CN105210827A - Phase in early spring Yew cuttage seedling-cultivating method - Google Patents

Phase in early spring Yew cuttage seedling-cultivating method Download PDF

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CN105210827A
CN105210827A CN201510639316.XA CN201510639316A CN105210827A CN 105210827 A CN105210827 A CN 105210827A CN 201510639316 A CN201510639316 A CN 201510639316A CN 105210827 A CN105210827 A CN 105210827A
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cuttage
branch
mud
ground
bed
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CN105210827B (en
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马维成
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Gansu Senmao agriculture and Forestry Technology Development Co.,Ltd.
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马维成
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G5/00Fertilisers characterised by their form
    • C05G5/40Fertilisers incorporated into a matrix
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10Process efficiency
    • Y02P20/133Renewable energy sources, e.g. sunlight

Abstract

The invention discloses phase in early spring Yew cuttage seedling-cultivating method, comprise step: 1) cuttage ground is selected; 2) to fatten to cuttage and desinsection; 3) bed is built: according to cuttage ground landform, be built at least two cutting beds with hollow brick, cutting bed is above ground level, arranges pavement between cutting bed and cutting bed; 4) backfill substrate; 5) canopy is built; 6) gather and process cuttage bar: the branch gathering semi-lignified raw then on the elite stand without damage by disease and insect, robust growth, by the branch classification binding sheared, then dipping composite mud; After being taken out from mud by branch, close branch with paraffin and do not dip in mud one end, mud end exposes, and places 2 ~ 3 days, hestening rooting; 7) cuttage: by the insertion cutting medium handled well, after cuttage completes, by blank space between rice straw mulching branch; 8) manage and protect.The inventive method is simple to operate, and expense cost is low, and rooting rate is fast, and survival rate is high, and seedling quality is high, can implement at snow-up terrain in winter.

Description

Phase in early spring Yew cuttage seedling-cultivating method
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of plant growing technology, specifically phase in early spring Yew cuttage seedling-cultivating method.
Background technology
Chinese yew has another name called yew, is called as " living fossil " in vegetable kingdom, because of its resource scarcity, is listed in world's rare tree species and is protected.Chinese yew integrates medicinal, material with, view and admire, there is high value of exploiting and utilizing.The taxol extracted from bark of Ramulus et folium taxi cuspidatae and branches and leaves is the anticarcinogen of generally acknowledging in the world, and taxol is used for the treatment of advanced breast cancer, lung cancer, oophoroma and incidence cancer, soft tissue cancer and digestive system cancer; Branches and leaves of yew is used for the treatment of leukemia, ephritis, diabetes and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE.Chinese yew natural resources is deficient, and medicine source is in short supply, the more important thing is under field conditions (factors), growth of taxol speed is slow, and regeneration capacity is poor, and various places are all carrying out it researching and developing widely.
At present, artificial planting Chinese yew comprises seed and broadcasts nursery and cuttage and seedling culture two kinds of methods, and seed is broadcast nursery and be there is following shortcoming: 1) Chinese yew seed has to pass through the dormancy awakening phase, and the cycle is longer; 2) have to pass through the protective layer of artificial treatment seed hull, otherwise be not easy to germinate, not only time-consuming but also increase cost; 3) seed is broadcast and must be carried out after the beginning of spring, and the good temperature and humidity of GPRS, otherwise seed does not germinate or rot, and survival rate is low.Therefore, cuttage and seedling culture because of time saving and energy saving, expense is low, survival rate advantages of higher, be subject to people pay close attention to.In recent years, the report that cuttage and seedling culture breeds Chinese yew is more, include dry bed cutting seedling, nutritive cube cuttage and seedling culture and hotbed cuttage and seedling culture etc., as patent CN103109666A discloses the dry bed cutting seedling method of Chinese yew, disclose " comprise step: 1) prepare to educate bed: select humidity 40% containing acid plot; be organized into and educate bed; then educating the thick dry loess of a surface coverage 3cm or sandy soil; dry loess or sandy soil must be loose in small, broken bits; and with a clear ratio thin up in 1:500 before cuttage, spray with sprayer and carry out soil deinsectization process; 2) select branch: from the Chinese yew of more than the 7 years age of trees cut life in 1 ~ 2 year without damage by disease and insect branch, select the branch of even thickness to be cut into the little limb of 5 ~ 6cm, the upper reservation 3 little branch of little limb; 3) insert pre-treatment: be mixed with treatment fluid, step 2 with the methyl α-naphthyl acetate of content 50% in after the ratio thin up of 1:500) in the little limb that shears put into treatment fluid immersion 3 ~ 5 minutes; 4) cuttage on the spot: step 3) in the little limb inserting step 1 of soaking) in readyly to educate on bed, and cuttage complete after can not water; 5) sterilization after inserting: with the Prochloraz of the content 25% ratio thin up in 1:2000, then with the carbendazim of content 50% in the ratio thin up of 1:500, spray in sprig cured leaf face respectively with sprayer, carries out sterilizing and fresh-keeping; 6) heat and moisture preserving: after cuttage, to overarch hut with bamboo strip educating on bed, then uses covered rearing with plastic film good seal; 7) follow-up management: the Chinese yew of cuttage took root at 50 ~ 60 days, fork to be sent forth branches progressively can remove film, and waters in good time " dry bed cutting seedling method, this method shortens the dormancy awakening phase; improve the survival rate of Chinese yew, and is greatly advanced by the result time of Chinese yew.But due to using dry loess or sandy soil as educating bed, and be watered with insecticide and process, in actual mechanical process, water consumption controls improper easily causing and educates bed board knot, and in cuttage and seedling culture process, do not carry out seedbed fatten, there will be malnourished problem unavoidably, the more important thing is, the method is by branch cuttage after single root-growing agent process, and carry out sterilization processing after cuttage, although only also can hestening rooting with root-growing agent process branch, but root-growing agent consumption controls improper meeting and produces irreversible damage to branch, and root-growing agent sticks on branch, during cuttage due to earth dilution and influence.Patent CN103283460A discloses the cottage method of Taxus x media, discloses and " comprises step: the 1) selection on cuttage ground: select smooth, the wind sheltering of physical features, have abundant water resources, the place of the few and convenient management of illumination, 2) bed is built: be built into cutting bed at the surrounding fragment of brick on cuttage ground, cutting bed is above ground level, arranges pavement between cutting bed and cutting bed, 3) cutting medium in cutting bed is mixed by perlite and turfy soil, and on cutting medium, sprays carbendazim solution carry out disinfection, 4) on the elite stand without damage by disease and insect, robust growth, gather the branch of semi-lignified raw then, branch is made cuttings, the lower cut of cuttings is angular cut or circle otch, and top retains a complete band leaf branch section, by the blade removal of cuttings bottom 2/3, 5) soaked 2 ~ 2.5 hours by the ABT1 rooting powder solution of the cuttings base portion after process, soaking depth is 2 ~ 3cm, 6) cuttings is inserted in cutting medium, often insert a strain cuttings and water a water, and lid plastic canopy shades above cuttings, and carry out moisture, air humidity, the management such as temperature " cuttage and seedling culture method, the method backfills cutting medium to educating in bed, and seedling management after cuttage, ensure the survival rate of cuttage, but be watered the process of leaching root owing to adopting single root-growing agent, still there is the risk that root-growing agent consumption is difficult to control and damage branch, although the method has carried out water and fertilizer management in seedling stage, but do not add insecticidal bactericide when topdressing, there is the risk polluting nursery stock.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to: a kind of Yew cuttage seedling-cultivating method fast, nursery stock is healthy and strong, damage by disease and insect incidence is low, land utilization rate is high of taking root is provided, root-growing agent, bactericide are dissolved in mud, again with mud leaching root process branch, finally carry out vernalization process with the mud place that seals with wax, both the effect to branch sterilizing had been played, promote branch rudiment again, accelerate branch and take root, winter snow cover can also be solved and cause unnecessary loss.
To achieve these goals, the present invention is by the following technical solutions:
Phase in early spring Yew cuttage seedling-cultivating method, comprises the following steps:
1) cuttage ground is selected: select landform indentation, physical features is smooth, has abundant water resources, and cuttage ground is made in the deciduous tree forest land of back of the body sun naturally;
2) to fatten to cuttage and desinsection: before the plantation soil the year before last is freeze-up, by the cuttage ground 25 ~ 35cm that deep ploughs, soil is frozen ripe; At the beginning of 2 ~ 3 months next years, apply fertilizer 50 ~ 100kg/ mu, then ridging after soil thaws, the high 5 ~ 7cm in ridge, clear span 1.2 ~ 1.3m, it is fixed that length looks landform; After insecticide is watered dilution, pouring cuttage ground, is as the criterion with complete wetting ground 3 ~ 5mm;
3) bed is built: according to cuttage ground landform, be built at least two cutting beds with hollow brick, cutting bed 15 ~ 20cm above ground level, the drain ditch that width is 8 ~ 10cm is set between cutting bed and cutting bed;
4) backfill substrate: backfill 7 ~ 9cm thick mixed-matrix stirred in cutting bed, then rake, water permeable, then the liquor potassic permanganate evenly spraying 500 times on mixed-matrix carries out disinfection, and finally shines bed 24 hours; Described mixed-matrix comprises following component: pollution-free river sand 70%, perlite 15%, soddy soil 12%, fertilizer 3%;
5) build canopy: build sunshade net shed by south-north direction, shed diameter is 7.5 ~ 8.5m, is highly 2.3 ~ 2.5m, crossbeam is every establishing 2.3 ~ 2.5m fore-set, wherein, frame adopts 1.5mm thick φ 25 hot galvanized steel pipe, shelters from heat or light and adopts the sunshade net of pure plastic net 70%;
6) on the elite stand without damage by disease and insect, robust growth, gather the branch of the semi-lignified of life in 1 year, shear with flat mouth, prevent from damaging tangent plane, beta pruning length is as the criterion with 8cm, and thickness is as the criterion with 3 ~ 4mm; By the branch classification binding sheared, often 50 strains, then dip composite mud 2 ~ 3 hours, be deeply as the criterion to immerse mud 3cm; After being taken out from mud by branch, close branch with paraffin and do not dip in mud one end, mud end exposes, relative air humidity be 70 ~ 90%, temperature is place 2 ~ 3 days in the ventilated storeroom of 22 ~ 28 DEG C, hestening rooting; Described composite mud is formulated by field soil, water, carbendazim, root-inducing powder;
7) cuttage: insert in cutting medium by the density of 4cm × 4cm, the cuttage degree of depth is moistened with mud end 3 ~ 4cm with matrix covering and is as the criterion, branch and matrix require close contact, water permeable after cuttage completes, make matrix steady and sure, spray seedbed with 500 times of nutrient solutions of carbendazim and rooting promoter preparation again, finally use blank space between rice straw mulching branch;
8) manage and protect: after cuttage completes 7 days, with the 500 times of Fungicidal nutritive liquid 1 time spraying the yellow sodium of enemy and cloud tire element; Again after 7 days, spray 500 times of nutrient solutions 1 time of carbendazim and 168 root-growing agents, circulation sprays take root nutrient solution and Fungicidal nutritive liquid so successively, water purification was sprayed every one day after the complete nutrient solution of each spray, drench with blade face and be as the criterion, when temperature is higher, within 20 days, water once permeable; Then within 20 days, spray once in the winter time.
Compared with existing cuttage and seedling culture method, beneficial effect of the present invention is:
1) the present invention selects fallen leaves forest land to make cuttage ground, both can be Chinese yew to breed to provide and give shade, local fallen leaves can be utilized again to make fertilizer, compare chemical fertilizer, its fertilizer efficiency is better, and seedling can not be made to produce dependence, more forms one " imitative nature " breeding of method, improve seedling to the adaptive capacity of wild environment, ensure survival rate when seedling replanting.
2) the present invention utilizes hollow brick foundation to educate bed, and inserts to educating bed the mixed-matrix prepared by 70% pollution-free river sand, 15% perlite, 12% soddy soil and 3% fertilizer; Build the anti-crushing by snow of wind resistance simultaneously, utilize the warm canopy that area is large, can nursery be shifted to an earlier date, can nursery be carried out after soils of north China thaws, increase economic efficiency.
3) the present invention utilizes mud to dissolve bactericide and root-growing agent, then root process branch is soaked, compare existing simple root-growing agent solution-treated, root-growing agent consumption controls more convenient, branch can also be made to contact soil nutrient in advance, improve branch rootability, accelerate nursery speed, more can improve branch cutting survival rate.
4) the present invention adopts to seal with wax and is moistened with the branch end of mud, forms " heeling in " Germination effect, accelerates the germinating of capillary root, reduces respiratory intensity simultaneously, reduce nutrition deterioration in branch, and nutrition sufficient after ensureing cuttage is breathed, and improves cuttage survival rate.
5) the present invention utilizes in seedling stage take root nutrient solution and the alternately pouring of Fungicidal nutritive liquid, ensures seedling normal growth, avoids seedling generation damage by disease and insect simultaneously, improve seedling quality.
6) the inventive method is simple to operate, and expense cost is low, more can implement at snow-up terrain in winter.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, technical scheme of the present invention is described further, so that the understanding of same domain technical staff.
Embodiment 1
Exploiting entity: Hong Rui seedling-wood breeding farmer specialized cooperative society, Hui County.
Implement the time limit: 2013 ~ 2015 years
Phase in early spring Yew cuttage seedling-cultivating method, comprises the following steps:
1) cuttage ground is selected: select landform indentation, physical features is smooth, has abundant water resources, and cuttage ground is made in 5 mu, the deciduous tree forest land of back of the body sun naturally;
2) to fatten to cuttage and desinsection: on October 12nd, 2013 soil freeze-up before, by the cuttage ground 25 ~ 35cm that deep ploughs, soil is frozen ripe; On February 20th, 2014, apply fertilizer 50 ~ 100kg/ mu after soil thaws, then ridging, the high 5 ~ 7cm in ridge, clear span 1.2 ~ 1.3m, length 15m; After insecticide is watered dilution, pouring cuttage ground, be as the criterion with complete wetting ground 3 ~ 5mm, insecticide consumption is 2kg/ mu;
3) bed is built: according to cuttage ground landform, be built into 4 cutting beds with hollow brick, cutting bed 15 ~ 20cm above ground level, the drain ditch that width is 8 ~ 10cm is set between cutting bed and cutting bed;
4) backfill substrate: backfill 7 ~ 9cm thick mixed-matrix stirred in cutting bed, then rake, water permeable, then the liquor potassic permanganate evenly spraying 500 times on mixed-matrix carries out disinfection, and finally shines bed 24 hours; Described mixed-matrix comprises following component: pollution-free river sand 70%, perlite 15%, soddy soil 12%, fertilizer 3%;
5) build canopy: build sunshade net shed by south-north direction, shed diameter is 7.5 ~ 8.5m, is highly 2.3 ~ 2.5m, crossbeam is every establishing 2.3 ~ 2.5m fore-set, wherein, frame adopts 1.5mm thick φ 25 hot galvanized steel pipe, shelters from heat or light and adopts the sunshade net of pure plastic net 70%;
6) on the elite stand without damage by disease and insect, robust growth, gather the branch of the semi-lignified of life in 1 year, shear with flat mouth, prevent from damaging tangent plane, beta pruning length is as the criterion with 8cm, and thickness is as the criterion with 3 ~ 4mm; By the branch classification binding sheared, often 50 strains, then dip composite mud 2 ~ 3 hours, be deeply as the criterion to immerse mud 3cm; After being taken out from mud by branch, close branch with paraffin and do not dip in mud one end, mud end exposes, relative air humidity be 70 ~ 90%, temperature is place 2 ~ 3 days in the ventilated storeroom of 22 ~ 28 DEG C, hestening rooting; Described composite mud is formulated by field soil, water, carbendazim, root-inducing powder;
7) cuttage: insert in cutting medium by the density of 4cm × 4cm, the cuttage degree of depth is moistened with mud end 3 ~ 4cm with matrix covering and is as the criterion, branch and matrix require close contact, water permeable after cuttage completes, make matrix steady and sure, spray seedbed with 500 times of nutrient solutions of carbendazim and rooting promoter preparation again, finally use blank space between rice straw mulching branch;
8) manage and protect: after cuttage completes 7 days, with the 500 times of Fungicidal nutritive liquid 1 time spraying the yellow sodium of enemy and cloud tire element; Again after 7 days, spray 500 times of nutrient solutions 1 time of carbendazim and 168 root-growing agents, circulation sprays take root nutrient solution and Fungicidal nutritive liquid so successively, enter May, throw off straw, after having sprayed nutrient solution, spray water purification every one day at every turn, drench with blade face and be as the criterion, when temperature is higher, within 20 days, water once permeable; Then within 20 days, spray once in the winter time.
Interpretation of result:
In experimental field, Stochastic choice 200 strain cuttage branch is analyzed, and mid-July survives cuttage branch and growing state carries out record, and result shows, and in the 200 strain cuttage branches analyzed, survive 187 strains, survival rate is 93.5%.
Analyze the cuttage shoot growth situation survived: all seedling growths are vigorous, the complete and leafing of taking root is complete, and disease-free phenomenon occurs.
Known by above-mentioned analysis, the present invention can be completed by 5 months in nursery, compared existing about 6 months about 1 ~ 2 week in advance, the more important thing is, can low cost movement, again can snow-up terrain enforcement in the winter time.

Claims (3)

1. phase in early spring Yew cuttage seedling-cultivating method, is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:
1) cuttage ground is selected: select landform indentation, physical features is smooth, has abundant water resources, and cuttage ground is made in the deciduous tree forest land of back of the body sun naturally;
2) to fatten to cuttage and desinsection: before the plantation soil the year before last is freeze-up, by the cuttage ground 25 ~ 35cm that deep ploughs, soil is frozen ripe; At the beginning of 2 ~ 3 months next years, apply fertilizer 50 ~ 100kg/ mu, then ridging after soil thaws, the high 5 ~ 7cm in ridge, clear span 1.2 ~ 1.3m, it is fixed that length looks landform; After insecticide is watered dilution, pouring cuttage ground, is as the criterion with complete wetting ground 3 ~ 5mm;
3) bed is built: according to cuttage ground landform, be built at least two cutting beds with hollow brick, cutting bed 15 ~ 20cm above ground level, the drain ditch that width is 8 ~ 10cm is set between cutting bed and cutting bed;
4) backfill substrate: backfill 7 ~ 9cm thick mixed-matrix stirred in cutting bed, then rake, water permeable, then the liquor potassic permanganate evenly spraying 500 times on mixed-matrix carries out disinfection, and finally shines bed 24 hours;
5) build canopy: build sunshade net shed by south-north direction, shed diameter is 7.5 ~ 8.5m, is highly 2.3 ~ 2.5m, crossbeam is every establishing 2.3 ~ 2.5m fore-set, wherein, frame adopts 1.5mm thick φ 25 hot galvanized steel pipe, shelters from heat or light and adopts the sunshade net of pure plastic net 70%;
6) gather and process cuttage bar: the branch gathering the semi-lignified of life in 1 year on the elite stand without damage by disease and insect, robust growth, shearing with flat mouth, prevent from damaging tangent plane, beta pruning length is as the criterion with 8cm, and thickness is as the criterion with 3 ~ 4mm; By the branch classification binding sheared, often 50 strains, then dip composite mud 2 ~ 3 hours, be deeply as the criterion to immerse mud 3cm; After being taken out from mud by branch, close branch with paraffin and do not dip in mud one end, mud end exposes, relative air humidity be 70 ~ 90%, temperature is place 2 ~ 3 days in the ventilated storeroom of 22 ~ 28 DEG C, hestening rooting;
7) cuttage: insert in cutting medium by the density of 4cm × 4cm, the cuttage degree of depth is moistened with mud end 3 ~ 4cm with matrix covering and is as the criterion, branch and matrix require close contact, water permeable after cuttage completes, make matrix steady and sure, spray seedbed with 500 times of nutrient solutions of carbendazim and rooting promoter preparation again, finally use blank space between rice straw mulching branch;
8) manage and protect: after 7 days, spray 500 times of Fungicidal nutritive liquid 1 time of the yellow sodium of enemy and cloud tire element; Again after 7 days, spray 500 times of nutrient solutions 1 time of carbendazim and 168 root-growing agents, circulation sprays take root nutrient solution and Fungicidal nutritive liquid so successively, water purification was sprayed every one day after the complete nutrient solution of each spray, drench with blade face and be as the criterion, when temperature is higher, within 20 days, water once permeable; Then within 20 days, spray once in the winter time.
2. phase in early spring Yew cuttage seedling-cultivating method as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: in step 4) in backfill substrate, described mixed-matrix comprises following component: pollution-free river sand 70%, perlite 15%, soddy soil 12%, fertilizer 3%.
3. phase in early spring Yew cuttage seedling-cultivating method as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: in step 6) gather and process in cuttage bar, described composite mud is formulated by field soil, water, carbendazim, root-inducing powder.
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CN105684714A (en) * 2016-02-23 2016-06-22 徐华龙 Staphylea bumalda tender branch cutting seedling cultivation method
CN105917936A (en) * 2016-05-16 2016-09-07 浙江农林大学 Method for culturing Chinese fir cuttage container seedlings through light medium
CN105917936B (en) * 2016-05-16 2018-12-04 浙江农林大学 A kind of China fir Light media cuttage vessel seeding cultivating method
CN107223421A (en) * 2017-05-06 2017-10-03 贵州省山地资源研究所 A kind of cuttage and seedling culture method of passionflower
CN110663369A (en) * 2018-07-02 2020-01-10 唐兆青 Special effect method for weaving cuttage potted landscape with plant branches capable of prolonging preservation period by more than five times
CN110178623A (en) * 2019-05-15 2019-08-30 怀化学院 The cuttage breeding method of the fruit of Cherokee rose

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