-free river sand 70%, perlite 15%, soddy soil 12%, organic fertilizer 3%;
5) canopy is built:Sunshade net shed is built by south-north direction, a diameter of 7.5~8.5m of shed, is highly 2.3~2.5m, Crossbeam every setting 2.3~2.5m fore-sets, wherein, frame uses the hot galvanized steel pipes of 1.5mm thickness φ 25, shelters from heat or light using pure plastic net 70% sunshade net;
6) no disease and pests harm, robust growth elite stand on gather 1 year raw semi-lignified branch, sheared with flat mouth, prevent Stop loss and hinder section, beta pruning length is defined by 8cm, and thickness is defined by 3~4mm;The branch sheared is classified binding, it is every 50 plants, Then dip compounding mud 2~3 hours, be defined deeply by immersing mud 3cm;After branch is taken out from mud, closed with paraffin Branch does not dip in mud one end, and mud end is exposed, relative air humidity be 70~90%, temperature be 22~28 DEG C ventilated Placed 2~3 days in storeroom, hestening rooting;Described compounding mud is formulated by field soil, water, carbendazim, root-inducing powder;
7) cuttage:By 4cm × 4cm density insertion cutting medium in, cuttage depth with matrix covering be moistened with mud end 3~ 4cm is defined, and branch and matrix require to be in close contact, and pours permeable after the completion of cuttage, makes matrix steady and sure, then with carbendazim and promoter The 500 times of nutrient solutions sprinkling seedbed prepared, finally with blank space between rice straw mulching branch;
8) manage and protect:After cuttage is completed 7 days, with spraying 500 times of Fungicidal nutritive liquid 1 time for opposing yellow sodium and cloud tire element;Again through 7 days Afterwards, 500 times of nutrient solutions 1 time of carbendazim and 168 root-growing agents are sprayed, so circulation sprays take root nutrient solution and Fungicidal nutritive successively Liquid, water purification is sprayed every two days after having sprayed nutrient solution every time, is drenched and is defined by blade face, when temperature is higher, pour once within 20 days permeable; Winter then sprays once for 20 days.
Compared with existing cuttage and seedling culture method, the beneficial effects of the present invention are:
1) present invention selection fallen leaves forest land may be either that Chinese yew breeds offer and given shade, and can is fallen using locality with making cuttage Leaf makees fertilizer, and compared to chemical fertilizer, its fertilizer efficiency is more preferable, and seedling will not be made to produce dependence, and it is numerous more to form a kind of " imitative nature " System is educated, seedling is improved to the adaptability of wild environment, ensures survival rate in seedling replanting.
2) present invention is established using hollow brick educates bed, and to educate bed insert by 70% pollution-free river sand, 15% perlite, The mixed-matrix that 12% soddy soil and 3% organic fertilizer are prepared;The anti-crushing by snow of wind resistance is built simultaneously, using the big warm canopy of area, can be carried Preceding nursery, soils of north China can carry out nursery after thawing, increase economic efficiency.
3) then the present invention is soaked root processing branch, taken root merely compared to existing using mud dissolving bactericide and root-growing agent Agent solution processing, the control of root-growing agent dosage are more convenient, moreover it is possible to and branch is contacted soil nutrient in advance, improve branch rootability, Accelerate nursery speed, can more improve branch cutting survival rate.
4) present invention is moistened with the branch end of mud using sealing with wax, and forms " heeling in " Germination effect, accelerates the germinating of capillary root, together When reduce respiratory intensity, reduce nutrition deterioration in branch, ensure sufficient nutrition breathing after cuttage, improve cuttage survival rate.
5) present invention ensures seedling normal growth, together in seedling stage using nutrient solution and the alternately pouring of Fungicidal nutritive liquid of taking root When avoid seedling occur pest and disease damage, improve seedling quality.
6) the inventive method is simple to operate, and expense cost is low, can more implement in winter snow-up terrain.
Embodiment
Technical scheme is described further with reference to specific embodiment, in order to same domain technical staff Understanding.
Embodiment 1
Exploiting entity:Hui County Hong Rui seedling-wood breedings farmer specialized cooperative society.
Implement the time limit:2013~2015 years
Phase in early spring Yew cuttage method for culturing seedlings, comprises the following steps:
1) select to cuttage:Landform indentation is selected, physical features is flat, has abundant water resources, naturally 5 mu of the deciduous tree forest land of back of the body sun work Cuttage;
2) fatten to cuttage and desinsection:On October 12nd, 2013 soil it is freeze-up before, by cuttage deep plough 25~35cm, makes soil Earth freezes ripe;On 2 20th, 2014, soil applied organic fertilizer 50~100kg/ mus after thawing, then ridging, the high 5~7cm in ridge, only Wide 1.2~1.3m, length 15m;After insecticide is watered into dilution, with pouring cuttage, by complete wetting ground, 3~5mm is defined, and kills Worm agent dosage is 2kg/ mus;
3) bed is built:According to cuttage landform, 4 cutting beds, cutting bed 15~20cm above ground level, skewer are built into hollow brick The gutter that width is 8~10cm is set between slotting machine and cutting bed;
4) matrix is backfilled:The mixed-matrix that stirs of 7~9cm thickness is backfilled into cutting bed, then rake, pour it is permeable, Uniformly the liquor potassic permanganate of 500 times of sprinkling carries out disinfection on mixed-matrix again, finally shines bed 24 hours;Described mixed base Matter includes following components:Pollution-free river sand 70%, perlite 15%, soddy soil 12%, organic fertilizer 3%;
5) canopy is built:Sunshade net shed is built by south-north direction, a diameter of 7.5~8.5m of shed, is highly 2.3~2.5m, Crossbeam every setting 2.3~2.5m fore-sets, wherein, frame uses the hot galvanized steel pipes of 1.5mm thickness φ 25, shelters from heat or light using pure plastic net 70% sunshade net;
6) no disease and pests harm, robust growth elite stand on gather 1 year raw semi-lignified branch, sheared with flat mouth, prevent Stop loss and hinder section, beta pruning length is defined by 8cm, and thickness is defined by 3~4mm;The branch sheared is classified binding, it is every 50 plants, Then dip compounding mud 2~3 hours, be defined deeply by immersing mud 3cm;After branch is taken out from mud, closed with paraffin Branch does not dip in mud one end, and mud end is exposed, relative air humidity be 70~90%, temperature be 22~28 DEG C ventilated Placed 2~3 days in storeroom, hestening rooting;Described compounding mud is formulated by field soil, water, carbendazim, root-inducing powder;
7) cuttage:By 4cm × 4cm density insertion cutting medium in, cuttage depth with matrix covering be moistened with mud end 3~ 4cm is defined, and branch and matrix require to be in close contact, and pours permeable after the completion of cuttage, makes matrix steady and sure, then with carbendazim and promoter The 500 times of nutrient solutions sprinkling seedbed prepared, finally with blank space between rice straw mulching branch;
8) manage and protect:After cuttage is completed 7 days, with spraying 500 times of Fungicidal nutritive liquid 1 time for opposing yellow sodium and cloud tire element;Again through 7 days Afterwards, 500 times of nutrient solutions 1 time of carbendazim and 168 root-growing agents are sprayed, so circulation sprays take root nutrient solution and Fungicidal nutritive successively Liquid, into May, straw is thrown off, water purification is sprayed every two days after having sprayed nutrient solution every time, is drenched and be defined by blade face, temperature is higher When, pour once within 20 days permeable;Then spray once within 20 days in the winter time.
Interpretation of result:
Randomly choose 200 plants of cuttage branches in experimental plot to be analyzed, mid-July survives cuttage branch and grown feelings Condition is recorded, and is as a result shown, in 200 plants of cuttage branches of analysis, survives 187 plants, survival rate 93.5%.
The cuttage shoot growth situation survived is analyzed:All seedling growths are vigorous, take root complete and to go out leaf complete, Disease-free phenomenon occurs.
By above-mentioned analysis, the present invention by 5 months can nursery complete, shifted to an earlier date 1 compared to existing 6 months or so~ 2 weeks or so, it is often more important that, can low cost operation, and can in the winter time snow-up terrain implement.

Claims (1)

1. phase in early spring Yew cuttage method for culturing seedlings, it is characterised in that:Comprise the following steps:
1) select to cuttage:Landform indentation is selected, physical features is flat, has abundant water resources, and carries on the back the deciduous tree forest land of sun with making cuttage naturally;
2) fatten to cuttage and desinsection:Before plantation the year before last soil is freeze-up, by cuttage deep plough 25~35cm, freezes soil ripe;It is secondary At the beginning of 2~3 months years, soil applies organic fertilizer 50~100kg/ mus after thawing, then ridging, the high 5~7cm in ridge, and clear span 1.2~ 1.3m, length are determined depending on landform;After insecticide is watered into dilution, with pouring cuttage, by complete wetting ground, 3~5mm is defined;
3) bed is built:According to cuttage landform, at least two cutting beds are built into hollow brick, cutting bed 15~20cm above ground level, The gutter that width is 8~10cm is set between cutting bed and cutting bed;
4) matrix is backfilled:The mixed-matrix that stirs of 7~9cm thickness is backfilled into cutting bed, then rake, pour it is permeable, then Uniformly the liquor potassic permanganate of 500 times of sprinkling carries out disinfection on mixed-matrix, finally shines bed 24 hours, wherein, described mixing Matrix includes following components:Pollution-free river sand 70%, perlite 15%, soddy soil 12%, organic fertilizer 3%;
5) canopy is built:Sunshade net shed is built by south-north direction, a diameter of 7.5~8.5m of shed, is highly 2.3~2.5m, crossbeam Every setting 2.3~2.5m fore-sets, wherein, frame uses the hot galvanized steel pipes of 1.5mm thickness φ 25, shelters from heat or light using pure plastic net 70% Sunshade net;
6) gather and handle cuttage bar:No disease and pests harm, robust growth elite stand on gather 1 year raw semi-lignified branch, Sheared with flat mouth, prevent from damaging section, beta pruning length is defined by 8cm, and thickness is defined by 3~4mm;The branch sheared is classified and pricked , it is every 50 plants, then dip compounding mud 2~3 hours, be defined deeply by immersing mud 3cm;Branch is taken out from mud Afterwards, do not dip in mud one end with paraffin closing branch, mud end is exposed, relative air humidity be 70~90%, temperature be 22~ Placed 2~3 days in 28 DEG C of ventilated storeroom, hestening rooting, wherein, described compounding mud is by field soil, water, more bacterium Spirit, root-inducing powder are formulated;
7) cuttage:By in 4cm × 4cm density insertion cutting medium, cuttage depth is moistened with 3~4cm of mud end with matrix covering It is defined, branch and matrix require to be in close contact, and pour permeable after the completion of cuttage, make matrix steady and sure, then matched somebody with somebody with carbendazim and promoter 500 times of nutrient solutions sprinkling seedbed of system, finally with blank space between rice straw mulching branch;
8) manage and protect:After 7 days, the 500 times of Fungicidal nutritive liquid 1 time for opposing yellow sodium and brassin are sprayed;Again after 7 days, more bacterium are sprayed Spirit and 500 times of nutrient solutions 1 time of 168 root-growing agents, so circulation sprays take root nutrient solution and Fungicidal nutritive liquid successively, has sprayed every time Water purification is sprayed after nutrient solution every two days, is drenched and is defined by blade face, when temperature is higher, is poured once within 20 days permeable;Then 20 days in the winter time Spray once.
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CN107223421A (en) * 2017-05-06 2017-10-03 贵州省山地资源研究所 A kind of cuttage and seedling culture method of passionflower
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