CN105165384A - Simple and high-efficiency cultivation method for flue cured tobaccos in tobacco-rice rotation area - Google Patents

Simple and high-efficiency cultivation method for flue cured tobaccos in tobacco-rice rotation area Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105165384A
CN105165384A CN201510734586.9A CN201510734586A CN105165384A CN 105165384 A CN105165384 A CN 105165384A CN 201510734586 A CN201510734586 A CN 201510734586A CN 105165384 A CN105165384 A CN 105165384A
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China
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tobacco
fertilizer
seedling
cigarette
cave
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CN201510734586.9A
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CN105165384B (en
Inventor
靳志丽
梁文旭
王锡春
周向平
高春洋
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HUNAN TOBACCO Co YONGZHOU BRANCH
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HUNAN TOBACCO Co YONGZHOU BRANCH
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0268Mats or sheets, e.g. nets or fabrics
    • A01G13/0275Films
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/14Greenhouses
    • A01G9/1438Covering materials therefor; Materials for protective coverings used for soil and plants, e.g. films, canopies, tunnels or cloches
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/28Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture specially adapted for farming

Abstract

The invention discloses a simple and high-efficiency cultivation method for flue cured tobaccos in a tobacco-rice rotation area, and relates to the technical field of commercial crop cultivation. The cultivation method comprises S1. deep ploughing and upturned soil drying in the sun; S2. floating-seeding comprising floating-seeding pond management, seeding of floating-breeding, seeding control, and hardening seedling through sand culture; S3. tobacco field management comprising tobacco field ridging, cavity opening comprising plant cavity opening and fertilizing cavity opening, and fertilizing; S4. tobacco seeding transplantation; S5. mulch covering comprising mulch covering, mulch hole opening, and mulch breaking; S6. diseases and pests prevention; S7. bud inhibition; and S8. other management. The simple and high-efficiency cultivation method is labor saving, high in quality and high in efficiency, can be used for large scale production of flue-cured tobaccos in tobacco-rice rotation areas, and suitable for cultivating flue-cured tobaccos in large tobacco-rice rotation areas in south of the Yangtze River in a simple and high efficiency mode.

Description

The light simple efficient cultivation method of a kind of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of economic crop cultivation, be specifically related to the light simple efficient cultivation method of a kind of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco.
Background technology
Along with the fast development of urbanization over nearly 10 years and the decline of kind cigarette comparative effectiveness, tobacco grower troop and planting scale there occurs obvious change thereupon, producing region tobacco grower troop is reducing gradually, meanwhile, tobacco planting scale progressively expands, scale is by traditional 3-5 mu per family, progressively develop into current each producing region per family area substantially all reach about 50 mu, the plantation family of up to a hundred mu also occupies no small ratio.Along with the rapid expansion of scale and improving constantly of labor cost per family, cause tobacco planting cost to increase substantially, ask the problem that work is difficult, recruitment is expensive more and more outstanding in cured tobacco production.Traditional intensive cultivation flue-cured tobacco cultivation technology is more and more difficult to implement completely and apply simultaneously.Therefore, be badly in need of for current cured tobacco production present situation, study a set of easy and simple to handle, the amount of labour used is few, be applicable to do mechanization operation, guarantee the light simple efficiency cultivation technology for high of the higher yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco, to realize, tobacco grower easily plants cigarette, quality of tobacco is excellent, planting scale is stablized, the target of cigarette district sustainable development, is modern tobacco agriculture development establish a firm foundation.
Chinese patent (number of patent application is 201310310612.6) disclosed " a kind of flue-cured tobacco cultivation method adapting to Yunnan Tobacco Planting Area photoenvironment ", described method comprises transplanting under floating seedlings, whole ground ridging, film, overlay film period management, field management operation.Sowing time be mid-December to mid-February, adopt floating plate floating seedlings method, hardening 8-14 day before transplanting; Then hack stores moisture in the soil, whole ground ridging, applies after being mixed by inorganic fertilizer with the cake fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed; Transplanting time be mid-March to mid-April, planting smoke density is 1000-1200 plant/acre, and after cigarette transplantation of seedlings, 1.5-2.5kg normal root water is watered in every strain, is covered with look mulch film; Topdress after transplanting twice, during 15-25 days cigarette seedling top teleblems, draw seedling; Take off mulch film when within 30-40 days, cigarette strain enters prosperous long mid-term, in time ridging, weeding, to water, pinch Liu Ye with smear wooden fork.
Summary of the invention
One is the object of the present invention is to provide to have saving of labor, high-quality, efficiently, be applicable to the culture technique of flue-cured tobacco large-scale production in Tobacco-rice rotation district.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is the light simple efficient cultivation method of invention a kind of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco, and its planting process is as follows:
(i), plough deeply and sun the earth which has been ploughed up:
Plough deeply in time after previous crops rice harves and sun the earth which has been ploughed up, ploughing depth 15-25cm, the time of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up is 2-4 month, becomes field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up;
(ii), floating seedlings:
(1), Flotage seedling raising pool arranges: 5-10 days before tobacco seed sowing, spreads plastic sheeting for farm use antiseep, spreads the river sand that 3-5cm is thick on film, in Flotage seedling raising pool, then pour into nutritive liquid for floating breeding to the dark water level of 8-12cm at the bottom of Flotage seedling raising pool;
, floating seedlings sowing: December early and middle ten days, be sown into by tobacco seed in the nursery cave of the floating seedling tray that seedling medium is housed, then floating seedlings is carried out in the nutritive liquid for floating breeding face be positioned over by seedling-cultivating tray in Flotage seedling raising pool;
(3), control seedling: when cigarette seedling grows to 5 leaf 1 heart, the chlormequat mixed solution of leaf surface spraying concentration to be the DA-6 of 0.04-0.06g/L and concentration be 0.4-0.6g/L, consumption cigarette seedling needed for per hectare land for growing field crops sprays above-mentioned mixed solution 2.5-3.5kg at every turn, spray twice altogether, interval 8-10 days, by the process of control seedling, improve seedling quality;
, husky training hardening: 8-12 days before transplanting, water a part of in Flotage seedling raising pool is discharged, retains and exceed sand bed 1-3cm water layer, allow the liquid manure possessed in sand for tobacco seedling growth, carry out sand and train hardening; Until cigarette seedling 7-8 leaf wholeheartedly, stem more than stalk 9cm time, become and wait to transplant cigarette seedling;
(iii), vega arranges:
, vega ridging: 15-25 days before cigarette transplantation of seedlings, field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up by line-spacing 115-125cm ridging, ridge height 25-35cm, ridge bottom width 85-95cm;
(2), open cave:
1., kind of a plant hole is opened: the kind plant hole opening diameter 5-7cm, dark 9-11cm according to strain spacing 40-60cm;
2., open fertilising cave: around kind of a plant hole center, slot wide 2-4cm, groove depth 7-9cm, groove outer rim are apart from the annular fertilization cave of planting plant hole central point 14-16cm;
3., apply fertilizer: calculate amount of nitrogenous fertilizer used by per hectare purity nitrogen 127.5-142.5kg, by nitrogen: phosphorus pentoxide: the pure nutrients ratio of potassium oxide=1:0.8-1.1:2.5-3.0 calculates phosphate fertilizer used and potash fertilizer amount, by the npk fertilizer that mixes according to the above ratio according to the usage ratio of each fertilising cave 7.73-8.64g purity nitrogen, apply in opened fertilising cave;
(iv), cigarette transplantation of seedlings:
5-15 day in March, consistent for stalwartness is waited that transplanting cigarette transplantation of seedlings enters in kind of plant hole, and a strain is planted in every cave, and transplanting depth is 8-10cm, and meanwhile, the fertile normal root water of band of 0.5-1.5kg is watered in every strain;
(v), covering with plastic film:
, overlay film: after transplanting, take advantage of vega soil abundant moistening time timely covering with plastic film, allow cigarette seedling top apart from the growing space keeping 5-10cm high between membrane plane;
(2), open film mouth: when local temperature in the shed is more than 35 DEG C, above cigarette seedling, face place opens the film mouth of 0.5-1.0cm, so as ventilation, reduce temperature in the shed;
, rupture of membranes: 10-20 days after transplanting, when there is no obvious temperature-fall period, carry out rupture of membranes until cigarette seedling 1-2 sheet blade tip teleblem over half, rupture of membranes bore is 8-12cm, is drawn out by seedling in film, then builds root and stem of certain plants soil dressing with the flat bank of hand, make the full not ponding of whole ridge body, film mouth is obturaged;
(vi), diseases and pests controlling:
Diseases and pests controlling conventionally carries out;
(vii), bud is pressed down:
When the flowers are in blossom at first center of the cigarette strain of 40-60% in vega put time, carry out pinching smearing wooden fork when the weather without rainfall, and pinch smear wooden fork after in 24 hours, spray 25% flumetralim 340-360 times liquid, every strain dosage 15-20ml;
(viii), other management:
Other cultivation managements do not related to are same as the prior art.
Purity nitrogen in npk fertilizer in described fertilising step is the organic nitrogenous fertilizer supply by the inorganic states nitrogenous fertilizer of 60-80% and 40-20%.
Purity nitrogen in described inorganic states nitrogenous fertilizer is the ammonium fertilizer supply by the nitrate fertilizer of 40-60% and 60-40%.
Described organic nitrogenous fertilizer is rapeseed cake fertilizer, one or more cake fertilizer that become thoroughly decomposed formed in sesame cake fertilizer, soybean cake fertilizer, and when for time two or more, the ratio of each component is equal portions or other ratio.
The special aqueous solution carrying seed manure or special tobacco seedling fertilizer of tobacco of the fertile normal root water of band in described cigarette transplantation of seedlings step to be weight concentration be 0.2-0.4%.
Described overlay film step is mulch film Wheat straw mulching.
Mulch film in described overlay film step is timing degradative plastic film.
Soil in described overlay film step is fully moistening, refers to that relative moisture of the soil reaches more than 80%.
Describedly open opening kind of a plant hole, open fertilising cave and fertilising three little steps and adopt and open cave-applied fertilizer equipment integrating and synchronously complete in the step of cave.
The Tobacco-rice rotation district of the present invention light simple efficient cultivation method of flue-cured tobacco, compared with existing flue-cured tobacco cultivation technology, has the following advantages:
One is discharged by a part of water in Flotage seedling raising pool before transplanting, allows the liquid manure possessed in sand for tobacco seedling growth, carries out sand and train hardening, eliminate the hardening link in traditional floating seedlings technology, while saving of labor, reach good hardening effect;
Two is adopt foliage-spray DA-6 and carrying out of chlormequat control process when cigarette seedling grows to 5 leaf 1 heart, promotes cigarette seedling robust growth, without the need to leaf-cutting during floating seedlings, has both saved the leaf-cutting recruitment in conventional art, and reached again object in strong sprout;
Three is kind of plant hole and fertilising cave are separated, and compared to prior art, during cigarette transplantation of seedlings kind plant hole, cigarette seedling does not directly contact with fertilizer, thus avoids fertilizer burning root phenomenon, and cigarette transplantation of seedlings is fast and facilitate;
Four be fertilising cave be cannelure, cannelure is 14-16cm apart from cigarette seedling central point, fertilising band is in root system close quarters, compared with prior art, such fertilizer placement and the distributed areas of root system match, be particularly conducive to the absorption of root system to fertilizer, thus considerably improve the availability of fertilizer;
Five is by means of opening cave-applied fertilizer equipment integrating, the N P and K inorganic fertilizer all required by tobacco planting and disposable evenly the applying of the cake fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed are applied fertilizer in cave, multi-period with existing, repeatedly count compared with fertilizer practice, achieve single fertilization, simplify operation on the one hand, avoid the recruitment of repeatedly applying fertilizer, on the other hand fertilising ahead of time, fertilizer is supply ahead of time, is conducive to cigarette strain early growth and quick tiller and dry-matter accumulation;
Six is that the present invention covers Biodegradable mulch compared with the conventional mulch film of existing covering, can degrade voluntarily, without the need to taking off zona joint, both having saved and having taken off film recruitment, and due to biological mulch film this season and degradable, thus effectively can avoid the white pollution of conventional mulch film;
Seven is at flue-cured tobacco Wheat straw mulching in time of infertility Biodegradable mulch, thus, while maintenance soil is suitable for humidity, effectively can suppresses weeds, save a large amount of recruitments weeded a garden the time of infertility, decrease the pesticide pollution of weed killer herbicide;
Eight is adopt Suckering agents spray process to replace existing Suckering agents cup to drench method, and light letter is efficient, compared with existing inhibiting sprout, can save the amount of labour used and the Suckering agents consumption of about 30%.
Therefore, the light simple efficient cultivation method of Tobacco-rice rotation district of the present invention flue-cured tobacco, link closely " gently letter " and the crucial greatly innovation main points of " efficiently " two, in nursery, open cave, fertilising, covering, plant protection, press down the link such as bud, take multiple spot technological innovation, simplify sport technique segment, saved labor, thus achieve light simple High-efficient Production object.
The Tobacco-rice rotation district of the present invention light simple efficient cultivation method of flue-cured tobacco is applied to cured tobacco production, and can promote that flue-cured tobacco well grows, it is compared to routine techniques: subtracting in work, and per hectare can save recruitment 54.9 works; High-quality aspect, first-class cigarette ratio improves 21.2%, and score of smokeing panel test improves 14.3%; Efficient aspect, the per hectare output value improves 4332.0 yuan, reduces recruitment cost 2250 yuan/hm 2.
Table 1 is below Tobacco-rice rotation district of the present invention flue-cured tobacco light simple efficient cultivation method when being applied to cured tobacco production, the flue-cured tobacco economic characters investigation result of test site:
Table 1 test site flue-cured tobacco economic characters investigation result
Table 2 is below Tobacco-rice rotation district of the present invention flue-cured tobacco light simple efficient cultivation methods when being applied to cured tobacco production, the tobacco sensory quality smoking result of test site:
Table 2 test site tobacco sensory quality smoking result
Embodiment
Embodiment one:
The light simple efficient cultivation method of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco of the present embodiment, its planting process is as follows:
(i), plough deeply and sun the earth which has been ploughed up:
Plough deeply in time after previous crops rice harves and sun the earth which has been ploughed up, ploughing depth 20cm, the time of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up is 3 months, becomes field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up;
(ii), floating seedlings:
(1), Flotage seedling raising pool arranges: first 7 days of tobacco seed sowing, spreads black agricultural membrane antiseep, spreads the river sand that 4cm is thick on film, in Flotage seedling raising pool, then pour into nutritive liquid for floating breeding to the dark water level of 10cm at the bottom of Flotage seedling raising pool;
(2), floating seedlings sowing: December 10, be sown into by tobacco seed in the nursery cave of the floating seedling tray that seedling medium is housed, then floating seedlings is carried out in the nutritive liquid for floating breeding face be positioned over by seedling-cultivating tray in Flotage seedling raising pool;
(3), control seedling: when cigarette seedling grows to 5 leaf 1 heart, the chlormequat mixed solution of leaf surface spraying concentration to be the DA-6 of 0.05g/L and concentration be 0.5g/L, consumption cigarette seedling needed for per hectare land for growing field crops sprays above-mentioned mixed solution 3kg at every turn, spray twice altogether, 9 days, interval, by the process of control seedling, promotes cigarette seedling robust growth, improve seedling quality, realize exempting from leaf-cutting nurturing staff;
(4), husky training hardening: transplant first 10 days, water a part of in Flotage seedling raising pool is discharged, retains and exceed sand bed 2cm water layer, allow the liquid manure possessed in sand for tobacco seedling growth, carry out sand and train hardening; Until cigarette seedling 7-8 leaf wholeheartedly, stem more than stalk 9cm time, become and wait to transplant cigarette seedling;
(iii), vega arranges:
, vega ridging: in cigarette transplantation of seedlings first 20 days, field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up by line-spacing 120cm ridging, ridge height 30cm, ridge bottom width 90cm;
(2), open cave:
1., kind of a plant hole is opened: the kind plant hole opening diameter 6cm, dark 10cm according to strain spacing 50cm;
2., open fertilising cave: around kind of a plant hole center, slot wide 3cm, groove depth 8cm, groove outer rim are apart from the annular fertilization cave of planting plant hole central point 15cm;
3., apply fertilizer: calculate amount of nitrogenous fertilizer used by per hectare purity nitrogen 135kg, nitrogenous fertilizer is made up of inorganic states nitrogenous fertilizer and organic nitrogenous fertilizer, and the purity nitrogen ratio (weight) that both supply is 70%:30%; Inorganic states nitrogenous fertilizer is made up of nitrate fertilizer and ammonium fertilizer, and both purity nitrogen ratios (weight) of supply are 50%:50%; Organic nitrogenous fertilizer is the rapeseed cake fertilizer or sesame cake fertilizer or soybean cake fertilizer (that is: become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer) that become thoroughly decomposed; By nitrogen: phosphorus pentoxide: the pure nutrients ratio (weight) of potassium oxide=1:0.95:2.7 calculates phosphate fertilizer used and potash fertilizer amount, by doing the nitrate fertilizer of nitrogenous fertilizer and ammonium fertilizer, make the superphosphate of phosphate fertilizer and do after the potassium sulfate of potash fertilizer and the cake fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed fully mix, by opening cave-applied fertilizer equipment integrating while opening cave, according to the usage ratio of the 8.18 grams of purity nitrogens in each fertilising cave, evenly apply in annular fertilization groove by disposable for fertilizer used for cigarette strain;
(iv), cigarette transplantation of seedlings:
March 10, consistent for stalwartness is waited that transplanting cigarette transplantation of seedlings enters in kind of plant hole, and a strain is planted in every cave, and transplanting depth is 8-10cm, and meanwhile, the fertile normal root water of band of 1kg is watered in every strain; The fertile normal root water of band used to be weight concentration be 0.3% the special aqueous solution carrying seed manure or special tobacco seedling fertilizer of tobacco;
(v), covering with plastic film:
(1), overlay film: after transplanting, when vega soil is fully moistening, cover timing degradative plastic film (that is: Biodegradable mulch) when namely relative moisture of the soil reaches more than 80%, allow cigarette seedling top apart from the growing space keeping 8cm high between membrane plane;
(2), open film mouth: when local temperature in the shed is more than 35 DEG C, above cigarette seedling, face place opens the film mouth of 0.8cm, so as ventilation, reduce temperature in the shed;
, rupture of membranes: 10-20 days after transplanting, when there is no obvious temperature-fall period, carry out rupture of membranes in time until cigarette seedling 1-2 sheet blade tip teleblem over half, rupture of membranes bore is 10cm, is drawn out by seedling in film, then builds root and stem of certain plants soil dressing with the flat bank of hand, make the full not ponding of whole ridge body, film mouth is obturaged; Thereafter, Wheat straw mulching Biodegradable mulch, flue-cured tobacco results artifact mulch film is degraded, voluntarily without the need to manually taking off film, without the need to weeding;
(vi), diseases and pests controlling:
Diseases and pests controlling conventionally carries out, and signs plant protection service agreement by specialty plant protection team of cigarette district and tobacco grower, and medicine, unified control are purchased in unification;
(vii), bud is pressed down:
When in vega 50% the flowers are in blossom first center of cigarette strain put time, carry out pinching smearing wooden fork when the weather without rainfall, and pinch smear wooden fork after in 24 hours, spray 25% flumetralim, 350 times of liquid, every strain dosage 18ml;
(viii), other management:
Other cultivation managements do not related to are same as the prior art.
Embodiment two:
The light simple efficient cultivation method of flue-cured tobacco of the Tobacco-rice rotation of the present embodiment, its planting process is as follows:
(i), plough deeply and sun the earth which has been ploughed up:
Plough deeply in time after previous crops rice harves and sun the earth which has been ploughed up, ploughing depth 15cm, the time of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up is 2 months, becomes field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up;
(ii), floating seedlings:
(1), Flotage seedling raising pool arranges: first 5 days of tobacco seed sowing, spreads black agricultural membrane antiseep, spreads the river sand that 3cm is thick on film, in Flotage seedling raising pool, then pour into nutritive liquid for floating breeding to the dark water level of 8cm at the bottom of Flotage seedling raising pool;
(2), floating seedlings sowing: December 1, be sown into by tobacco seed in the nursery cave of the floating seedling tray that seedling medium is housed, then floating seedlings is carried out in the nutritive liquid for floating breeding face be positioned over by seedling-cultivating tray in Flotage seedling raising pool;
(3), control seedling: when cigarette seedling grows to 5 leaf 1 heart, the chlormequat mixed solution of leaf surface spraying concentration to be the DA-6 of 0.04g/L and concentration be 0.4g/L, consumption cigarette seedling needed for per hectare land for growing field crops sprays above-mentioned mixed solution 2.5kg at every turn, spray twice altogether, 8 days, interval, by the process of control seedling, promotes cigarette seedling robust growth, improve seedling quality, realize exempting from leaf-cutting nurturing staff;
(4), husky training hardening: transplant first 8 days, water a part of in Flotage seedling raising pool is discharged, retains and exceed sand bed 1cm water layer, allow the liquid manure possessed in sand for tobacco seedling growth, carry out sand and train hardening; Until cigarette seedling 7-8 leaf wholeheartedly, stem more than stalk 9cm time, become and wait to transplant cigarette seedling;
(iii), vega arranges:
, vega ridging: in cigarette transplantation of seedlings first 15 days, field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up by line-spacing 115cm ridging, ridge height 25cm, ridge bottom width 85cm;
(2), open cave:
1., kind of a plant hole is opened: the kind plant hole opening diameter 5cm, dark 9cm according to strain spacing 40cm;
2., open fertilising cave: around kind of a plant hole center, slot wide 2cm, groove depth 7cm, groove outer rim are apart from the annular fertilization cave of planting plant hole central point 12cm;
3., apply fertilizer: calculate amount of nitrogenous fertilizer used by per hectare purity nitrogen 127.5kg, nitrogenous fertilizer is made up of inorganic states nitrogenous fertilizer and organic nitrogenous fertilizer, and the purity nitrogen ratio (weight) that both supply is 60%:40%; Inorganic states nitrogenous fertilizer is made up of nitrate fertilizer and ammonium fertilizer, and both purity nitrogen ratios (weight) of supply are 40%:60%; Organic nitrogenous fertilizer is the rapeseed cake fertilizer or sesame cake fertilizer or soybean cake fertilizer (that is: become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer) that become thoroughly decomposed; By nitrogen: phosphorus pentoxide: the pure nutrients ratio (weight) of potassium oxide=1:0.8:2.5 calculates phosphate fertilizer used and potash fertilizer amount, by doing the nitrate fertilizer of nitrogenous fertilizer and ammonium fertilizer, make the superphosphate of phosphate fertilizer and do after the potassium sulfate of potash fertilizer and the cake fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed fully mix, by opening cave-applied fertilizer equipment integrating while opening cave, according to the usage ratio of each fertilising cave 7.73g purity nitrogen, evenly apply in annular fertilization groove by disposable for fertilizer used for cigarette strain;
(iv), cigarette transplantation of seedlings:
March 5, consistent for stalwartness is waited that transplanting cigarette transplantation of seedlings enters in kind of plant hole, and a strain is planted in every cave, and transplanting depth is 8-10cm, and meanwhile, the fertile normal root water of band of 0.5kg is watered in every strain; The fertile normal root water of band used to be weight concentration be 0.2% the special aqueous solution carrying seed manure or special tobacco seedling fertilizer of tobacco;
(v), covering with plastic film:
(1), overlay film: after transplanting, when vega soil is fully moistening, cover timing degradative plastic film (that is: Biodegradable mulch) when namely relative moisture of the soil reaches more than 80%, allow cigarette seedling top apart from the growing space keeping 5cm high between membrane plane;
(2), open film mouth: when local temperature in the shed is more than 35 DEG C, above cigarette seedling, face place opens the film mouth of 0.5cm, so as ventilation, reduce temperature in the shed;
, rupture of membranes: 10-20 days after transplanting, when there is no obvious temperature-fall period, carry out rupture of membranes in time until cigarette seedling 1-2 sheet blade tip teleblem over half, rupture of membranes bore is 8cm, is drawn out by seedling in film, then builds root and stem of certain plants soil dressing with the flat bank of hand, make the full not ponding of whole ridge body, film mouth is obturaged; Thereafter, Wheat straw mulching Biodegradable mulch, flue-cured tobacco results artifact mulch film is degraded, voluntarily without the need to manually taking off film, without the need to weeding;
(vi), diseases and pests controlling:
Diseases and pests controlling conventionally carries out, and specialty plant protection team of Ke Youyan district and tobacco grower sign plant protection service agreement, and medicine, unified control are purchased in unification;
(vii), bud is pressed down:
When in vega 40% the flowers are in blossom first center of cigarette strain put time, carry out pinching smearing wooden fork when the weather without rainfall, and pinch smear wooden fork after in 24 hours, spray 25% flumetralim, 340 times of liquid, every strain dosage 15ml;
(viii), other management:
Other cultivation managements do not related to are same as the prior art.
Embodiment three:
The light simple efficient cultivation method of flue-cured tobacco of the Tobacco-rice rotation of the present embodiment, its planting process is as follows:
(i), plough deeply and sun the earth which has been ploughed up:
Plough deeply in time after previous crops rice harves and sun the earth which has been ploughed up, ploughing depth 25cm, the time of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up is 4 months, becomes field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up;
(ii), floating seedlings:
(1), Flotage seedling raising pool arranges: first 10 days of tobacco seed sowing, spreads black agricultural membrane antiseep, spreads the river sand that 5cm is thick on film, in Flotage seedling raising pool, then pour into nutritive liquid for floating breeding to the dark water level of 12cm at the bottom of Flotage seedling raising pool;
(2), floating seedlings sowing: December 20, be sown into by tobacco seed in the nursery cave of the floating seedling tray that seedling medium is housed, then floating seedlings is carried out in the nutritive liquid for floating breeding face be positioned over by seedling-cultivating tray in Flotage seedling raising pool;
(3), control seedling: when cigarette seedling grows to 5 leaf 1 heart, the chlormequat mixed solution of leaf surface spraying concentration to be the DA-6 of 0.06g/L and concentration be 0.6g/L, consumption cigarette seedling needed for per hectare land for growing field crops sprays above-mentioned mixed solution 3.5kg at every turn, spray twice altogether, 10 days, interval, by the process of control seedling, promotes cigarette seedling robust growth, improve seedling quality, realize exempting from leaf-cutting nurturing staff;
(4), husky training hardening: transplant first 12 days, water a part of in Flotage seedling raising pool is discharged, retains and exceed sand bed 3cm water layer, allow the liquid manure possessed in sand for tobacco seedling growth, carry out sand and train hardening; Until cigarette seedling 7-8 leaf wholeheartedly, stem more than stalk 9cm time, become and wait to transplant cigarette seedling;
(iii), vega arranges:
, vega ridging: in cigarette transplantation of seedlings first 25 days, field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up by line-spacing 125cm ridging, ridge height 35cm, ridge bottom width 95cm;
(2), open cave:
1., kind of a plant hole is opened: the kind plant hole opening diameter 7cm, dark 11cm according to strain spacing 60cm;
2., open fertilising cave: around kind of a plant hole center, slot wide 4cm, groove depth 9cm, groove outer rim are apart from the annular fertilization cave of planting plant hole central point 16cm;
3., apply fertilizer: calculate amount of nitrogenous fertilizer used by per hectare purity nitrogen 142.5kg, nitrogenous fertilizer is made up of inorganic states nitrogenous fertilizer and organic nitrogenous fertilizer, and the purity nitrogen ratio (weight) that both supply is 80%:20%; Inorganic states nitrogenous fertilizer is made up of nitrate fertilizer and ammonium fertilizer, and both purity nitrogen ratios (weight) of supply are 60%:40%; Organic nitrogenous fertilizer is the rapeseed cake fertilizer or sesame cake fertilizer or soybean cake fertilizer (that is: become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer) that become thoroughly decomposed; By nitrogen: phosphorus pentoxide: the pure nutrients ratio (weight) of potassium oxide=1:1.1:3 calculates phosphate fertilizer used and potash fertilizer amount, by doing the nitrate fertilizer of nitrogenous fertilizer and ammonium fertilizer, make the superphosphate of phosphate fertilizer and do after the potassium sulfate of potash fertilizer and the cake fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed fully mix, by opening cave-applied fertilizer equipment integrating while opening cave, according to the usage ratio of each fertilising cave 8.64g purity nitrogen, evenly apply in annular fertilization groove by disposable for fertilizer used for cigarette strain;
(iv), cigarette transplantation of seedlings:
March 15, consistent for stalwartness is waited that transplanting cigarette transplantation of seedlings enters in kind of plant hole, and a strain is planted in every cave, and transplanting depth is 8-10cm, and meanwhile, the fertile normal root water of band of 1.5kg is watered in every strain; The fertile normal root water of band used to be weight concentration be 0.4% the special aqueous solution carrying seed manure or special tobacco seedling fertilizer of tobacco;
(v), covering with plastic film:
(1), overlay film: after transplanting, when vega soil is fully moistening, cover timing degradative plastic film (that is: Biodegradable mulch) when namely relative moisture of the soil reaches more than 80%, allow cigarette seedling top apart from the growing space keeping 10cm high between membrane plane;
(2), open film mouth: when local temperature in the shed is more than 35 DEG C, above cigarette seedling, face place opens the film mouth of 1cm, so as ventilation, reduce temperature in the shed;
, rupture of membranes: 10-20 days after transplanting, when there is no obvious temperature-fall period, carry out rupture of membranes in time until cigarette seedling 1-2 sheet blade tip teleblem over half, rupture of membranes bore is 12cm, is drawn out by seedling in film, then builds root and stem of certain plants soil dressing with the flat bank of hand, make the full not ponding of whole ridge body, film mouth is obturaged; Thereafter, Wheat straw mulching Biodegradable mulch, flue-cured tobacco results artifact mulch film is degraded, voluntarily without the need to manually taking off film, without the need to weeding;
(vi), diseases and pests controlling:
Diseases and pests controlling conventionally carries out, and specialty plant protection team of Ke Youyan district and tobacco grower sign plant protection service agreement, and medicine, unified control are purchased in unification;
(vii), bud is pressed down:
When in vega 60% the flowers are in blossom first center of cigarette strain put time, carry out pinching smearing wooden fork when the weather without rainfall, and pinch smear wooden fork after in 24 hours, spray 25% flumetralim, 360 times of liquid, every strain dosage 20ml;
(viii), other management:
Other cultivation managements do not related to are same as the prior art.
The light simple efficient cultivation method of flue-cured tobacco of Tobacco-rice rotation of the present invention, is suitable for flue-cured tobacco light simple Efficient Cultivation in vast Tobacco-rice rotation district on the south China the Changjiang river.

Claims (9)

1. the light simple efficient cultivation method of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco, is characterized in that planting process is as follows:
(i), plough deeply and sun the earth which has been ploughed up:
Plough deeply in time after previous crops rice harves and sun the earth which has been ploughed up, ploughing depth 15-25cm, the time of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up is 2-4 month, becomes field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up;
(ii), floating seedlings:
(1), Flotage seedling raising pool arranges: 5-10 days before tobacco seed sowing, spreads plastic sheeting for farm use antiseep, spreads the river sand that 3-5cm is thick on film, in Flotage seedling raising pool, then pour into nutritive liquid for floating breeding to the dark water level of 8-12cm at the bottom of Flotage seedling raising pool;
, floating seedlings sowing: December early and middle ten days, be sown into by tobacco seed in the nursery cave of the floating seedling tray that seedling medium is housed, then floating seedlings is carried out in the nutritive liquid for floating breeding face be positioned over by seedling-cultivating tray in Flotage seedling raising pool;
(3), control seedling: when cigarette seedling grows to 5 leaf 1 heart, the chlormequat mixed solution of leaf surface spraying concentration to be the DA-6 of 0.04-0.06g/L and concentration be 0.4-0.6g/L, consumption cigarette seedling needed for per hectare land for growing field crops sprays above-mentioned mixed solution 2.5-3.5kg at every turn, sprays twice altogether, interval 8-10 days;
, husky training hardening: 8-12 days before transplanting, water a part of in Flotage seedling raising pool is discharged, retains and exceed sand bed 1-3cm water layer, allow the liquid manure possessed in sand for tobacco seedling growth, carry out sand and train hardening; Until cigarette seedling 7-8 leaf wholeheartedly, stem more than stalk 9cm time, become and wait to transplant cigarette seedling;
(iii), vega arranges:
, vega ridging: 15-25 days before cigarette transplantation of seedlings, field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up by line-spacing 115-125cm ridging, ridge height 25-35cm, ridge bottom width 85-95cm;
(2), open cave:
1., kind of a plant hole is opened: the kind plant hole opening diameter 5-7cm, dark 9-11cm according to strain spacing 40-60cm;
2., open fertilising cave: around kind of a plant hole center, slot wide 2-4cm, groove depth 7-9cm, groove outer rim are apart from the annular fertilization cave of planting plant hole central point 14-16cm;
3., apply fertilizer: calculate amount of nitrogenous fertilizer used by per hectare purity nitrogen 127.5-142.5kg, by nitrogen: phosphorus pentoxide: the pure nutrients ratio of potassium oxide=1:0.8-1.1:2.5-3.0 calculates phosphate fertilizer used and potash fertilizer amount, by the npk fertilizer that mixes according to the above ratio according to the usage ratio of each fertilising cave 7.73-8.64g purity nitrogen, apply in opened fertilising cave;
(iv), cigarette transplantation of seedlings:
5-15 day in March, consistent for stalwartness is waited that transplanting cigarette transplantation of seedlings enters in kind of plant hole, and a strain is planted in every cave, and transplanting depth is 8-10cm, and meanwhile, the fertile normal root water of band of 0.5-1.5kg is watered in every strain;
(v), covering with plastic film:
, overlay film: after transplanting, take advantage of vega soil abundant moistening time timely covering with plastic film, allow cigarette seedling top apart from the growing space keeping 5-10cm high between membrane plane;
(2), open film mouth: when local temperature in the shed is more than 35 DEG C, above cigarette seedling, face place opens the film mouth of 0.5-1.0cm, so as ventilation, reduce temperature in the shed;
, rupture of membranes: 10-20 days after transplanting, when there is no obvious temperature-fall period, carry out rupture of membranes until cigarette seedling 1-2 sheet blade tip teleblem over half, rupture of membranes bore is 8-12cm, is drawn out by seedling in film, then builds root and stem of certain plants soil dressing with the flat bank of hand, make the full not ponding of whole ridge body, film mouth is obturaged;
(vi), diseases and pests controlling:
Diseases and pests controlling conventionally carries out;
(vii), bud is pressed down:
When the flowers are in blossom at first center of the cigarette strain of 40-60% in vega put time, carry out pinching smearing wooden fork when the weather without rainfall, and pinch smear wooden fork after in 24 hours, spray 25% flumetralim 340-360 times liquid, every strain dosage 15-20ml;
(viii), other management:
Other cultivation managements do not related to are same as the prior art.
2. the light simple efficient cultivation method of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the purity nitrogen in the npk fertilizer in described fertilising step is the organic nitrogenous fertilizer supply by the inorganic states nitrogenous fertilizer of 60-80% and 40-20%.
3. the light simple efficient cultivation method of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco according to claim 2, is characterized in that: the purity nitrogen in described inorganic states nitrogenous fertilizer is the ammonium fertilizer supply by the nitrate fertilizer of 40-60% and 60-40%.
4. the light simple efficient cultivation method of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: described organic nitrogenous fertilizer is rapeseed cake fertilizer, one or more cake fertilizer that become thoroughly decomposed formed in sesame cake fertilizer, soybean cake fertilizer, when for time two or more, the ratio of each component is equal portions or other ratio.
5. the light simple efficient cultivation method of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the special aqueous solution carrying seed manure or special tobacco seedling fertilizer of tobacco of the fertile normal root water of the band in described cigarette transplantation of seedlings step to be weight concentration be 0.2-0.4%.
6. the light simple efficient cultivation method of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described overlay film step is mulch film Wheat straw mulching.
7. the light simple efficient cultivation method of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco according to claim 1 or 6, is characterized in that: the mulch film in described overlay film step is timing degradative plastic film.
8. the light simple efficient cultivation method of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the soil in described overlay film step is fully moistening, refers to that relative moisture of the soil reaches more than 80%.
9. the light simple efficient cultivation method of Tobacco-rice rotation district flue-cured tobacco according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described in open opening kind of a plant hole, open fertilising cave and the little steps of fertilising three and adopt and open cave-applied fertilizer equipment integrating and synchronously complete in the step of cave.
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CN106747770A (en) * 2016-11-18 2017-05-31 安徽省农业科学院烟草研究所 A kind of Tobacco-rice rotation special potassium fertilizer and its anniversary one-time use method
CN107360915A (en) * 2017-09-21 2017-11-21 龙岩市农业科学研究所 A kind of efficiently suitable paddy cultural method of the production without synthetics input of light letter
CN107646277A (en) * 2017-11-18 2018-02-02 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 It is a kind of effectively to reduce vega N2The fertilizing method of O discharges
CN107926187A (en) * 2017-11-20 2018-04-20 赵常宏 A kind of fertilizer fertilizing method of tobacco planting
CN108207161A (en) * 2018-01-31 2018-06-29 河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所 Vega loosens the soil in situ promotees the methods of cultivation of nutrient synergy
CN108243876A (en) * 2018-01-04 2018-07-06 中国烟草总公司广东省公司 A kind of method that rice replaces plantation with tobacco
CN108651207A (en) * 2018-04-03 2018-10-16 安徽省农业科学院烟草研究所 A kind of tobacco bacterial wilt sick nursery breeding method based on tobacco-rice sequential cropping cultivation pattern
CN108739207A (en) * 2018-05-04 2018-11-06 河南农业大学 Flue-cured tobacco drought resisting and water saving cultivation method
CN111869531A (en) * 2020-08-10 2020-11-03 四川省农业科学院植物保护研究所 Simple and efficient flue-cured tobacco cultivation method without film connection and in upper compartment
CN111887119A (en) * 2020-08-13 2020-11-06 广西中烟工业有限责任公司 Method for transplanting tobacco seedlings in high-altitude mountain area

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CN105766278A (en) * 2015-12-31 2016-07-20 广东省烟草南雄科学研究所 Seedling strengthening method for replacing leaf cutting in tobacco industrialized seedling culture
CN106105744A (en) * 2016-07-29 2016-11-16 湖南省土壤肥料研究所 A kind of rice terrace flue-cured tobacco no-tillage cultivation method
CN106747770A (en) * 2016-11-18 2017-05-31 安徽省农业科学院烟草研究所 A kind of Tobacco-rice rotation special potassium fertilizer and its anniversary one-time use method
CN107360915A (en) * 2017-09-21 2017-11-21 龙岩市农业科学研究所 A kind of efficiently suitable paddy cultural method of the production without synthetics input of light letter
CN107646277A (en) * 2017-11-18 2018-02-02 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 It is a kind of effectively to reduce vega N2The fertilizing method of O discharges
CN107926187A (en) * 2017-11-20 2018-04-20 赵常宏 A kind of fertilizer fertilizing method of tobacco planting
CN108243876A (en) * 2018-01-04 2018-07-06 中国烟草总公司广东省公司 A kind of method that rice replaces plantation with tobacco
CN108207161A (en) * 2018-01-31 2018-06-29 河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所 Vega loosens the soil in situ promotees the methods of cultivation of nutrient synergy
CN108651207A (en) * 2018-04-03 2018-10-16 安徽省农业科学院烟草研究所 A kind of tobacco bacterial wilt sick nursery breeding method based on tobacco-rice sequential cropping cultivation pattern
CN108739207A (en) * 2018-05-04 2018-11-06 河南农业大学 Flue-cured tobacco drought resisting and water saving cultivation method
CN111869531A (en) * 2020-08-10 2020-11-03 四川省农业科学院植物保护研究所 Simple and efficient flue-cured tobacco cultivation method without film connection and in upper compartment
CN111887119A (en) * 2020-08-13 2020-11-06 广西中烟工业有限责任公司 Method for transplanting tobacco seedlings in high-altitude mountain area

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