CN105203023A - One-stop calibration method for arrangement parameters of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system - Google Patents

One-stop calibration method for arrangement parameters of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105203023A
CN105203023A CN201510406380.3A CN201510406380A CN105203023A CN 105203023 A CN105203023 A CN 105203023A CN 201510406380 A CN201510406380 A CN 201510406380A CN 105203023 A CN105203023 A CN 105203023A
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coordinate
laser scanning
monumented point
vehicle
stop
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CN105203023B (en
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王力
李广云
李明磊
李宗春
周阳林
杨振
邓勇
刘灵杰
宗文鹏
彭逸凡
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PLA Information Engineering University
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PLA Information Engineering University
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Abstract

The invention relates to a one-stop calibration method for arrangement parameters of a vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system. The one-stop calibration method comprises the steps of fixing a certain number of artificial marks with a reflective property on objects in a calibration field, and acquiring geocentric coordinates of the artificial mark points; selecting a position where the mark points are distributed to act as a site, enabling a vehicle loaded with the three-dimensional laser scanning system to stop at the site, acquiring a series of mark point clouds by using a three-dimensional acquisition mode, carrying out recognition and positioning on the mark point clouds, and establishing the mark point clouds in a laser scanning coordinate system L; and transforming the geocentric coordinates of the artificial marks from a geocentric coordinate system (WGS84) to an inertial platform coordinate system (I) through coordinate transformation mode, realizing conversion with coordinates in the laser scanning coordinate system (L) through a coordinate transformation model, and solving the arrangement parameters. The method provided by the invention can carry out calibration at one stop, thereby reducing the complexity of a mathematical transformation model, and improving the efficiency of calibration for the arrangement parameters.

Description

A kind of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system settles the one-stop scaling method of parameter
Technical field
The present invention relates to the one-stop scaling method that a kind of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system settles parameter.Belong to the field of measuring technique utilizing optics to be feature.
Background technology
Along with improving constantly of laser scanning speed, precision and mass data processing ability, laser scanner progressively becomes the main sensors of vehicle-mounted mobile measuring system, is called Vehicle-borne Laser Scanning system.
Current vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system settles the method for parameter calibration mainly by arranging different horizontal scan angle with two-dimentional acquisition mode, need to allow vehicle carry out under steam measuring according to certain scanning angle, higher to the planarity requirements measuring object; And need to measure repeatedly, obtain the measurement data under different scanning angle, i.e. two-dimensional scan mode, its process is comparatively loaded down with trivial details.Then, impact point after scanning and monumented point geocentric coordinate are directly set up overall arrangement Parameter Switch model, according to geocentric coordinate and the instantaneous point cloud coordinate of common point, by Least Square Method parameter, relate to multiple conversions, model complexity is high, and two cover coordinate scale gaps are comparatively large, and direct calculating easily produces round-off error.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, proposes a kind ofly to carry out one-stop scaling method to vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system, for solving the inefficient problem of demarcation that prior art scaling method complexity causes.
Above-mentioned purpose of the present invention is mainly achieved by following technical solution:
Vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system settles an one-stop scaling method for parameter, comprises the steps:
Step (one), object in Calibration Field are fixed the artificial target with light-reflecting property of some, obtain the geocentric coordinate of these artificial targets;
Step (two), choose the position, somewhere of monumented point as website, allow the vehicle being loaded with three-dimensional laser scanning system stop at this website, utilize laser scanning system to carry out 3-D scanning to object, collect a series of monumented point cloud.
Step (three), carry out identifying and locate to these monumented point clouds, obtain its coordinate in laser scanning coordinate system L.
The geocentric coordinate of step (four), artificial target is transformed into inertial platform coordinate system (I) by coordinate conversion mode from geocentric coordinate system (WGS84), and realize conversion with the coordinate in laser scanning coordinate system (L) by Coordinate Transformation Models, try to achieve arrangement parameter.
Further, described in step (three) monumented point cloud is identified and localization method is: 1) by carrying out Threshold segmentation to monumented point cloud, 2) the monumented point cloud cluster received in threshold will be dropped on, 3) cancelling noise target, 4) determine the barycentric coordinates of monumented point at laser scanning coordinate system.
Further, in described Threshold segmentation process, retain for dropping on the monumented point accepted in threshold, threshold value is different with angle and change with the light echo reflective distance of monumented point.
Further, arrange monumented point original center of gravity, monumented point cloud adopts the mode of classifying one by one, and calculation flag point center of gravity, carries out reconstruction to center of gravity and realize self-propagation cluster.
The present invention's beneficial effect is compared with prior art:
Utilized three-dimensional laser scanning system calibrating parameters to be by arranging certain horizontal scan angle repetitive measurement with two-dimentional acquisition mode in the past, the result utilizing the vehicle being loaded with laser scanning system to measure under steam carries out parameter calculation, process is comparatively complicated, efficiency is low, the data precision that impact is measured.This invention determine after appearance positioning system normally works in guarantee, adopts to allow the of short duration stopping of vehicle being loaded with laser scanning system in Calibration Field, and in three-dimensional acquisition mode, gathers rapidly the cloud data indicated.Because only measure at a station, substantially increase the efficiency of demarcation.And then, because the data obtained are different from employing two-dimensional scan mode, so when setting up arrangement parameter calculation mathematical model, the absolute coordinates of common point first can be transformed into carrier coordinate system by determining appearance positioning result, combine with the data of laser scanning coordinate system again and solve arrangement parameter, thus the parameter estimation mathematical model of complexity is simplified to the parameter calculation model of single coordinate conversion, resolve efficiency high.
And, the monumented point cloud utilizing laser scanning system to gather, by mobile Threshold segmentation, the realization of self-propagation cluster analysis scheduling algorithm to the automatic location of artificial target and identification, also can corresponding raising precision.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is that the present invention settles parameter calibration field;
Fig. 2 is the laying of artificial target in Calibration Field of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the process flow diagram that the present invention settles parameter calculation model.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention will be further described in detail.
(1), the geocentric coordinate of artificial target obtains
Be illustrated in figure 1 the present invention and settle parameter calibration field, choose known point S at Calibration Field 1, and the high-precision coordinate of this point known, select 5 reference mark else at verification field, S 5and S 6be two can the reference mark of phase intercommunication video.
Be illustrated in figure 2 the laying of artificial target in Calibration Field of the present invention, at S 5neighbouring object is fixed the artificial target with light-reflecting property of some.At S 5total powerstation is set, S 6erection prism, the angle measurement of utilization orientation observation method and laser ranging obtain the topocentric coordinates of artificial target.If the coordinate of the initial point A of topocentric coordinate system is (B 0, L 0, H 0), then corresponding rectangular coordinate system in space form is (X 0, Y 0, Z 0).Transformational relation between arbitrary geocentric coordinate (X, Y, Z) Yu topocentric coordinates (N, E, U), as shown in the formula expression:
N E U = T · ( X Y Z - X 0 Y 0 Z 0 ) - - - ( 1 )
In formula:
T = - sinB 0 cosL 0 - sinB 0 sinL 0 cosB 0 - sinL 0 cosL 0 0 cosB 0 cosL 0 cosB 0 sinL 0 sinB 0 - - - ( 2 )
The geocentric coordinate of artificial target just can be obtained by the inverse transformation of above formula.
(2) laser scanning system, is utilized to gather three-dimensional symbol point cloud
In Calibration Field, choose a place measure website, drive the vehicle being loaded with laser scanning system walk to this website and stop, utilize vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system by three-dimensional acquisition mode, the object laying artificial target is scanned, collect a series of monumented point cloud.
(3), the automatic identification of monumented point cloud and location
1, laser scanner is utilized to obtain the range information of collection point, calculate the adjacent threshold of each point by KNN and fit to plane, wherein impact point with together with angle between the line at center and plane normal be incident angle, Distance geometry incident angle is substituted into block mold, obtain the light echo reflected value (being threshold value) that retro-reflective target is expected under this condition, the point dropped in this reception threshold is retained.
2, by measurement target composition set T, multiple laser spots that each target is gathered by laser system form.To each object definition anchor point O, with single target the center of gravity comprised a little represent.If target T ibe made up of n point, then T icenter of gravity O be:
O x = Σ i = 1 n x i n O y = Σ i = 1 n y i n O z = Σ i = 1 n z i n - - - ( 3 )
The point obtained from segmentation is concentrated optional a bit as first object point T i, the barycentric coordinates of target carry out initialization with the coordinate of this point.Point set after traversal segmentation, is numbered the point set after segmentation, the Euclidean distance l of comparison object point and target barycentric O in order; For the i-th point, if l is little of aimed dia d, then i point belongs to this target, is added this target, and the center of gravity of more fresh target; If i-th does not belong to any target, then re-establish a new target, its center of gravity is initialized as the coordinate of this point.Different classes of target different colours is showed.
3, scan in laser acquisition system the point that obtains to concentrate and can there is noise spot, utilize the characteristic of the point set such as to count of flatness, size, expectation, noise spot is rejected.
4, for reflective marker, the method for light echo intensity weighted can be adopted to ask for barycentric coordinates, be shown below:
x T i = Σ j = 1 K A j x j K y T i = Σ j = 1 K A j y j K z T i = Σ j = 1 K A j z j K - - - ( 4 )
Wherein: K is i-th target T icount, A jfor the light echo intensity of jth point.
The monumented point coordinate obtained is based upon in laser scanning coordinate system L.
In above cluster embodiment, have employed the self-propagation cluster of Euclidean distance method realize target point, also can adopt k-means clustering algorithm, the most contiguous clustering algorithm etc.
(4) arrangement parameter calculation model, is set up
Be illustrated in figure 3 the process flow diagram that the present invention settles parameter calculation model, the geocentric coordinate of artificial target is transformed into carrier coordinate system (inertial platform coordinate system) by coordinate conversion mode, and concrete mode is as follows:
(1) geocentric coordinate system WGS84 is transformed into local horizontal coordinates LH
In Vehicle-borne Laser Scanning system, main GNSS receiver phase center coordinate is (B, L, H), and Cartesian form is if workman's marker coordinates is (x 84, y 84, z 84) t.WGS84 coordinate system is rotated counterclockwise L around Z axis, is turning 90 degrees+B around Y-axis dextrorotation, obtaining rotation matrix R w, can rotational transform be completed.Comprehensively obtain the transformation model of mark centre coordinate from WGS84 to LH, as shown in the formula:
x L H y L H z L H = R W x 84 - x 84 G y 84 - y 84 G z 84 - z 84 G - - - ( 5 )
(2) local horizontal coordinates LH is transformed into inertial platform coordinate system I
Deposit in inertial platform coordinate system I be carrier determine appearance elements of a fix information, utilize three transient posture angles (course angle, the angle of roll, pitch angle) of determine appearance positioning system to determine, by three of LH to I rotation Eulerian angle, then to obtain rotation matrix R n.Inertial navigation components, when navigating, adds the compensation of gravity anomaly, makes three Eulerian angle be that therefore, plumb line deviation obtains correction with local horizontal reference system (using the normal of reference ellipsoid as Z axis) for reference frame.By the Fixing the origin of coordinate antenna phase center of I, the coordinate of artificial target under I system is (x i, y i, z i) t, then indicate geocentric coordinate to inertial platform coordinate transformation model as shown in the formula:
x I y I z I = R N x L H y L H z L H - - - ( 6 )
(3) parameter calculation is settled
Laser coordinate system and inertial platform coordinate system are all three-dimensional right-handed rectangular coordinate system, and are rigid transformation between the two, by 3 translation parameterss set up transformation model conversion with 3 rotation parameters (α, beta, gamma), Coordinate Transformation Models as shown in the formula:
x I y I z I = R M x L y L z L + Δ x L I Δy L I Δz L I - - - ( 7 )
Wherein, [x l, y l, z l] tfor the coordinate in laser coordinate system L;
Translation parameters and rotation parameter (be 6 and settle parameter) can be calculated by transformation model.Wherein, rotation parameter is from rotation matrix R mtry to achieve, wherein:
R M=R(γ)R(β)R(α)(8)
R ( γ ) = c o s γ - s i n γ 0 s i n γ cos γ 0 0 0 1 - - - ( 9 )
R ( β ) = c o s β 0 s i n β 0 1 0 - sin β 0 c o s β - - - ( 10 )
R ( α ) = 1 0 0 0 c o s α - s i n α 0 s i n α cos α - - - ( 11 )

Claims (4)

1. vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system settles an one-stop scaling method for parameter, it is characterized in that comprising the steps:
Step (one), object in Calibration Field are fixed the artificial target with light-reflecting property of some, obtain the geocentric coordinate of these artificial targets;
Step (two), choose the position, somewhere of monumented point as website, allow the vehicle being loaded with three-dimensional laser scanning system stop at this website, utilize laser scanning system to carry out 3-D scanning to object, collect a series of monumented point cloud;
Step (three), carry out identifying and locate to these monumented point clouds, obtain its coordinate in laser scanning coordinate system L;
The geocentric coordinate of step (four), artificial target is transformed into inertial platform coordinate system (I) by coordinate conversion mode from geocentric coordinate system (WGS84), and realize conversion with the coordinate in laser scanning coordinate system (L) by Coordinate Transformation Models, try to achieve arrangement parameter.
2. a kind of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system according to right 1 settles the one-stop scaling method of parameter, it is characterized in that: described in step (three) monumented point cloud is identified and positioning step comprises: 1) by carrying out Threshold segmentation to monumented point cloud, 2) the monumented point cloud cluster received in threshold will be dropped on, 3) cancelling noise target, 4) determine the barycentric coordinates of monumented point at laser scanning coordinate system.
3. a kind of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system according to right 2 settles the one-stop scaling method of parameter, it is characterized in that: in described Threshold segmentation process, retain for dropping on the monumented point accepted in threshold, threshold value is different with angle and change with the light echo reflective distance of monumented point.
4. a kind of vehicle-mounted three-dimensional laser scanning system according to right 2 settles the one-stop scaling method of parameter, it is characterized in that: monumented point original center of gravity is set, monumented point cloud adopts the mode of classifying one by one, and calculation flag point center of gravity, carries out reconstruction to center of gravity and realize self-propagation cluster.
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CN106546262B (en) * 2016-10-11 2019-05-10 山东科技大学 The traverse measurement system external parameters calibration method closed based on plane control and about binding
CN106546262A (en) * 2016-10-11 2017-03-29 山东科技大学 Based on plane control and about binding close traverse measurement system external parameters calibration method
CN106546230B (en) * 2016-11-01 2021-06-22 北京墨土科技有限公司 Positioning point arrangement method and device, and method and equipment for measuring three-dimensional coordinates of positioning points
CN106546230A (en) * 2016-11-01 2017-03-29 狒特科技(北京)有限公司 Anchor point method for arranging and device, the method and apparatus for determining anchor point three-dimensional coordinate
CN107179534A (en) * 2017-06-29 2017-09-19 北京北科天绘科技有限公司 A kind of method, device and the laser radar of laser radar parameter automatic Calibration
KR20190129978A (en) * 2017-08-23 2019-11-20 텐센트 테크놀로지(센젠) 컴퍼니 리미티드 Laser scanning device calibration method, apparatus, device and storage medium
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CN107782240B (en) * 2017-09-27 2020-06-05 首都师范大学 Two-dimensional laser scanner calibration method, system and device
CN107782240A (en) * 2017-09-27 2018-03-09 首都师范大学 A kind of two dimensional laser scanning instrument scaling method, system and device
WO2019071840A1 (en) * 2017-10-13 2019-04-18 重庆市勘测院 Method and device for acquiring point cloud data in the absence of gnss signal
CN108362201A (en) * 2017-12-25 2018-08-03 中国人民解放军战略支援部队信息工程大学 A kind of navigation sensor parameter calibration method and device based on 3 D laser scanning
CN108805976A (en) * 2018-05-31 2018-11-13 武汉中观自动化科技有限公司 A kind of 3 D scanning system and method
CN109141226A (en) * 2018-06-06 2019-01-04 华南农业大学 The spatial point coordinate measuring method of one camera multi-angle
CN110376570A (en) * 2018-07-09 2019-10-25 北京京东尚科信息技术有限公司 Method, system and the equipment that scanner coordinate system and IMU coordinate system are demarcated
CN109459759A (en) * 2018-11-13 2019-03-12 中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院 City Terrain three-dimensional rebuilding method based on quadrotor drone laser radar system
CN109459759B (en) * 2018-11-13 2020-06-30 中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院 Urban terrain three-dimensional reconstruction method based on quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle laser radar system

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