CN105186733B - A kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator - Google Patents

A kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator Download PDF

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CN105186733B
CN105186733B CN201510695708.8A CN201510695708A CN105186733B CN 105186733 B CN105186733 B CN 105186733B CN 201510695708 A CN201510695708 A CN 201510695708A CN 105186733 B CN105186733 B CN 105186733B
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permanent magnet
stator
slot
excitation
winding
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CN105186733A (en
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王道涵
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Shandong University
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Shandong University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generators, including stator, even number stator tooth is evenly arranged on stator, stator slot is equipped in two neighboring stator tooth, permanent magnet is equipped between stator slot yoke and stator back yoke, main air gap is equipped between stator tooth and the mover tooth of mover;Stator slot includes armature slot and excitation slot, armature slot and the arrangement of excitation slot alternate intervals, is surrounded with a set of armature winding in two adjacent armature slots, set of excitation winding is surrounded in two adjacent excitation slots, Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection leads to the constant DC current in direction;Additional air gap is equipped in the yoke portion of stator slot where Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection, the magnetic flux part that adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets generate enters mover by main air gap and forms main flux, and another part is closed to form leakage magnetic flux by additional air gap.The present invention can adjust the size of the leakage magnetic flux by adjusting sense of current and size in Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection, play the role of increasing magnetic and degaussing.

Description

A kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generators.
Background technology
The electric energy inputted can be converted into straight line kinetic energy by linear motor driver in required occasion, real It now moves along a straight line, saves the machine driving conversion equipment in conventional motion-straight line conversion type of drive, substantially reduce transmission dress The volume put, improves the reliability and efficiency of whole system, and effectively reduces the cost and maintenance cost of equipment, not only such as This, also conventional motion-straight line converts the high speed that type of drive is unable to reach, high-precision and robustness.In addition, since transmission turns Changing device can dramatically increase vibration and the noise of transmission system, reduce the control accuracy and performance of system.Therefore, in modern industry In production process, especially all particular applications, such as precision instrument, aero-space instrument, Medical Instruments etc., straight line electric Machine is more and more widely used.
The kinetic energy that linear motion generates directly can be converted into electric energy by linear electric generator, and hair is directly driven using linear electric generator Electricity can significantly increase the being mutually matched property of machinery of moving component and power generator, and kinetic energy capture rate is high, especially in the straight of low speed Line kinematic system more has advantage using linear electric generator.
At present, linear electric generator has a following type, 1) linear induction generator, its feature are:End effect is apparent, especially When it is high-speed cruising, end effect causes motor propulsive force to be obviously reduced;Efficiency and power factor are all than relatively low, usual efficiency 50%~60%, power factor only has 0.5 or so, and control system and control strategy are extremely complex;2) permanent magnet linear generator, There is high power density and high efficiency, be applied to ocean wave energy at present and directly driven electricity generation system.But existing permanent magnetism The permanent magnet of linear motor is located on mover mostly, and as mover moves reciprocatingly, the magnetic property of permanent-magnet material is easily by temperature, rust The influence of the external environmental factors such as erosion and vibration, therefore, for the more severe occasion of running environment, permanent magnet linear generator is simultaneously It is inapplicable;3) straight line switch reluctance generator, motor body is simple in structure, and manufacture is at low cost, and operational reliability is high, and having can The advantage run under various mal-conditions, maintenance cost are low.In addition to this, whole system efficiency is moved higher than linear induction Machine, and with broad economical operation range, can be realized by various flexible control strategies a series of satisfactory Performance, but straight line switch reluctance generator power density is relatively low.
In recent years, with the raising of permanent-magnet material high temperature resistance and the reduction of price, magneto is in national defence, industrial or agricultural Production and daily life etc. are more widely applied, and positive high-power, high performance and micromation direction are developed. For the power of magneto from several milliwatts to several megawatts, application range draws use from toy motor, commercial Application to naval vessel at present Large-scale magneto, be widely applied in the various aspects of national economy, daily life, war industry, aerospace, Similar with motion permanent magnetic motor, existing permanent-magnetism linear motor winding is generally 3 phases, and stator slot number is more, and winding inserting technique is answered Miscellaneous, manufacture is of high cost;Existing most of permanent-magnetism linear motor permanent magnets are located on mover, and when operation moves with mover, forever Magnet need to be fixed using special procedure, and manufacture is of high cost, and when especially motor operation speed is higher, permanent magnet fixes difficulty, due to Permanent magnet is located on mover, and heat dissipation is difficult during operation, Wen Sheng and caused by reciprocating motion vibration can lead to permanent magnet machine Tool structural failure and generation irreversible demagnetization;Existing permanent magnet linear generator is generally three-phase, it is desirable that the power inverting electricity of motor Road at least needs 6 device for power switching, such as IGBT or MOSFET and the corresponding driving device for power switching Driving circuit and protection circuit so that power of motor inverter circuit cost is quite high, even up to the two of motor body cost To three times, quantity of power switches, which increases, increases control circuit complexity, and the possibility of device failure increases, fortune The reliability of system reduces during row.Existing permanent-magnetism linear motor be mostly permanent magnet directly facing air gap, permanent magnet faces can not Demagnetization is dangerous, moreover, the existing permanent-magnetism linear motor winding number of phases is more, iron core inside groove number is more, and winding inserting technique is answered during manufacture Miscellaneous, iron core dosage is big, and motor quality is big, and stock utilization is low when electric power generation is run
For existing permanent-magnetism linear motor since permanent magnet magnetic kinetic potential is fixed, motor main flux is non-adjustable, leads to output-constant operation Narrow range, voltage is non-adjustable during generator operation, does not have De-excitation at fault function, and machine winding is generally 3 phases, stator slot number It is more, winding inserting complex process;Existing most of permanent magnet of permanent magnet motor are located on mover, and when operation moves with mover, Permanent magnet need to be fixed using special procedure, and manufacture is of high cost, and when especially motor speed is higher, permanent magnet fixation is more difficult, by Be located on mover in permanent magnet, heat dissipation is difficult during operation, Wen Sheng and caused by being moved due to mover vibration can lead to permanent magnet Irreversible demagnetization is damaged and occurred to mechanical structure;Existing permanent-magnetism linear motor is generally three-phase, it is desirable that the power inverting electricity of motor Road at least needs 6 device for power switching, such as IGBT or MOSFET and the corresponding driving device for power switching Driving circuit and protection circuit so that power of motor inverter circuit cost is quite high, even up to the two of motor body cost To three times, quantity of power switches, which increases, increases control circuit complexity, and the possibility of device failure increases, fortune The reliability of system reduces during row.
For the existing nonadjustable shortcoming of permanent-magnetism linear motor excitation magnetic potential, related scholar proposes some composite excitation knots Structure motor, this kind of composite excitation structural electromotor can be divided into two classes from excitation mode, one kind be permanent magnet magnetic potential with excitation around Group magnetic potential series-mode frame, for this class formation since magnetic flux is needed across permanent magnet, exciting current is big, and excitation loss is high, and And the risk of irreversible demagnetization can be generated to permanent magnet, application is not extensive;Another kind of is permanent magnet magnetic potential and Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection magnetic potential Structure in parallel, this class formation is generally using stator permanent-magnet, and permanent magnet is located on stator, by adjusting Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection electric current tune Magnetic field being saved, this kind of motor adjustable magnetic performance is good, but after increase Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection, machine winding tricks is more so that electric machine structure is complicated, It sometimes appear that having the situation of more set windings or existing phase winding to have the situation of Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection again in a slot, slot domestic demand increases Phase insulation, winding inserting complex process, slot utilization rate is low, in addition, it is desirable to increase excitation slot, electromechanics structure scatteredization is tight Weight, assembles fixed difficult, processing technology complexity, and motor cost is high.What is more important after increasing Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection, needs at least The electric current of a device for power switching control Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection is further added by, which further adds the cost of power circuit, moreover, The magnetic flux and main flux that Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection generates share main magnetic circuit and main air gap, and by motor, other design parameters are limited excitation effect System once motor is made, can only control excitation effect by adjusting exciting current, can not be controlled by individually designed magnetic excitation circuit Magnetic flux processed.
Therefore, seek that a kind of winding number of phases is few, and iron core dosage is few, motor body manufacturing process is simple, and permanent magnet is located at fixed Easy for installation on son, at low cost, power circuit switching device number is few, controller and power circuit it is at low cost have adjustable magnetic work( The composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator of energy is most important.
Invention content
The present invention is to solve the above-mentioned problems, it is proposed that a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear generating Machine has a set of stator armature winding and set of excitation winding on the stator of this permanent magnet motor, is only laid in each slot of motor A set of winding, when operation, only have a set of armature winding indirect current stream, and another group of Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection is led to DC current, do not needed in slot Phase insulation, copper factor are high, and machine winding down line process is simple, entire cost less than existing all kinds of three-phase induction motors and Magneto;Permanent magnet is fixed on stator, is not moved back and forth with mover, easy for installation, is conducive to radiate, and is eliminated commonly forever Magnetic linear motor is due to the shortcomings of mechanical stress that permanent magnet is moved back and forth with mover and is generated is damaged, and permanent magnet heat dissipation is bad.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that:
A kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, including stator, mover, additional air gap and master Air gap, wherein:
Even number stator tooth is evenly arranged on the stator, stator slot, stator slot yoke are equipped in two neighboring stator tooth Permanent magnet is equipped between stator back yoke, main air gap is equipped between the stator tooth and the mover tooth of mover;
The stator slot includes armature slot and excitation slot, armature slot and the arrangement of excitation slot alternate intervals, two adjacent electricity A set of armature winding is surrounded in pivot slot, set of excitation winding, and the armature winding are surrounded in two adjacent excitation slots Indirect current stream, the Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection lead to the constant DC current in direction;
Additional air gap, the magnetic flux that adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets generate are equipped in the yoke portion of stator slot where the Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection A part enters mover by main air gap and forms main flux, and another part is closed to form leakage magnetic flux by additional air gap.
Further, during motor operation, it is only necessary to control size of current and the direction of a set of armature winding, armature supply magnetic The magnetic field interaction that field and permanent magnet generate causes the magnetic flux on stator tooth mutually to enhance or offset, and stator field is at some It continuously opens or turns off on direction, torque is generated using magnetic resistance change rate between stator and mover and generate electricity.It is only placed in stator slot There is a set of armature winding, phase insulation is not needed in stator slot, slot utilization rate is high, and winding inserting is simple for process, and manufacture is at low cost.
The setting that permanent magnet is not rotated with mover so that it is easy for installation, be conducive to radiate, eliminate common single-phase permanent electricity Machine is radiated the shortcomings of bad due to the mechanical stress damage that permanent magnet is rotated with mover and is generated with permanent magnet.
Further, every piece of permanent magnet is magnetized by a monoblock permanent magnet forms or is spelled by the permanent magnet of polylith narrower width It connects, the width of the permanent magnet may be the same or different.
The number of the stator tooth is the even number more than or equal to 4.
The number of the mover tooth is more than or equal to the 1/2 of stator tooth number.
The block number number of the permanent magnet is m times of mover tooth, and m is the natural number more than or equal to 1.
The magnetic flux that the Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection generates forms closed circuit by additional air gap, stator tooth, main air gap and mover tooth, The magnetic flux that Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection generates forms parallel relationship with the magnetic flux that permanent magnet generates, reduces magnetic flux without permanent magnet The magnetic resistance in corresponding circuit, similary exciting current can generate larger magnetic flux, not only effectively increase weak magnetic efficiency, but also keep away Permanent magnet is exempted from since magnetic flux is irreversible across the magnetic property decline that permanent magnet causes permanent magnet magnetic reversal and generates etc. The risk of demagnetization enhances the reliability of motor.
The permanent magnet is in close contact with stator back yoke iron core and stator slot yoke core.
The stator slot yoke is located at magnetizing for permanent magnet of the stator trench bottom in lateral direction, same stator slot yoke Direction is identical, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet in two neighboring stator slot yoke portion is opposite.
The additional air gap can be even air gap of same size everywhere, or of different size non-homogeneous everywhere Air gap, thus it is possible to vary the width of additional air gap obtains different increasing magnetic and weak magnetic spy using not wide gap structure up and down Property meets the needs of different application occasion with this.
The size of the additional air gap determines the size of leakage field, and the size of additional air gap should be according to the leakage magnetic flux and excitation The number of turn and electric current of winding determine.
Slot where the armature winding a from armature winding penetrates, and is pierced by from adjacent armature slot, two neighboring armature Winding in slot forms an armature coil, and each armature coil is across two stator tooths away from winding in two neighboring armature slot Size of current it is identical, direction is opposite.
Slot where the Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection a from Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection penetrates, and is pierced by from adjacent excitation slot, two neighboring excitation Winding in slot forms a magnet exciting coil, and each magnet exciting coil is across two stator tooths away from where two neighboring Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection The size of current of winding is identical in slot, and direction is opposite.
During motor operation, it is only necessary to control size of current and the direction of a set of armature winding, the Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection leads to direction The magnetic field interaction that constant DC current, armature supply magnetic field, exciting current magnetic field and permanent magnet generate causes stator tooth On magnetic flux mutually enhance and either offset stator field and continuously open or turn off in a certain direction, utilize stator and mover Between magnetic resistance change rate generate and torque and generate electricity.
The width of the permanent magnet of the motor can flexibly be determined by the magnetic energy product according to permanent magnet or residual flux density, The residual flux density of permanent magnet can be determined according to the design air gap flux density of motor, then by changing the pole embrace of permanent magnet come really Determine the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet, and existing magneto is since pole embrace is limited by number of poles, usually only using high-performance Permanent magnet could meet the needs of design flux density.
The permanent magnet is either the permanent-magnet material such as neodymium iron boron of high energy product can also be the permanent magnetism material of low magnetic energy product Material such as ferrite or aluminium nickel cobalt are made.
The present invention operation principle be:
Stator core and mover core mover is formed using silicon steel plate stacking or the core material of high permeability is once made Into when armature winding and the equal no power of Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection, a part for the magnetic flux that the permanent magnet generates is fixed by stator slot yoke Sub- tooth and main air gap flow into mover tooth, and the permanent magnet under main air gap reaches another extremely is flowed out to using adjacent mover tooth, It is closed using stator back yoke, this results in the main fluxs of motor;Another part magnetic flux that permanent magnet generates without main air gap, But pass through stator slot yoke and pass through additional air gap, enter it is another extremely under permanent magnet, be closed by stator back yoke, this part Magnetic flux does not enter into main air gap and mover, is only closed in stator interior, this part magnetic flux is leakage magnetic flux.It is close below additional air gap Circle centre position is equipped with excitation slot, lays Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection in excitation slot, during Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection galvanization, according to the difference of current direction, The magnetic field that Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection generates will enhance or weaken main flux, and Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection electric current is bigger, enhancing or weakening to main flux Effect is stronger, since Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection magnetic potential and permanent magnet magnetic potential are in parallel, the total magnetic flux that permanent magnet generates be it is certain, therefore, Can adjust the size of the leakage magnetic flux by adjusting sense of current and size in Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection, so adjust by main air gap into Enter the size of the main flux into mover, the effect for adjusting excitation is realized with this.When armature winding is powered, armature winding electric current Different polarity is presented in the stator tooth of armature slot both sides respectively where the magnetic field of generation causes armature winding, is generated with permanent magnet Magnetic fields are superimposed so that a stator tooth shows polarity, there is main flux magnetic flux process, another adjacent stator tooth does not have pole Property, no magnetic flux flows through, since armature winding is set every a slot, the stator tooth for having half in motor has polarity, and one Half stator tooth does not have polarity, and according to magnetic resistance minimum principle, will move to mover makes mover tooth and the stator tooth with polarity Overlap, due to the mover number of teeth be the stator number of teeth half, just have at this time each mover tooth with stator tooth face, this position For mover tooth and the aligned position of stator tooth, the corresponding magnetic resistance minimum in this position.At this point, continuing to move to mover, need to change Become sense of current in armature winding so that the stator tooth display polarity without polarity just now, and the stator of original polarized Tooth does not show polarity, and at this moment, according to magnetic resistance minimum principle, will move to mover makes mover tooth and the stator tooth weight with polarity The position of conjunction, due to the mover number of teeth be the stator number of teeth half, at this time just each mover tooth with stator tooth face, this position The aligned position of mover tooth and stator tooth is set to, the corresponding inductance in this position is maximum and magnetic resistance is minimum.At this point, mover is after reforwarding It is dynamic, keep sense of current in armature winding constant, mover is by the power of its movement hindered, and generator operation, continues in electricity To feel last transition to be powered, power generation process will be continued for, and after stator and mover are aligned once again, change the direction of armature supply, So that the stator tooth without polarity shows polarity just now, and the stator tooth of original polarized does not show polarity, mover continue by Power simultaneously generates electricity, this process will repeat always, and power generation process is continued for.Due to entering the main magnetic of mover tooth by main air gap It is logical can by above-mentioned exciting current adjustment, therefore, motor of the present invention can need to realize according to actual condition increase magnetic operation and Weak magnetic field operation widens the output voltage range of motor, reduces manufacture cost, improves electric efficiency.
Beneficial effects of the present invention are:
(1) motor excitation winding of the present invention leads to the constant DC current in direction, it is only necessary to control the electricity of a set of armature winding Size and Orientation is flowed, therefore only needs two device for power switching, and common three phase electric machine needs at least six power switch device Part, device for power switching number is few needed for electric machine controller, at low cost;
(2) magnetic field that armature winding and Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection generate during motor operation of the present invention on the stator teeth mutually enhancing or Offset, during motor operation armature winding and Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection complete period be powered simultaneously, therefore, the power density of motor of the present invention is high, Stock utilization is high, the motor of same design power, and motor of the present invention saves material utilization amount, reduces cost;
(3) motor permanent magnet of the present invention is fixed on stator, is not moved with mover, easy for installation, is conducive to radiate, and is eliminated Since the mechanical stress that permanent magnet is moved with mover and is generated is damaged, the permanent magnet bad grade that radiates lacks for common permanent magnet generator Point;A set of winding is only laid in each stator slot of motor of the present invention, machine winding inserting-coil process is simple, does not need to place in slot Phase insulation is conducive to improve copper factor and slot utilization rate;
(4) in addition to main air gap, motor of the present invention is additionally provided with additional air gap, and additional air gap will not increase the size of motor;Phase A part of magnetic flux that adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets generate enters mover by main air gap and forms main flux, and another part is without main air gap It is closed to form leakage magnetic flux by the additional air gap into mover, since the total magnetic flux that permanent magnet generates is certain, pass through The size for adjusting electric current in Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection can conveniently adjust the size of the leakage magnetic flux, so adjust entered by main air gap it is dynamic The size of main flux in son can not only play increasing magnetic action, but also can play the role of weak magnetic, and the rotating speed for effectively widening motor is defeated Go out range and power output range, significantly improve the performance of motor;
(5) geomery of additional air gap can need flexibly to change according to different weak magnetics, and wide air gap can be used, on Narrow air gap or up-narrow and down-wide air gap under width reach different weak magnetic effects with this;The magnetic flux that Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection generates is by additional Air gap, stator tooth, main air gap and mover tooth form closed circuit, and the magnetic flux that Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection generates is without permanent magnet, with permanent magnetism The magnetic flux that body generates forms parallel relationship, reduces the magnetic resistance that magnetic flux corresponds to circuit, similary exciting current can generate larger Magnetic flux, not only effectively increase weak magnetic efficiency, but also avoid permanent magnet since magnetic flux causes across permanent magnet Permanent magnet magnetic reversal and the magnetic property that generates such as decline at the risk of irreversible demagnetizations, enhance the reliability of motor;
(6) present invention can eliminate torque dead-band by changing the Structure of mover of motor of the present invention, improve rising for motor Dynamic performance, for example asymmetric mover can be used, turbine-like mover or stepped mover etc.;
(7) permanent magnet in motor of the present invention can be one piece of permanent magnet integrally to magnetize, can also be by polylith permanent magnet Be spliced, therefore motor manufacturing technology of the present invention is simple, it is at low cost, solve permanent magnet cost due to wider width compared with Height easily ruptures when mechanically stressed, and when installation is more difficult, mechanical strength not as good as the smaller permanent magnet splicing of polylith width and Into the problem of;
(8) width of the permanent magnet of motor of the present invention can be according to the design magnetic energy product of permanent magnet or design residual flux density Flexibly determine, so motor of the present invention both may be used high energy product permanent magnet can also using low magnetic energy product permanent magnet, High energy product permanent magnet and low magnetic energy product permanent magnet mix and match can also be used, solves existing magneto due to polar arc system Number is limited by number of poles, usually there was only the problem of could meeting high performance motor needs using high-performance permanent magnet.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the power converter circuit figure of motor of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is existing brushless direct current permanent magnetic and permanent magnet synchronous motor power converter circuit figure;
Fig. 3 is 1 structure diagram of motor embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is 2 structure diagram of motor embodiment of the present invention;
Wherein, 1. stator tooth, 2. stator back yokes, 3. stator slot yokes, 4. armature slots, 5. excitation slots, 6. armature winding, 7. encourage Magnetic winding, 8. permanent magnets, 9. mover teeth, 10. mover slots, 11. main air gaps, 12. additional air gaps.
Specific embodiment:
The invention will be further described with embodiment below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
A kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, it includes stator, mover, main air gap and attached Aerating gap, stator include permanent magnet, stator yoke, stator tooth, stator slot and stator winding;Mover includes mover tooth and mover slot; The stator yoke includes stator slot yoke and stator back yoke, and stator slot yoke is located at stator trench bottom close to lateral direction, stator slot yoke Permanent magnet is equipped between stator back yoke, permanent magnet is not moved with mover, easy for installation, is conducive to radiate, and is eliminated commonly forever Magneto is since the mechanical stress damage that permanent magnet is moved with mover and is generated is radiated the shortcomings of bad with permanent magnet, every block of permanent magnetism Body can both be magnetized by a monoblock permanent magnet, can also be spliced by the permanent magnet of polylith narrower width, permanent magnet Width may be the same or different, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet on same stator slot yoke is identical, two neighboring stator slot The magnetizing direction of permanent magnet in yoke portion is opposite;Slot where slot (armature slot) where stator slot includes armature winding and Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection (excitation slot), the armature slot and excitation slot alternate intervals arrange, and a set of armature winding, the excitation slot are laid in armature slot Set of excitation winding is inside laid, during motor operation, it is only necessary to size of current and the direction of a set of armature winding are controlled, it is described to encourage Magnetic winding leads to the constant DC current in direction, armature supply magnetic field, the magnetic field phase interaction that exciting current magnetic field and permanent magnet generate Mutually enhanced with the magnetic flux caused on stator tooth and either offset stator field and continuously open or turn off in a certain direction, profit Torque is generated with magnetic resistance change rate between stator and mover and is generated electricity;Main air gap is equipped between stator tooth and mover tooth;Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection institute The stator slot yoke portion of top disconnects in slot, if additional air gap, the additional air gap does not increase the size of motor;Adjacent two pieces forever A part of magnetic flux that magnet generates enters mover by main air gap and forms main flux, and another part enters mover without main air gap And be closed to form leakage magnetic flux by the additional air gap, since the total magnetic flux that permanent magnet generates is certain, by adjusting excitation The size of electric current can adjust the size of the leakage magnetic flux in winding, and then adjust the main flux entered by main air gap in mover Size, with this realize adjust excitation effect.
The number n of motor stator toothsMeet:ns=2*n, wherein n are greater than the natural number equal to 2.
The number n of electric mover toothrWith the number n of motor stator toothsMeet:nr≥ns/2。
The block number n of permanent magnetpmWith the number n of motor stator toothsMeet:npm/ m=0.5*ns, m is oneself more than or equal to 1 So number.
A set of armature winding or Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection are only laid in stator slot, phase insulation, slot profit are not needed in stator slot With rate height, winding inserting is simple for process, and manufacture is at low cost.
The magnetic flux that Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection generates forms closed circuit, excitation by additional air gap, stator tooth, main air gap and mover tooth The magnetic flux that winding generates forms parallel relationship with the magnetic flux that permanent magnet generates, reduces magnetic flux correspondence without permanent magnet The magnetic resistance in circuit, similary exciting current can generate larger magnetic flux, not only effectively increase weak magnetic efficiency, but also avoid Permanent magnet due to magnetic flux pass through permanent magnet cause permanent magnet magnetic reversal and the irreversible demagnetizations such as the magnetic property that generates declines Risk, enhance the reliability of motor.
Permanent magnet is in close contact with stator back yoke iron core and stator slot yoke core.
Additional air gap can be even air gap of same size everywhere, or non-homogeneous gas of different size everywhere Gap, thus it is possible to vary the width of additional air gap obtains different increasing magnetic and weak magnetic characteristic using not wide gap structure up and down, Meet the needs of different application occasion with this.
Slot where armature winding a from armature winding penetrates, and is pierced by from adjacent armature slot, in two neighboring armature slot Winding form an armature coil, each armature coil is across two stator tooths away from the electricity of winding in two neighboring armature slot Stream size is identical, and direction is opposite.
Slot where Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection a from Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection penetrates, and is pierced by from adjacent excitation slot, in two neighboring excitation slot Winding form a magnet exciting coil, each magnet exciting coil is across two stator tooths away from where two neighboring Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection in slot The size of current of winding is identical, and direction is opposite.
The width of the permanent magnet of motor can flexibly be determined by the magnetic energy product according to permanent magnet or residual flux density, can be with The residual flux density of permanent magnet is determined, then determine forever by changing the pole embrace of permanent magnet according to the design air gap flux density of motor The magnetic energy product of magnet, and existing magneto is since pole embrace is limited by number of poles, usually only using high-performance permanent magnet Body could meet the needs of design flux density.
The permanent magnet is either the permanent-magnet material such as neodymium iron boron of high energy product can also be the permanent magnetism material of low magnetic energy product Material such as ferrite or aluminium nickel cobalt are made.
As shown in Figure 1, there was only a set of stator armature winding A and set of excitation winding F on stator, and in each slot of motor A set of winding is only laid, phase insulation is not needed in slot, machine winding down line process is simple, and entire cost is each less than existing Class three-phase induction motor and magneto, due to being not required to phase insulation in slot, copper factor is high;Motor permanent magnet of the present invention is fixed on On stator, do not moved with mover, it is easy for installation, be conducive to radiate, eliminate common permanent magnet generator since permanent magnet is with mover The shortcomings of mechanical stress damage for moving and generating, permanent magnet heat dissipation is bad;The power density of motor of the present invention is high, material use Rate is high, the motor of same design power, and motor of the present invention saves material utilization amount, reduces cost;Only have during motor operation of the present invention A set of armature winding A indirect current streams, and Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection F passes to the constant DC current in direction, therefore the control circuit of motor Two electric and electronic power switching devices are only needed, such as IGBT or MOSFET.
As shown in Fig. 2, have on existing all kinds of induction conductivities and permanent magnet motor stator three-phase and more than armature around Group needs at least six electric and electronic power switching device.Therefore, switching device needed for the control system of motor of the present invention is few, into This is low, simple in structure.Further, since device for power switching number is few, reduces device for power switching in circuit for controlling motor and send out The possibility of raw failure, reliability improve.
Embodiment one:
As shown in figure 3, the motor stator number of teeth is 8, the mover number of teeth is 4, and permanent magnet block number is 4, and present embodiment includes fixed Son, mover, main air gap and additional air gap, stator include stator core, permanent magnet and stator slot, and stator core includes stator tooth 1, Stator back yoke 2 and stator slot yoke 3, stator core are made of high permeability ferromagnetic material, and stator core is equipped with stator slot, stator Slot includes armature slot 4 and excitation slot 5, armature slot 4 and the arrangement of 5 alternate intervals of excitation slot, and armature winding 6 is laid in armature slot 4, Armature winding 6 is penetrated from an armature slot 4, is pierced by from another adjacent armature slot, forms a coil so that per adjacent two Size of current in a armature slot is identical, on the contrary, laying Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection 7 in excitation slot 5, Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection 7 is encouraged from one in direction Magnetic slot 5 penetrates, and is pierced by from another adjacent excitation slot, forms a coil so that the electric current in per two neighboring excitation slot Size is identical, and direction is opposite;Permanent magnet 8 is laid between stator slot yoke 3 and stator back yoke 2, permanent magnet 8 is using low magnetic energy product Ferrite permanent magnet material, the magnetizing direction of adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets are opposite;Mover includes mover tooth 9 and mover slot 10, mover Tooth 9 is uniformly distributed, and main air gap 11 is equipped between mover tooth 9 and stator tooth 1;The stator slot yoke 3 of top in 7 place slot of Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection It disconnects, if additional air gap 12, the width everywhere of additional air gap 12 is equal.
Embodiment two:
As shown in figure 4, the motor stator number of teeth is 8, the mover number of teeth is 4, and permanent magnet block number is 8, and present embodiment includes fixed Son, mover, main air gap and additional air gap, stator include stator core, permanent magnet and stator slot, and stator core includes stator tooth 1, Stator back yoke 2 and stator slot yoke 3, stator core are made of high permeability ferromagnetic material, and stator core is equipped with stator slot, stator Slot includes armature slot 4 and excitation slot 5, armature slot and the arrangement of excitation slot alternate intervals, lays armature winding 6 in armature slot 4, electricity Pivot winding 6 is penetrated from an armature slot, is pierced by from another adjacent armature slot, forms a coil so that per two neighboring Size of current in armature slot is identical, and direction is on the contrary, lay Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection 7 in excitation slot 5, Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection 7 is from an excitation Slot penetrates, and is pierced by from another adjacent excitation slot, forms a coil so that the size of current in per two neighboring excitation slot Identical, direction is opposite;Permanent magnet 8 is laid between stator slot yoke 3 and stator back yoke 2, there are 2 blocks of permanent magnetism on each stator slot yoke 3 Body, permanent magnet 8 is using the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material of high energy product, the magnetizing direction of 2 pieces of permanent magnets on same stator slot yoke Identical, the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet on adjacent different stator slot yokes is opposite;Mover includes mover tooth 9 and mover slot 10;It is dynamic Main air gap 11 is equipped between sub- tooth 9 and stator tooth 1;The stator slot yoke portion of top disconnects in 7 place slot of Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection, if additional gas Gap 12, the width everywhere of additional air gap 12 are equal.
Meanwhile motor provided by the invention, according to the difference of its application field, those skilled in the art are directed to concrete application The difference of environment and object carries out the electric machine structure of the present invention without creative change, is readily apparent that, should also be subordinate to It belongs to the scope of protection of the present invention.
Above-mentioned, although the foregoing specific embodiments of the present invention is described with reference to the accompanying drawings, not protects model to the present invention The limitation enclosed, those skilled in the art should understand that, based on the technical solutions of the present invention, those skilled in the art are not Need to make the creative labor the various modifications or changes that can be made still within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, it is characterized in that:Including stator, mover, add Air gap and main air gap, wherein:
Even number stator tooth is evenly arranged on the stator, stator slot is equipped in two neighboring stator tooth, stator slot yoke is with determining Permanent magnet is equipped between sub- back yoke, main air gap is equipped between the stator tooth and the mover tooth of mover;
The stator slot includes armature slot and excitation slot, armature slot and the arrangement of excitation slot alternate intervals, two adjacent armature slots A set of armature winding is inside surrounded with, set of excitation winding is surrounded with, and the armature winding leads to friendship in two adjacent excitation slots Galvanic electricity stream, the Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection lead to the constant DC current in direction;
Be equipped with additional air gap in the yoke portion of the excitation slot, the magnetic flux part that adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets generate by main air gap into Enter mover and form main flux, another part is closed to form leakage magnetic flux by additional air gap;
When generator is run, it is only necessary to control size of current and the direction of a set of armature winding, the Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection leads to direction not The magnetic field interaction that the DC current of change, armature supply magnetic field, exciting current magnetic field and permanent magnet generate causes on stator tooth Magnetic flux mutually enhance and either offset stator field and continuously open or turn off in a certain direction, using between stator and mover Magnetic resistance change rate generates torque and generates electricity.
2. a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that:Institute Permanent magnet is stated not rotate with mover, every piece of permanent magnet magnetized by a monoblock permanent magnet form or spliced by polylith permanent magnet and Into.
3. a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that:Institute The number for stating stator tooth is the even number more than or equal to 4.
4. a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that:Institute The number for stating mover tooth is more than or equal to the 1/2 of stator tooth number.
5. a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that:Institute The block number for stating permanent magnet is m times of mover tooth, and m is the natural number more than or equal to 1.
6. a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that:Institute The magnetic flux for stating Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection generation forms closed circuit, Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection production by additional air gap, stator tooth, main air gap and mover tooth Raw magnetic flux forms parallel relationship without permanent magnet with the magnetic flux that permanent magnet generates.
7. a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that:Institute It states armature winding to penetrate from an armature slot, be pierced by from adjacent armature slot, the winding in two neighboring armature slot forms one Armature coil, each armature coil is across two stator tooths away from the size of current of winding is identical in two neighboring armature slot, direction On the contrary.
8. a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that:Institute It states Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection to penetrate from an excitation slot, be pierced by from adjacent excitation slot, the winding in two neighboring excitation slot forms one Magnet exciting coil, each magnet exciting coil is across two stator tooths away from the size of current of winding is identical in two neighboring excitation slot, direction On the contrary.
9. a kind of double winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that:Root The residual flux density of permanent magnet is determined according to the design air gap flux density of motor, and the magnetic energy of permanent magnet is determined by changing pole embrace Product flexibly determines the width of the permanent magnet of generator according to the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet or residual flux density.
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