CN105203023B - A kind of one-stop scaling method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter - Google Patents

A kind of one-stop scaling method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105203023B
CN105203023B CN201510406380.3A CN201510406380A CN105203023B CN 105203023 B CN105203023 B CN 105203023B CN 201510406380 A CN201510406380 A CN 201510406380A CN 105203023 B CN105203023 B CN 105203023B
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China
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coordinate
laser scanning
index point
vehicle
placement parameter
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CN201510406380.3A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105203023A (en
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王力
李广云
李明磊
李宗春
周阳林
杨振
邓勇
刘灵杰
宗文鹏
彭逸凡
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中国人民解放军信息工程大学
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of one-stop scaling method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter, by fixing a number of artificial target with light-reflecting property on the object in Calibration Field, the geocentric coordinates of these artificial targets is obtained.The somewhere position for being laid with index point is chosen as website, the vehicle for being loaded with three-dimensional laser scanning system is allowed to stop at the website, a series of index point clouds are collected using three-dimensional acquisition mode, these index point clouds are identified and positioned, and are established in laser scanning coordinate system L.The geocentric coordinates of artificial target is transformed into inertial platform coordinate system (I) by Coordinate Conversion mode from geocentric coordinate system (WGS84), and realized and converted by Coordinate Transformation Models with the coordinate in laser scanning coordinate system (L), try to achieve placement parameter.This method only can be carried out demarcating at a station, the complexity for the mathematics transformation model that degraded, and improve the efficiency to disposing parameter calibration.

Description

A kind of one-stop scaling method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of one-stop scaling method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter.Belong to and utilize light Learn the field of measuring technique being characterized.

Background technology

With the continuous improvement of laser scanning speed, precision and mass data processing ability, laser scanner progressively into For the main sensors of vehicle-mounted mobile measuring system, referred to as Vehicle-borne Laser Scanning system.

The method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter calibration with two-dimentional acquisition mode mainly by being set at present Different horizontal scan angles is put, it is necessary to allow vehicle to carry out measuring according to certain scanning angle under steam, to measuring thing The planarity requirements of body are higher;And need to measure multiple, the measurement data under acquisition different scanning angle, i.e. two-dimensional scan side Formula, its process are relatively complicated.Then, the target point after scanning and index point geocentric coordinates are directly established to overall placement parameter Transformation model, according to the geocentric coordinates of common point and instantaneous point cloud coordinate, by Least Square Method parameter, it relate to repeatedly Conversion, model complexity is high, and two sets of coordinate scale gaps are larger, directly calculates and easily produces rounding error.

The content of the invention

Present invention aims to overcome that the deficiencies in the prior art, it is proposed that a kind of to be carried out to vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system One-stop scaling method, for solving the problems, such as that the complicated caused demarcation efficiency of prior art scaling method is low.

What the above-mentioned purpose of the present invention was mainly achieved by following technical solution:

A kind of one-stop scaling method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter, comprises the following steps:

The a number of artificial target with light-reflecting property is fixed in step (1), the object in Calibration Field, is obtained The geocentric coordinates of these artificial targets;

Step (2), the somewhere position for choosing index point allow the vehicle for being loaded with three-dimensional laser scanning system to stop as website Only in the website, 3-D scanning is carried out to object using laser scanning system, collects a series of index point clouds.

Step (3), these index point clouds are identified and positioned, obtain its seat in laser scanning coordinate system L Mark.

Step (4), the geocentric coordinates of artificial target are transformed into by Coordinate Conversion mode from geocentric coordinate system (WGS84) Inertial platform coordinate system (I), and realized and converted by Coordinate Transformation Models with the coordinate in laser scanning coordinate system (L), try to achieve Dispose parameter.

Further, index point cloud being identified described in step (3) is with localization method:1) by index point Cloud enters row threshold division, 2) it will fall and receive the cluster of the index point cloud in threshold, 3) cancelling noise target, 4) determine that index point is swashing The barycentric coodinates of optical scanning coordinate system.

Further, during the Threshold segmentation, receiving the index point in threshold and giving to retain for falling, threshold value is with mark The light echo reflective distance of will point is different with angle and changes.

Further, index point original center of gravity is set, and index point cloud by the way of classifying one by one, calculation flag point weight The heart, reconstruction is carried out to center of gravity and realizes that self-propagation clusters.

Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that:

It is in the past by setting certain level to sweep with two-dimentional acquisition mode using three-dimensional laser scanning system calibrating parameters Retouch angle repeatedly to measure, the result measured under steam using the vehicle for being loaded with laser scanning system carries out parameter calculation, process Complex, efficiency is low, influences the data precision of measurement.The invention is being demarcated after ensureing to determine appearance alignment system normal work Using allowing the of short duration stopping of the vehicle for being loaded with laser scanning system in, and in a manner of three-dimensional acquisition, the point cloud of rapid collection mark Data.Because only being measured at a station, the efficiency of demarcation is substantially increased.And then the data due to acquisition are with using two dimension Scan mode is different, so when establishing placement parameter calculation mathematical modeling, it is fixed to first pass through the absolute coordinate of common point Appearance positioning result is transformed into carrier coordinate system, then combines solution placement parameter with the data of laser scanning coordinate system, so that will be multiple Miscellaneous parameter Estimation mathematical modeling is simplified to the parameter calculation model of single Coordinate Conversion, resolves efficiency high.

Moreover, the index point cloud gathered using laser scanning system, passes through mobile Threshold segmentation, self-propagation cluster analysis etc. Algorithm realizes being automatically positioned and identifying to artificial target, also can accordingly improve precision.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is present invention placement parameter calibration field;

Fig. 2 is the laying of artificial target in Calibration Field of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is the flow chart of present invention placement parameter calculation model.

Embodiment

The present invention will be further described in detail below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

(1), the geocentric coordinates of artificial target obtains

It is as shown in Figure 1 present invention placement parameter calibration field, known point S is chosen in Calibration Field1, and the height of the known point Accuracy coordinate, 5 control points, S are selected else in verification field5And S6Be two can phase intercommunication video control point.

The laying of artificial target in Calibration Field of the present invention is illustrated in figure 2, in S5Certain amount is fixed on neighbouring object The artificial target with light-reflecting property.In S5Total powerstation, S are set6Set up prism, the angle measurement of utilization orientation observation method and Laser Measuring Away from the topocentric coordinates for obtaining artificial target.If the origin A of topocentric coordinate system coordinate is (B0,L0,H0), then corresponding space Rectangular coordinate system form is (X0,Y0,Z0).Conversion between any geocentric coordinates (X, Y, Z) and topocentric coordinates (N, E, U) Relation, as following formula represents:

In formula:

The geocentric coordinates of artificial target is can be obtained by by the inverse transformation of above formula.

(2), three-dimensional symbol point cloud is gathered using laser scanning system

Measurement website at one is chosen in Calibration Field, the vehicle row for being loaded with laser scanning system is driven to the website and stops Only, the object for laying artificial target is scanned, gathered by three-dimensional acquisition mode using vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system Obtain a series of index point clouds.

(3), the automatic identification of index point cloud and positioning

1st, the range information of collection point is obtained using laser scanner, the adjacent threshold each put is calculated by KNN and is fitted to The angle of plane, wherein target point together between the line and plane normal at center is incidence angle, and distance and incidence angle are substituted into Block mold, retro-reflective target desired light echo reflected value (being threshold value) under this condition is obtained, for falling in the reception Point in threshold, which is given, to be retained.

2nd, measurement target is formed into set T, multiple laser spots that each target is gathered by laser system form.To each mesh One anchor point O of justice is demarcated, includes center of gravity a little with single target to represent.If target TiIt is made up of n point, then TiWeight Heart O is:

The point obtained from segmentation, which is concentrated, is optionally a little used as first object point Ti, the seat of the barycentric coodinates of the target point Mark is initialized.Point set after traversal segmentation, the point set after segmentation is numbered, in sequence comparison object point and target Center of gravity O Euclidean distance l;For i-th point, if l is small to belong to the target with aimed dia d, i point, the target is added into, and The center of gravity of more fresh target;If be not belonging to any target, a new target is re-established at i-th point, its center of gravity is initialized as this The coordinate of point.Showed for different classes of target with different colours.

3rd, the point for scanning to obtain in laser acquisition system, which is concentrated, can have noise spot, utilize flatness, size, desired point The characteristic of the point sets such as number, is rejected to noise spot.

4th, for reflective marker, the method for light echo intensity weighted can be used to ask for barycentric coodinates, be shown below:

Wherein:K is i-th of target TiPoints, AjFor the light echo intensity of jth point.

Obtained mark point coordinates is established in laser scanning coordinate system L.

Above in cluster embodiment, the self-propagation cluster that euclidean distance method realizes target point is employed, can also be used K- means clustering algorithms, closest clustering algorithm etc..

(4) placement parameter calculation model, is established

The flow chart of present invention placement parameter calculation model is illustrated in figure 3, the geocentric coordinates of artificial target passes through coordinate Conversion regime is transformed into carrier coordinate system (inertial platform coordinate system), and concrete mode is as follows:

(1) geocentric coordinate system WGS84 is transformed into local horizontal coordinates LH

Main GNSS receiver phase center coordinate is (B, L, H) in Vehicle-borne Laser Scanning system, and Cartesian form isIf worker's marker coordinates are (x84,y84,z84)T.By WGS84 coordinate systems rotate counterclockwise L about the z axis, around Y Axle dextrorotation turn 90 degrees+B, obtains spin matrix RW, rotation transformation can be completed.It is comprehensive to obtain indicating centre coordinate from WGS84 To LH transformation model, such as following formula:

(2) local horizontal coordinates LH is transformed into inertial platform coordinate system I

What is deposited in inertial platform coordinate system I is that carrier determines appearance elements of a fix information, using determining the three of appearance alignment system Individual transient posture angle (course angle, the angle of roll, pitch angle) determines three rotation Eulerian angles by LH to I, then obtains spin moment Battle array RN.Inertial navigation components add the compensation of gravity anomaly when being navigated so that three Eulerian angles are with local horizontal reference It is that (being used as Z axis using the normal of reference ellipsoid) is reference frame, therefore, the deviation of plumb line is corrected.By the I origin of coordinates Antenna phase center is positioned, coordinate of the artificial target under I systems is (xI,yI,zI)T, then indicate that geocentric coordinates is sat to inertial platform Target transformation model such as following formula:

(3) parameter calculation is disposed

Laser coordinate system and inertial platform coordinate system are all three-dimensional right-handed rectangular coordinate system, and are rigid transformation between the two, Pass through 3 translation parametersTransformation model is established with 3 rotation parameters (α, beta, gamma) to be changed, coordinate turns Mold changing type such as following formula:

Wherein, [xL, yL, zL]TFor the coordinate in laser coordinate system L;

Translation parameters and rotation parameter (being 6 placement parameters) can be calculated by transformation model.Wherein, rotation ginseng Count from spin matrix RMTry to achieve, wherein:

RM=R (γ) R (β) R (α) (8)

Claims (4)

1. a kind of one-stop scaling method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter, it is characterised in that including following step Suddenly:
The a number of artificial target with light-reflecting property is fixed in step (1), the object in Calibration Field, obtains these The geocentric coordinates of artificial target;
Step (2), the somewhere position for choosing index point allow the vehicle for being loaded with three-dimensional laser scanning system to stop at as website The website, 3-D scanning is carried out to object using laser scanning system, collects a series of index point clouds;
Step (3), these index point clouds are identified and positioned, obtain its coordinate in laser scanning coordinate system L;
Step (4), the geocentric coordinates of artificial target utilize main GNSS in Vehicle-borne Laser Scanning system by Coordinate Conversion mode Receiver phase centre coordinate, local horizontal coordinates is transformed into from geocentric coordinate system, reconvert to inertial platform coordinate system, and Bring the coordinate in the coordinate in laser scanning coordinate system and the inertial platform coordinate system being converted into formulaIn, placement parameter is tried to achieve, wherein [xI,yI,zI]TFor artificial mark Aim at the coordinate in inertial platform coordinate system, [xL,yL,zL]TFor coordinate of the artificial target in laser scanning coordinate system, RMFor rotation Torque battle array,For translation parameters.
2. a kind of one-stop scaling method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter according to claim 1, its It is characterised by:Index point cloud being identified described in step (3) includes with positioning step:1) by being carried out to index point cloud Threshold segmentation, 2) it will fall and receive the cluster of the index point cloud in threshold, 3) cancelling noise target, 4) determine index point in laser scanning The barycentric coodinates of coordinate system.
3. a kind of one-stop scaling method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter according to claim 2, its It is characterised by:During the Threshold segmentation, give and retain in the index point received in threshold for falling, threshold value is returned with index point Light reflective distance is different with angle and changes.
4. a kind of one-stop scaling method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter according to claim 2, its It is characterised by:The index point cloud cluster includes setting index point original center of gravity, and index point cloud by the way of classifying one by one, meter Index point center of gravity is calculated, reconstruction is carried out to center of gravity and realizes that self-propagation clusters.
CN201510406380.3A 2015-07-10 2015-07-10 A kind of one-stop scaling method of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system placement parameter CN105203023B (en)

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CN107179534B (en) * 2017-06-29 2020-05-01 北京北科天绘科技有限公司 Method and device for automatically calibrating laser radar parameters and laser radar
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CN107782240B (en) * 2017-09-27 2020-06-05 首都师范大学 Two-dimensional laser scanner calibration method, system and device
CN107797129B (en) * 2017-10-13 2020-06-05 重庆市勘测院 Point cloud data acquisition method and device under no GNSS signal
CN108362201A (en) * 2017-12-25 2018-08-03 中国人民解放军战略支援部队信息工程大学 A kind of navigation sensor parameter calibration method and device based on 3 D laser scanning
CN109141226A (en) * 2018-06-06 2019-01-04 华南农业大学 The spatial point coordinate measuring method of one camera multi-angle
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