CN105182969A - Systems And Methods For Dynamic Positioning - Google Patents

Systems And Methods For Dynamic Positioning Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105182969A
CN105182969A CN201510363887.5A CN201510363887A CN105182969A CN 105182969 A CN105182969 A CN 105182969A CN 201510363887 A CN201510363887 A CN 201510363887A CN 105182969 A CN105182969 A CN 105182969A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
described
value
based
swaying
dynamic positioning
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CN201510363887.5A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
R·I·斯蒂芬斯
A·J·威尔金斯
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通用电气能源能量变换技术有限公司
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Priority to EP14171009.5A priority Critical patent/EP2952994A1/en
Priority to EP14171009.5 priority
Application filed by 通用电气能源能量变换技术有限公司 filed Critical 通用电气能源能量变换技术有限公司
Publication of CN105182969A publication Critical patent/CN105182969A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/02Control of position or course in two dimensions
    • G05D1/0206Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to water vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63HMARINE PROPULSION OR STEERING
    • B63H25/00Steering; Slowing-down otherwise than by use of propulsive elements; Dynamic anchoring, i.e. positioning vessels by means of main or auxiliary propulsive elements
    • B63H25/42Steering or dynamic anchoring by propulsive elements; Steering or dynamic anchoring by propellers used therefor only; Steering or dynamic anchoring by rudders carrying propellers

Abstract

A system for minimizing fuel consumption in a dynamic positioning (DP) vessel comprising a measurement system, an observer system, a control system and a thruster system. The heading of the vessel is adjusted to minimize the environmental forces felt on each side of the vessel. The method also allows for operator input to offset the vessel heading to improve comfort on board.

Description

Dynamic positioning system and method

Technical field

The disclosure relate to by use Kinematic Positioning (DP) system boats and ships needed for the system and method for course minimum power.

Background technology

There is the trial that multiple solution relates to the problem of minimizing power dissipation, wherein said power consumption relates to position for the DP boats and ships of weather dependent event and Heading control.A kind of scheme is by estimating the power of port side and starboard side and controlling the course of boats and ships by minimizing required side force (that is, the propelling power in larboard-starboard direction).Although the program can provide than initial path more preferably course, the program can only use when boats and ships are in complete DP pattern.In addition, likely best direction controller can be unstable because the rate of change of bogey heading increases under severe weather conditions.

Summary of the invention

Data process system is highly energy-consuming in essence, because data process system offsets the power because weather produces.Therefore, the poor efficiency of Heading control and direction stability is the field of data process system special concern.Marked change is there is in these power along with the deflection degree (such as, incident angle) of boats and ships.Even if little skew also can cause the increase of propeller power demand on best ship course angle.For most of boats and ships, make bow sensing wind and/or current reduce environmental forces, thus reduce angle of rake power demand.In addition, the shortcoming minimizing the propeller power that DP boats and ships use is related to based on foregoing, need a kind of system and method, make to allow to adjust DP course when the measured value of DP controller environment for use power controls course and for steady course in inclement weather.

In addition, the course that the system and method permission data selection that use operator specifies when weather condition is severe described here is comfortable also adjusts course gain automatically.

The size of a benefit of high energy efficiency data process system and method to be it by Heading control the decrease power experienced on boats and ships due to environmental baseline.This system and method is designed to change ship course based on the side force of applying measured on boats and ships instead of side force demand.Required ship course can cause boats and ships consume unwanted energy and expend extra fuel only to use side force demand to determine.

In the disclosure, this system and method is by using the side force of observer system estimation boats and ships, and observer system can be a linear quadratic estimation routine (LQE), also referred to as Kalman filter.The measured value in position and course is provided to observer system.In certain embodiments, the measurement noises that the removing of observer system applied waveforms filter procedure is relevant to undulation, and thus generation eliminates the position of undulation and the estimated value of speed.

The estimation of vessel position, speed of the ship in metres per second and sky strength is sent to control system, and control system calculates the propelling demand maintaining vessel position and course.The control of ship course is ensured that the side force caused due to weather minimizes.

In certain embodiments, also Weather information is provided to observer system.Such as, be used to the wind-force in Estimation of Ship from the measurement of one or more wind gage and be fed to observer to improve its estimation to sky strength.

In other embodiments, observer system only receives the Weather information that it is used to provide boats and ships heaven strength estimated value.

In certain embodiments, if be supplied to some or all measured values disappearance of observer system, then observer system continues to provide the estimation of environmental forces on boats and ships.

In other embodiments, this system and method allows automatically to adjust course gain according to state of weather.When sky strength during inclement weather on (strong wind, high flow rate or billow) boats and ships is large, likely Heading control program will become unstable, cause large course vibration.Response speed by reducing course adjustment programme along with the increase of sky strength avoids large vibration.Another benefit is when the direction parameter of boats and ships is by manual control, when namely boats and ships are not in complete DP pattern, can use this system and method.In complete DP pattern, course axle and swaying axle are all being controlled completely by data process system, because required swaying power drives course change.On the contrary, in some embodiment described here, only course axle is controlled by data process system.In such embodiments, course change is by from side force, i.e. the LQE of the power in larboard-starboard direction estimates to drive.Although side force affects course change, even if the swaying direction of motion also can be used by manual control the method.

Another benefit can allow to adjust course.System and method of the present disclosure comprises makes operator provide input with the means specified Offsets to the determined course of data process system.Operator's input can be used for selecting the course concerning more comfortable boats and ships occupant.

The another benefit of native system and method is the boats and ships that can be applicable to non-ship shape.In the disclosure, this system and method can be used for any boats and ships by side force.

Provide following technical scheme:

1, a dynamic positioning system, comprising:

Controller, comprising:

Processor; With

It is preserved the storer of computer executable instructions, when described instruction is executed by processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:

Calculated by described processor:

Based on the total value of the measured value sum of one or more swaying environmental forces;

Based on the product value of described total value and controller gain product;

Based on the course shift angle of described product value integration in time; With

Based on the bogey heading of initial heading and described course shift angle sum.

2, the dynamic positioning system as described in technical scheme 1, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises based on described bogey heading generation propeller control signal.

3, the dynamic positioning system as described in technical scheme 1, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, and when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:

The measured value that tangent value based on operator's deviation angle is multiplied by surging environmental forces calculates the skew of swaying power;

This total value is calculated based on following sum:

The measured value of described one or more swaying environmental forces; With

Described swaying power skew.

4, the dynamic positioning system as described in technical scheme 3, wherein said swaying power skew is based on following formulae discovery:

ΔF ey=F ex*K x2ytan(δ)

Wherein Δ F eythe skew of swaying power, F exsurging environmental forces, K x2ybe offset gain, and δ is operator's deviation angle.

5, the dynamic positioning system as described in technical scheme 3, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, and when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:

Offset gain is calculated based on swaying wind factor and surging wind factor; With

Described tangent value based on described operator's deviation angle is multiplied by the measured value of described surging environmental forces, then is multiplied by described offset gain, calculates the skew of described swaying power.

6, the dynamic positioning system as described in technical scheme 5, wherein said offset gain is based on following formulae discovery:

Wherein K x2yoffset gain, C wyswaying wind factor, C wxit is surging wind factor.

7, the dynamic positioning system as described in technical scheme 3, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, and when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:

Multiplier value is calculated divided by surging environmental forces based on wind speed;

Determine the value of adjusted value, wherein the value of this adjusted value is:

If the absolute value of described multiplier is less than 1, then equal described multiplier value; Or

If the absolute value of described multiplier is greater than 1, then equal 1; And

Product based on described total value, described controller gain and described adjusted value calculates described product value.

8, the dynamic positioning system as described in technical scheme 7, wherein said multiplier is based on following formulae discovery:

k = | V nom F ex |

Wherein (k) is described multiplier, V nomdescribed wind speed, F exit is described surging environmental forces.

9, the dynamic positioning system as described in technical scheme 8, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises and calculates described multiplier when described wind speed exceedes predetermined speed.

10, the dynamic positioning system as described in technical scheme 8, the skew of wherein swaying power is based on following formulae discovery:

ΔF ey=F ex*K x2ytan(δ)

Wherein Δ F eythe skew of described swaying power, F exdescribed surging environmental forces, K x2ybe offset gain, and δ is described operator's deviation angle.

11, according to the dynamic positioning system of technical scheme 10, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:

Described offset gain is calculated based on swaying wind factor and surging wind factor.

12, according to the dynamic positioning system of technical scheme 11, wherein said offset gain is based on following formulae discovery:

Wherein K x2ydescribed offset gain, C wydescribed swaying wind factor, C wxit is described surging wind factor.

13, according to the dynamic positioning system of technical scheme 1, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:

Described course shift angle is compared with boundary; And

If described course shift angle is greater than described boundary, select described course shift angle as described boundary.

14, according to 1 dynamic positioning system, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, and when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:

Multiplier value is calculated divided by surging environmental forces based on wind speed;

Determine the value of adjusted value, the value of wherein said adjusted value is:

If the absolute value of described multiplier is less than 1, then equal described multiplier value; Or

If the absolute value of described multiplier is greater than 1, then equal 1; And

Product based on described total value, described controller gain and described adjusted value calculates described product value.

15, according to the dynamic positioning system of technical scheme 14, wherein said multiplier is based on following formulae discovery:

κ = | V nom F ex |

Wherein (κ) is described multiplier, V nomdescribed wind speed, F exit is described surging environmental forces.

16, according to the dynamic positioning system of technical scheme 1, comprise the measuring system being configured to measure state of weather data, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises the measured value calculating described one or more swaying environmental forces based on described state of weather data.

17, according to the dynamic positioning system of technical scheme 16, wherein said state of weather data comprise speed and the direction of wind.

18, according to the dynamic positioning system of technical scheme 1, impeller system is comprised.

19, according to the dynamic positioning system of technical scheme 18, described impeller system comprises at least one in tunnel type thruster, azimuth thruster, yaw rudder, screw propeller, water jet thrower and cycloidal propeller.

20, for a controller for dynamic positioning system, comprising:

Processor; With

It is preserved the storer of computer executable instructions, when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:

Calculated by described processor:

Based on the total value of the measured value sum of one or more swaying environmental forces;

Based on the product value of the product of described total value and controller gain;

Based on the course shift angle of described product value integration in time; With

Based on the bogey heading of initial heading and described course shift angle sum.

Describe further feature and advantage of the present disclosure below with reference to the accompanying drawings in detail, and the structure of the various embodiment of the disclosure and operation.Notice that the disclosure is not limited to specific embodiment described here.These embodiments are only illustratively in this proposition.Based on instruction comprised here, other embodiment is apparent for those skilled in the relevant art.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Accompanying drawing merges therewith and as the part of this explanations, accompanying drawing is illustrated the disclosure, and with instructions together with, plays further and explain principle of the present disclosure and make those skilled in the relevant art to manufacture and to use effect of the present disclosure.

Fig. 1 describes the module map according to the data process system of an one exemplary embodiment.

Fig. 2 is the module map of the controller of the data process system of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 describes the diagram comprising the boats and ships of the data process system of Fig. 1 according to an one exemplary embodiment.

Fig. 4 is the module map of the application of the controller describing Fig. 2.

Embodiment

Although be described the disclosure in this illustrative embodiment by application-specific, be to be understood that the disclosure is not limited to this.Consciousness other amendment within the scope of it, application and embodiment and the disclosure will be produced other field of remarkable effectiveness by the those skilled in the art obtaining instruction mentioned herein.

Unless otherwise defined, used here technology is identical with usual the understood implication of disclosure one skilled in the art with scientific terminology.Here used term " first ", " second " and like this, do not represent any order, quantity or importance, but for an element and another are distinguished.And term " " does not represent logarithm quantitative limitation, but there is at least one indication item in representative.Term "or" represents and is included, be meant to list in arbitrary, any, multiple or all.Here " comprise ", the use of " comprising " or " having " and their distortion represents and comprise listed thereafter item and its person of equal value and additive term.Term " connection " and " coupling " do not limit physics or mechanical connection, and can comprise electrical connection or coupling, no matter are direct or indirectly.Term " circuit ", " Circuits System " and " controller " can comprise single parts or multiple parts, and these parts are active and/or passive component and preferably can connect or be coupled to provide required function.

It should be noted that the emulation of various embodiment of the present disclosure, comprehensive and/or manufacture and can realize partially by use computer-readable code, computer-readable code comprises general programming language (such as C or C++), comprise the hardware description language (HDL) of VerilogHDL (VHDL), AlteralHDL (AHDL), interactive language and like this, or other available programming and/or schematic diagram capturing tools (such as circuit capturing tools).

Boats and ships move on three linear axis, are expressed as surging (surge), swaying (sway) and hang down to swing (heave).In addition boats and ships have three turning axle rolling pitching (θ) and course (also referred to as driftage) (ψ).Data process system is the full automatic system being designed to maintain boats and ships desired location (X, Y) and required course angle (ψ).

Use the boats and ships of data process system to comprise and investigate boats and ships, ship unit, work boat, submersible drilling rig, diving support ship, cable laying ship, pipelaying barge, shuttler, ditching dredger, storeship, and floating type production, storage and offloading ship (FPSO).

The principle of data process system is based on carrying out the feedback of sensor with other measuring equipment, the environmental forces that described sensor is reported kinematic variables with other measuring equipment and caused by wind or current.Data process system is eliminated the position of boats and ships and the destruction of course angle with the use of effort based on angle of rake.Propeller power demand is by obtaining the estimated value of environmental forces and the desired locations of boats and ships and course and the mathematic interpolation between estimated position and course.

Fig. 1 describes the module map for an one exemplary embodiment of the data process system 100 of boats and ships 300 (see Fig. 3).Data process system 100 comprises measuring system 110, DP controller 120 and impeller system 150.DP controller 120 is configured to receive data (such as from measuring system 110, measuring-signal 115), data are received (such as from operator, the data 130 that operator specifies), to produce the propeller control signal 145 based on these data, and propeller control signal 145 is sent to impeller system 150.

The information sent by signal 115 and 145 can with other inner or external subsystems integrated with share or pipeline processes from or be sent to the information of DP controller 120.That DP controller 120 receives, inner any information that is that calculate or that send can send and be saved in memory bank 160.

It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that data process system 100 can comprise one or more miscellaneous equipment and assembly.If can comprise additional redundancy in data process system 100 to there occurs fault to allow thruster, generator, power bus, controller or position reference system under DP pattern, system can maintain its position and course

Data process system 100 can comprise control panel for monitoring and inputting, for the control lever of Non-follow control, for sending and the processor of Received signal strength, the controller controlled for DP or any miscellaneous equipment helping ship control.Data process system 100 can allow to carry out manually or Long-distance Control into, thruster and steering apparatus promoting mainly of boats and ships 300.DP controller 120 also can be configured to have multiple control panel or controller to allow from the diverse location access in boats and ships 300.Data process system 100 can be designed to when switching ship operation between manual and DP pattern, the operation of people be minimized.

Also additional input/output (I/O system) can be used to receive information from DP controller 120 or provide information to it.These I/O systems and firmware can include but not limited to that relaying driver output in each relay, designator export and logic exports.

Vessel position data and ship course data (being referred to as, Vessel's Description data) are measured or received to measuring system 110.Measuring system 110 is also equipped as to be measured or receives state of weather data, the speed of such as wind and direction.Vessel's Description data and state of weather data are referred to as status data 105.

Status data 105 can be arranged on the computer-readable code on any known computer usable medium, described computer usable medium comprises semiconductor, disk, CD (such as CD-ROM, DVD-ROM), and can use (such as with computing machine, readable) transmission medium (such as carrier wave or other medium any, comprise numeral, optics or based on simulation medium) form as computer data signal.Similarly, code can send via the communication network comprising internet and internal network.

Measuring system 110 can comprise together or work alone to measure the position of boats and ships 300 and one or more measuring equipment (not shown) in course, or receives from this one or more measuring equipment.Measuring equipment can be any equipment being designed to reception information.Measuring equipment is positioned in the diverse location on boats and ships 300, such as but not limited to deck.If multiple measuring equipment in use, equipment can be independent of one another, thus the fault of an equipment can not affect any miscellaneous equipment.Measuring equipment can by certain hour interval, and namely, the time cycle measures, and the time cycle can need based on specific application and to be changed or variable; Such as, the time cycle is between 100 milliseconds and ten seconds.

Measuring equipment can be sensor, such as motion reference units, vertical reference unit, air velocity transducer or pneumatic sensor; Position measurement apparatus, such as Fanbeam, Cyscan, RadaScan, tensioned lines, satellite navigation, inertial navigation or acoustic localization; And/or heading measure equipment, such as gyrostatic compass.The status data 105 received into measuring system 110 can comprise variable, such as wind speed, surge, surface flow, is shoved, the drift of trend, waveform speed, waveform, waveform power frequency and waveform power arrange.

Measuring system 110 can comprise processor measuring-signal 115 being sent to DP controller 120.Measuring-signal 115 can comprise the position and course data (more uniformly, status data 105) of collecting from measuring equipment.Measurement data information is also sent to memory bank 160 and is used for storing by measuring-signal 115 alternatively.Memory bank 160 can comprise random access memory (RAM), ROM (read-only memory) (ROM) or other suitable data and store.Memory bank 160 also can be positioned at the inside of data process system 100 or position that is outside and that can be positioned at beyond by the scene of communication network or similar structures transmission data.

Impeller system 150 can be powered by inner or external power source (not shown).Impeller system 150 comprises the thruster of the control action implemented for safeguarding vessel position and course.Such as, impeller system 150 can comprise one or more tunnel type thruster, azimuth thruster, yaw rudder, screw propeller, water jet thrower, cycloidal propeller or their combination in any.Thruster can comprise one or more screw propeller and by positioned inside (tunnel type) or externally-arranged (retractable) on boats and ships.Each thruster in impeller system 150 independently or can cooperate with other thruster and play function.

dP controller

DP controller 120 can be microcontroller, microprocessor, programmable logic controller (PLC) (PLC), CPLD (CPLD), field programmable gate array (FPGA) or like this.DP controller 120 can use code library, static analysis tools, software, hardware, firmware or like this.After reading this description, how using other computer system and/or computer architecture to realize the disclosure, will be apparent to persons skilled in the relevant art.

Be to be understood that the function that said system and technology realize and/or the structure provided can represent with a core (such as GPU core), described core program code is implemented and is converted into the part of hardware as integrated circuit (IC) products.

With reference to figure 1-4, DP controller 120 is described in further detail.Be configured to determine or calculate position, course and environmental forces with reference to figure 1, DP controller 120; Calculate bogey heading; And bogey heading is converted to propelling order.

Storer 182 is comprised with reference to figure 2, DP controller 120.Storer 182 can be included in the various software and data that use in DP controller 120, comprises application program 184, database 186, operating system (OS) 188 and I/O (I/O) device drives 190.

As those skilled in the art are aware, OS188 can be any operating system for data handling system.I/O device drives 190 can comprise is accessed with the various routines with devices communicating by OS188 by application program 184, and some memory member.Application program 184 can be used as executable instruction and is kept in storer 182 and/or firmware (not shown), and can be performed by processor 192.Application program 184 comprises various program, when described program is performed by processor 192, realizes the various features of DP controller, comprises application described below.Application program 184 may be used in the data of preserving in database 186, and the parameter of such as specifying, together with data, such as, via the data that I/O FPDP 194 receives.Database 186 represents application program 184, OS188, I/O device drives 190 and may reside in the Static and dynamic data that other software program in storer 182 uses.

Although storer 182 is illustrated as near processor 192, but what should be understood that storer 182 can be storage system capable of making remote access at least partially, such as, the driving of the server on communication network, remote disk drive, removable storage medium, their combination and the like.Therefore, in any one be kept at storer 182 in data recited above, application program and/or software and/or via the network connected reference being connected to other data handling system (not shown), described network connects and can comprise, such as, LAN (Local Area Network) (LAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) (MAN) or wide area network (WAN).

Should be understood that Fig. 2 and description be above in order to provide to proper environment simple, summarize description, each side of embodiments more of the present disclosure can realize in this context.Mention computer-readable instruction although describe, attached or alternative as computer-readable instruction, embodiment of the present disclosure also can by combine with other program module and/or the combination of hardware and software realizes.

Term " application program " or its distortion are used for comprising routine, program module, program, assembly, data structure, algorithm in this expansion, like this.Application program can realize in various system configuration, comprise uniprocessor or multicomputer system, small-size computer, mainframe computer, personal computer, handheld computing device, based on microprocessor, programmable consumer electronic device, their combination, like this.

Application program 184 comprises the observation application program 222, mode filter application program 224, controlling application program 226 and the propelling dispensing applications program 228 that describe in further detail below.

With reference to figure 1, observation application program 222 uses Systematical control to input and the state that data process system 100 changes is estimated in continuous coverage (such as, from the measuring-signal 115 that measuring system 110 receives).Such as, DP controller 120 receives position and the course data of measuring system 110 transmission by measuring-signal 115.

The environmental forces that observation application program 222 uses measuring-signal 115 to come Estimation of Ship position and course, speed of the ship in metres per second, ship turning rate and be applied on boats and ships.This sensor/data fusion method allows observation application program 222 to calculate vessel position and the best estimate in course and the estimated value to the sky strength be applied on boats and ships.Observation application program 222 can be embodied as provide surging, swaying and yaw axis are estimated single program, for multiple separable programming of each axle or its combination.

Observation application program 222 comprises time-based method with the flow process determination ship course of two steps and position, the flow process of two steps and prediction steps and weighted averaging step.In prediction steps, observation application program 222 produces to state variable (such as, position, speed and environmental forces), together with their probabilistic estimated value in current time period.Once observe the measured value coming from subsequent time period, upgrade this estimated value with regard to using the weighted mean value of measuring equipment value.The probabilistic measurement of estimation that is uncertain according to the estimation predicted estimated system state and measured value calculates weight.That average weighted result obtains being in prediction and new state estimation between the state measured.

In certain embodiments, observation application program 222 comprises mode filter application program 224, and this mode filter application program 224 removes the measurement noises relating to the frequency of the waveform (i.e. undulation) through boats and ships received from measuring system 110.Undulation is vibration, and such as, when the crest of a waveform is through boats and ships, boats and ships move towards a direction, and then when the trough of this waveform is through out-of-date, boats and ships move in the opposite direction.Therefore, boats and ships move in the mode of vibratory movement relative to a point of fixity.Such vibratory movement can be removed from Vessel's Description data to ensure that controlling application program 226 does not calculate the thruster power demand of large vibration.

In certain embodiments, observe application program 222 with the formal operations of Kalman filter or other LQE program.

The data calculated are sent to controlling application program 226 by control signal 125 and maybe the data of calculating are kept in the storer 182 can accessed by controlling application program 226 by observation application program 222.Control signal 125 can comprise the information receiving the propelling demand determining data process system 100 to being used in controlling application program 226, and such as side force calculates.

As below describe in further detail, controlling application program 226 be configured to receive or access from observation application program 222 control signal 125; The data 130 that reception or accessing operation person specify; Processing control signals 125 and operator's specific data 130; And produce to propelling dispensing applications program 228 and transmitted control signal for 135 (such as, comprising the propelling demand on each axle).Alternatively, control signal 135 can be kept at wherein it can be pushed into dispensing applications program 228 access storer 182 in.

controlling application program

Now controlling application program 226 is described in further detail.One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize that, controlling application program 226 can adopt the form of any suitable closed loop control framework, such as, (namely three control, proportion integration differentiation (PID) controls), control based on model cootrol, state variable feedback, fuzzy control, or like this.It is to be further understood that controlling application program 226 can use from the course estimation value observing application program 222, turn to rate estimated value and driftage environmental forces estimated value, or it can use directly from the heading measure value of measuring system 110.

With reference to figure 3, schematically illustrate this boats and ships 300 in further detail.Boats and ships 300 have initial heading 310 (ψ start).Controlling application program 226 is based on initial heading 310 (ψ start) and course shift angle (Δ ψ) (such as, optimum heading deviation angle 350 (Δ ψ 1) or operator's course shift angle 352 (Δ ψ 2)) calculate bogey heading (ψ aim) (such as, optimum target course 330 (ψ aim1) or operator's bogey heading 332 (ψ aim2)).

Generally speaking, can by swaying environmental forces 412 (F to make it converge to by course shift angle (Δ ψ) subsequent iteration ey) be reduced to zero final heading deviation angle (Δ ψ).Swaying environmental forces 412 (F ey) be reduced to zero direction be represented as optimum target course 330 (ψ aim1).Such as, swaying environmental forces is reduced to the optimum target course 330 (ψ of zero aim1) be in the direction of weather events 355.Optimum heading deviation angle 350 (Δ ψ 1) be represented as by initial heading 310 (ψ start) and optimum target course 330 (ψ aim1) between angle.

Course shift angle (Δ ψ) also can based on operator's deviation angle 340 (δ) and inclement weather grade, as described further with reference to figure 4 below.Such as, operator input operator's deviation angle 340 (δ) (such as, operator's specific data 130) and generate from optimum target course 330 (ψ aim1) to operator's bogey heading 332 (ψ aim2) measured by angle.Therefore, optimum target course 330 (ψ aim1) be " initially " bogey heading and operator's bogey heading 332 (ψ aim2) be " finally " bogey heading.Such as, optimum heading deviation angle 350 (Δ ψ is used 1) calculate optimum heading deviation angle 350, then relative to optimum target course 330 (ψ aim1) input operator's deviation angle 340 (δ) to be to select operator's bogey heading 332 (ψ aim2).Operator's course shift angle 352 (Δ ψ based on operator's deviation angle 340 (δ) is described below in further detail 2) calculating.

As calculating operation person's course shift angle 352 (Δ ψ 2) time, controlling application program 226 considers some operator's specific data 130, comprises angular limitation 360.By allowing boats and ships 300 at the initial heading 310 (ψ relative to boats and ships 300 start) within the scope of the given angle that defines mobile come set angle boundary 360.Angular range comprises outer limit angle ± L (be expressed as mark in Fig. 3 number 360).With initial heading 310 (ψ start) as a reference, angular limitation 360 extends in any direction thus creates boundary limits, bogey heading (ψ aim) can change in this boundary limits.

Composition graphs 4 describes the calculating of controlling application program 226 pairs of course shift angles (Δ ψ) value in further detail.Fig. 4 be describe comprise environmental forces data and operator input data based on the chart of module map 400 calculating course shift angle (Δ ψ) from control signal 125 and operator's specific data 130.

Controlling application program 226 pairs of course shift angles (Δ ψ) calculate based on: (1) base course function 405, its calculating can reduce the swaying environmental forces 412 (F that boats and ships 300 are experienced ey) optimum heading deviation angle 350 (Δ ψ 1) (such as, calculate optimum target course 330 (ψ aim1)); (2) estimate course function 415, it revises optimum heading deviation angle 350 (Δ ψ based on operator's deviation angle 340 (δ) 1) (such as, from optimum target course 330 (ψ aim1) offset operation person's bogey heading 332 (ψ aim2)); And (3) stability function 425, the calculating of its steady course deviation angle (Δ ψ) during Extreme Weather Events.

Controlling application program 226 can perform base course function 405 to make the maximizing efficiency of boats and ships 300 fuel consumption or to make the impact of environment on boats and ships 300 minimize.The contribution of the calculating of base course function 405 pairs of final heading deviation angles (Δ ψ) is by first creating swaying environmental forces 412 (F ey) any weighted value be added the total value 460 obtained.Swaying environmental forces 412 (F ey) be obtain from observation application program 222 based on to the measurement of measuring-signal 115.

Then total value 460 is multiplied by controller gain 440 (K zy) to calculate product value 470.Controller gain 440 (K zy) there is the unit of (angle/power * time) and total value 460 has the unit of (angle/time).Then product value 470 carries out integration to produce integrated value 480 relative to the time.Integrated value 480 has the unit of (angle).Unless, if necessary, based on angular limitation 360 limit by angular limitation wave filter 490, so integrated value 480 i.e. course shift angle (Δ ψ).If place is limited at angular limitation wave filter 490, so course shift angle 350 (Δ ψ) value that is boundary 360.

For the object of instruction, the course shift angle calculated alone by base course function 405 (Δ ψ) is optimum heading deviation angle 350 (Δ ψ 1).Once optimum heading deviation angle 350 (Δ ψ 1) calculated by controlling application program 226, controlling application program 226 calculates optimum target course 330 (ψ aim1) equal initial heading 310 (ψ start) add optimum heading deviation angle 350 (Δ ψ 1).Optimum target course 330 (ψ aim1) be shown to operator.

Operator revises optimum target course 330 (ψ by assigned operation person's deviation angle 340 (δ) aim1) to select operator's bogey heading 332 (ψ aim2).If operator specifies operator's deviation angle 340 (δ), then based on base course function 405 and estimation function 415 calculating operation person's course shift angle 352, course (Δ ψ 2).

Estimation course function 415 uses operator's deviation angle 340 (δ) as input to produce swaying power skew 462 (the Δ F modified to total value 460 ey).Swaying power skew 462 (Δ F ey) calculating 430 use the tangent value of operator's deviation angle 340 (δ) to be multiplied by the surging environmental forces 414 (F of estimation ex), and be multiplied by offset gain 434K x2y.Swaying power skew 462 (Δ F ey) be defined as follows:

ΔF ey=F ex*K x2ytan(δ)

Offset gain 434 (K x2y) can be constant, it be preset or according to the wind factor (C of 90 ° of swaying wy) and the wind factor (C of 0 ° of surging wx) comparison and calculate.Offset gain 434 (K x2y) by give a definition:

Wind factor will depend on the characteristic of boats and ships, such as boats and ships size and side profile.

From swaying environmental forces 412 (F ey) in deduct swaying power skew 462 (Δ F ey) to calculate total value 460, then total value 460 is used to carry out calculating operation person's course shift angle 352 (Δ ψ relative to base course function 405 as previously mentioned 2).In essence, swaying power skew 462 is the artificial swaying environmental forcess perceived direction of weather events 355 being moved to the direction of operator's event 357.

Use the swaying environmental forces 412 (F of observation in inclement weather ey) drive the calculating at course shift angle (Δ ψ) that bogey heading (ψ may be caused aim) change is too fast to such an extent as to DP controller 120 may become unstable.In order to prevent unstable bogey heading (ψ aim) calculate, stability function 425 adjusts controller gain 440 (K zy) to reduce bogey heading (ψ aim) rate of change.Such as, controller gain 440 (K is reduced zy) thus make calculate bogey heading (ψ aim) more slowly converge to final heading (ψ aim).

Stability function 425 is by controller gain 440 (K zy) be multiplied with the stability adjusted value 466 produced by stability application program 464.Stability application program 464 produces stability adjusted value 466 by first calculating multiplier 452 (κ).Multiplier 452 (κ) is based on wind rating 450 (V nom) and surging environmental forces 414 (F ex).Wind rating 450 (V nom) value can be preset by operator's specific data 130.In order to prevent surging environmental forces 414 (F ex) removed zero, controlling application program 226 comprises except zero detection function 420.

Multiplier 452 (k) considers wind rating 450 (V nom) and surging environmental forces 414 (F ex) between relation draw.Especially, multiplier 452 (κ) is by give a definition:

κ = | V nom F ex |

According to multiplier selector switch 454, if multiplier 452 (κ) is less than or equal to 1, then stability adjusted value 466 equals the value of multiplier 452 (κ).Otherwise if multiplier 452 (κ) is greater than 1, then stability adjusted value 466 is 1.Therefore, as calculating product value 470 Time Controller gain 440 (K zy) adjustment as follows:

K ' zy=K zyif * κ κ≤1

Or

K ' zy=K zyif κ > 1

Especially, adjusted value 466 is multiplied by controller gain 440 (K zy) to form product value 470.Then product value 470 is as above used to calculate course shift angle (Δ ψ).

Such as, alternatively, when wind speed has exceeded wind rating 450 (V nom) preset or predetermined value time, stability adjusted value 466 can be specified by operator.

Once controlling application program 226 calculates course shift angle (Δ ψ), controlling application program 226 is just by bogey heading (ψ aim) be calculated as and equal initial heading 310 (ψ start) add course shift angle (Δ ψ).

Once calculate bogey heading (ψ aim), controlling application program 226 just use observation application program 222 to provide to course, turn to the estimated value of rate and driftage environmental forces to calculate in order to the course of boats and ships 300 is maintained bogey heading (ψ aim) turn to moment demand.To course, turn to rate and driftage environmental forces estimated value be multiplied by suitable gain and by results added be provided for go off course turn to moment demand.The moment demand that turns to calculated is delivered to propelling dispensing applications program 228 as a part for control signal 135.

Dispensing applications program 228 is advanced the propelling demand on each for boats and ships 300 axle to be converted to propelling distribution and the direction demand of each single thruster or puopulsion equipment.The propelling distribution calculated and direction demand are sent to impeller system 150 by propeller control signal 145 and implement.

Should recognize, embodiment part instead of summary of the invention and summary part are intended to for explaining claim.Summary of the invention and summary part of the present disclosure one or more contemplated by inventor can be proposed but and the one exemplary embodiment of not all, therefore, and be not intended to limit the disclosure and appended claim by any way.

Reference marker

100:dp system

105: status data

110: measuring system

115: measuring-signal

120:dp controller

125: control signal

130: operator's specific data

135: control signal

145: propeller control signal

150: impeller system

160: storer

182: storer

184: application program

186: database

188: operating system

190:i/o device driver

192: processor

194:i/o FPDP

222: observation application program

224: mode filter application program

226: controlling application program

228: advance dispensing applications program

300: boats and ships

310: initial heading

330: optimum target course

332: operator's bogey heading

340: operator's deviation angle

350: optimum heading deviation angle

352: operator's course shift angle

355: weather events

357: operator's event

360: angular limitation

400: module map

405: base course function

412: wave environmental forces

414: surging environmental forces

415: estimation course function

420: detection function

425: stability function

430: calculate

434: offset gain

440: controller gain

450: wind rating

452: multiplier

454: multiplier selector switch

460: total value

462: nosing force offsets

464: stability application program

466: adjusted value

470: product value

480: integrated value

490: angular limitation wave filter

Claims (10)

1. a dynamic positioning system, comprising:
Controller, comprising:
Processor; With
It is preserved the storer of computer executable instructions, when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:
Calculated by described processor:
Based on the total value of the measured value sum of one or more swaying environmental forces;
Based on the product value of described total value and controller gain product;
Based on the course shift angle of described product value integration in time; With
Based on the bogey heading of initial heading and described course shift angle sum.
2. dynamic positioning system as claimed in claim 1, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises based on described bogey heading generation propeller control signal.
3. dynamic positioning system as claimed in claim 1, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, and when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:
The measured value that tangent value based on operator's deviation angle is multiplied by surging environmental forces calculates the skew of swaying power;
This total value is calculated based on following sum:
The measured value of described one or more swaying environmental forces; With
Described swaying power skew.
4. dynamic positioning system as claimed in claim 3, wherein said swaying power skew is based on following formulae discovery:
ΔF ey=F ex*K x2ytan(δ)
Wherein Δ F eythe skew of swaying power, F exsurging environmental forces, K x2ybe offset gain, and δ is operator's deviation angle.
5. dynamic positioning system as claimed in claim 3, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, and when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:
Offset gain is calculated based on swaying wind factor and surging wind factor; With
Described tangent value based on described operator's deviation angle is multiplied by the measured value of described surging environmental forces, then is multiplied by described offset gain, calculates the skew of described swaying power.
6. dynamic positioning system as claimed in claim 5, wherein said offset gain is based on following formulae discovery:
Wherein K x2yoffset gain, C wyswaying wind factor, C wxit is surging wind factor.
7. dynamic positioning system as claimed in claim 3, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, and when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises:
Multiplier value is calculated divided by surging environmental forces based on wind speed;
Determine the value of adjusted value, wherein the value of this adjusted value is:
If the absolute value of described multiplier is less than 1, then equal described multiplier value; Or
If the absolute value of described multiplier is greater than 1, then equal 1; And
Product based on described total value, described controller gain and described adjusted value calculates described product value.
8. dynamic positioning system as claimed in claim 7, wherein said multiplier is based on following formulae discovery:
k = | V nom F ex |
Wherein (k) is described multiplier, V nomdescribed wind speed, F exit is described surging environmental forces.
9. dynamic positioning system as claimed in claim 8, computer executable instructions preserved by described storer, when described instruction is performed by described processor, make described processor executable operations, described operation comprises and calculates described multiplier when described wind speed exceedes predetermined speed.
10. dynamic positioning system as claimed in claim 8, the skew of wherein swaying power is based on following formulae discovery:
ΔF ey=F ex*K x2ytan(δ)
Wherein Δ F eythe skew of described swaying power, F exdescribed surging environmental forces, K x2ybe offset gain, and δ is described operator's deviation angle.
CN201510363887.5A 2014-06-03 2015-06-03 Systems And Methods For Dynamic Positioning CN105182969A (en)

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