CN105158502B - A kind of flow rate measuring device being used in environment flow evaluation method - Google Patents

A kind of flow rate measuring device being used in environment flow evaluation method Download PDF

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CN105158502B
CN105158502B CN201510351162.4A CN201510351162A CN105158502B CN 105158502 B CN105158502 B CN 105158502B CN 201510351162 A CN201510351162 A CN 201510351162A CN 105158502 B CN105158502 B CN 105158502B
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mrow
pressure
msub
flow rate
rate measuring
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CN105158502A (en
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王丁明
张远
贾晓波
高欣
孔维静
侯丽萍
马淑芹
刘思思
胡春明
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Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
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Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
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Abstract

The present invention is a kind of flow rate measuring device being used in environment flow evaluation method, an including pressure disc measures water flow pressure, and the pressure information measured is exported;One digital treating meter, it is connected with the pressure disc;The digital treating meter includes a pressure treatment module, wherein, the pressure treatment module receives the pressure information and is handled, and calculates flow speed value.The pressure information that multiple measurement obtains is uniformly processed the present invention, and the information is converted into flow rate information, obtains more accurate flow velocity, reduces error, makes the flow velocity that finally obtains closer to its actual flow velocity.

Description

A kind of flow rate measuring device being used in environment flow evaluation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to water resource assignment field, is specially a kind of flow velocity measurement dress being used in environment flow evaluation method Put.
Background technology
Riparian vegetation belongs to land and water ecotone, is important land and water species source and wild animal habitat, is in river The important sources of nutrient energy, it directly affects the micro climate in river, the water quality that protect river, maintains the strong of river Health, huge benefit is brought to people's amusement and leisure, life and production etc..Riparian Zone is also nutrient management, water and soil conservation and light The important control node of fwaater resources protection, the health for being related to watershed ecosystem whether effectively performance of its function, is to safeguard The important barrier that waters or even terrestrial ecosystems are stablized.Important component and water of the riparian vegetation as Riparian Zone Important ecotone between land, the logistics the ecosystem of land and water, can flow, information flow and biological stream play important corridor Road, filter and barrier action, have the important hydrology, ecology and economy, social function.Therefore examined in environment flow research Considering riparian vegetation needs water requirement and and then river flow is measured has great importance.In the prior art, river Flow velocity measurement is big once pendulous frequency lacks its error, but if pendulous frequency is more, then the collection processing to data is then very multiple It is miscellaneous, therefore the definite of environment flow of riparian vegetation protection target is had an impact.
In view of drawbacks described above, creator of the present invention proposes one kind by prolonged research and experiment and is used for environment finally Flow rate measuring device in flow estimation method is to solve the above problems.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the present invention to provide it is a kind of be used for environment flow evaluation method in flow rate measuring device, to gram Take above-mentioned technological deficiency.
To achieve the above object, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is, there is provided one kind is used for environment flow evaluation method In flow rate measuring device, including:One pressure disc, it measures water flow pressure, and the pressure information measured is exported;One Digital treating meter, it is connected with the pressure disc;The digital treating meter includes a pressure treatment module, wherein, the pressure Processing module receives the pressure information and is handled, and calculates flow speed value, the calculation formula of the flow speed value is:
Wherein,Determined by the following formula:
Fi=min (F')
In formula, V is required flow speed value, and ρ is river water density, and g is gravity acceleration constant,For the pressure finally obtained Value, h are the period number split in one day,For the pressure mean values of i-th of period, Fi' for the pressure of i-th period Power standard deviation, FiFor the minimum value of pressure criteria difference in h period, FsjFor the profundal zone pressure of i-th of period jth time measurement Power, FqjFor the phytal zone pressure of i-th of period jth time measurement, n is to measure F in each periodsj, FqjNumber, f (Fi') for screening function, the numerical value to meeting function requirements screens.
Preferably, the pressure disc is disk-like structure, multiple pressure sensors are fixed with thereon.
Preferably, the digital treating meter further includes a pressure screening module, the sensing measured to the pressure sensor Device pressure carries out Screening Treatment, obtains measurement pressure, and the calculation formula of the measurement pressure is:
Wherein FgMeet formula:
max(Fg)-min(Fg) < a
F is the measurement pressure that measures every time in formula, FgThe pressure data measured for g-th of sensor, X are sensor number Amount, a is threshold pressure difference.
Preferably, it is equipped with waterproof membrane outside the pressure disc and outside the digital treating meter.
Preferably, the flow rate measuring device further includes a remote controler, unlatching to the flow rate measuring device, close into Row control.
Preferably, the flow rate measuring device further includes a spring, to connect the pressure disc and the data processing Instrument.
Preferably, the spring is provided outside waterproof membrane, prevent water from entering the flow rate measuring device through the spring.
Preferably, the flow rate measuring device further includes a weight, the weight is arranged on below the digital treating meter, The flow rate measuring device is set to keep balancing in water.
Preferably, the flow rate measuring device further includes a tape measure, wherein, the tape of the tape measure and the data processing Instrument is connected, and to adjust the position of the flow rate measuring device in water, while measure the flow rate measuring device enters the depth of water Degree.
Preferably, the tape measure is equipped with one handle, to adjust the length of the tape.This hair compared with prior art Bright beneficial effect is:Multiple measurement is obtained pressure information and is uniformly processed by the present invention, obtains more accurate pressure, and will The information is converted into flow rate information, obtains more accurate flow velocity, reduces error, and the flow velocity for making finally to obtain is flowed close to actual Speed;And multiple pressure sensors are fixed with the pressure disc, the pressure information that digital treating meter obtains it is carried out at screening Reason, obtains flow speed value, so reduces the influence that foreign matter measures pressure disc, reduce error;Flow velocity can be surveyed by adjusting tape measure at the same time The position of amount device in water is controlled, and weight is set below flow rate measuring device, can increase its stability;The present invention adopts It is controlled with remote controler, prevents pressure disc from, by ectocine, it is worked to precalculated position, reducing error.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the functional block diagram for the flow rate measuring device that the present invention is used in environment flow evaluation method;
Fig. 2 is the structure chart for the flow rate measuring device that the present invention is used in environment flow evaluation method;
Fig. 3 is small woods river river start point distance-elevation big cross section figure;
Fig. 4 is small woods river water level-discharge relation curve map;
Fig. 5 is small woods river water level-wetted perimeter graph of relation;
Fig. 6 is Tang Ma stockaded villages river river start point distance-elevation big cross section figure;
Fig. 7 is Tang Ma stockaded villages river water level-discharge relation curve map;
Fig. 8 is Tang Ma stockaded villages river water level-wetted perimeter graph of relation.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with attached drawing, the forgoing and additional technical features and advantages are described in more detail.
Refering to Figure 1, it is used for the functional block diagram of the flow rate measuring device in environment flow evaluation method for the present invention. The flow rate measuring device includes measuring unit 1, adjustment unit 3, information process unit 2 and control unit 4.
The measuring unit 1 is used to measure river water pressure, and pressure information is passed to information process unit 2;The letter Breath processing unit 2 receives the pressure information, and the information is converted into flow rate information, outputs it at the same time;The control is single The open and close of the control of member 4 flow rate measuring device;The adjustment unit 3 adjusts the height of flow rate measuring device, makes It can measure deep water and shallow water flow velocity, while can also increase its stability.
Refer to shown in Fig. 2, the structure chart of the flow rate measuring device in environment flow evaluation method is used for for the present invention.Institute Stating measuring unit 1 includes a pressure disc 11 and a spring 12, and the pressure disc 11 is disk-like structure, and solid in the pressure disc 11 Surely there are multiple pressure sensors, for gathering multiple pressure datas, make measurement more accurate.
Described 12 one end of spring is connected with the center of the pressure disc 11, and 12 other end of spring is handled with described information Unit 2 is connected, and reduces the impact that pressure disc 11 is brought, and plays cushioning effect, can guarantee that the impact side of 11 face current of pressure disc To, while described information processing unit 2 is protected.Waterproof membrane is equipped with outside the spring 12 and the pressure disc 11, Prevent current from entering inside device, in order to avoid damage device.
Described information processing unit 2 includes a digital treating meter 21, receives the pressure information that the pressure disc 11 exports, and Integration processing is carried out to the pressure information, and the information is converted into flow rate information, finally obtains a preferable flow speed value V, The digital treating meter 21 includes pressure screening module and pressure treatment module.
The pressure screening module receives the information that the pressure disc 11 exports and carries out Screening Treatment to these data, and Handling result is exported.Since the pressure disc 11 is impacted be subject to may also be subjected to other objects outside water impact, such as fish, The impact of the foreign matters such as batten and foreign matter be point type or wire type and the impact of current is then entire surface, while the impact of foreign matter Power is larger, therefore the data that the pressure screening module needs to measure pressure sensor each time are screened, and is surveyed Measure pressure F.The wherein calculation formula of F is:
Wherein FgMeet formula:
max(Fg)-min(Fg) < a
F is the measurement pressure that measures every time in formula, FgThe pressure data measured for g-th of sensor, X are pressure sensor Quantity, a are threshold pressure difference, max (Fg) for measurement every time when X pressure sensor in the maximum pressure that measures, min (Fg) be The minimum pressure measured every time during measurement in X pressure sensor.Measured when X pressure sensor in the pressure disc 11 When pressure differential is less than threshold value a in pressure data, F of the digital treating meter to acquisitiongHandled, obtain measurement pressure F, by This can discharge foreign matter influences caused by measurement.
The pressure treatment module receives the pressure information of the pressure screening module output, and carries out processing to it and turn Change, obtain flow speed value V, its calculation formula is:
Wherein,Determined by the following formula:
Fi=min (F')
In formula, V is required flow speed value, and ρ is river water density, and g is gravity acceleration constant,For the pressure finally obtained Value, h are the period number split in one day,For the pressure mean values of i-th of period, Fi' for the pressure of i-th period Power standard deviation, FiFor the minimum value of pressure criteria difference in h period, FsjFor the profundal zone pressure of i-th of period jth time measurement Power, FqjFor the phytal zone pressure of i-th of period jth time measurement, n is to measure F in each periodsj, FqjNumber, f (Fi') for screening function, the numerical value to meeting function requirements screens.
Pressure treatment module receives the measurement pressure F of the pressure screening module output, and to the survey of each period Measure pressure F and be averaging pressure, and standard deviation, and obtain minimum sandards difference as screening function f (Fi') screening criteria to every The average pressure of a period is screened, and obtains the average pressure of satisfactory period, and the pressure is handled, Finally obtain a preferable pressure valueAnd required flow velocity V is calculated to obtain according to the pressure value, it can subtract by multiple measurement The error of small amount data.The outside of digital treating meter 21 is equipped with waterproof membrane, prevents water from entering in device.
Described control unit 4 includes a remote controler, and the remote controler is controlled flow rate measuring device switch.It is anti- Only the flow rate measuring device just measures in advance when not reaching desired depth and position also, prevents it from being damaged because excessively using It is bad.
The adjustment unit 3 includes a tape measure 31 and a weight 32.At tape 312 and the data in the tape measure 31 Manage instrument 21 to be connected, the tape measure is equipped with one handle 311, and the length of the stretching tape measure 31 of tape 312 is controlled by swinging handle 311 Degree so that the water-immersed depth of regulating device, and can from tape direct read-out device underwater penetration.
The flow rate measuring device specific work process is:To the measuring section of the flow rate measuring device, survey every time Amount time interval is set according to measurement needs, and the flow rate measuring device is put into predetermined waters.Regulation handle 311 is right Tape measure 31 is controlled, and the flow rate measuring device is reached desired depth.The weight 32 is suspended on the digital treating meter 21 lower section, avoids the flow rate measuring device from being rocked because of foreign impacts such as current, unstable, so as to cause inclined in measurement Difference.Flow rate measuring device described in the remote control control operates, and the pressure sensor sensing current in the pressure disc 11 rush Hit, and induction information input data processing instrument 21 is handled.Pressure screening module in the digital treating meter 21 is to surveying Pressure screened, obtain measurement pressure, and by the measurement pressure input pressure processing module of acquisition, the pressure treatment Module handles the data, finally obtains flow speed value.
The pressure information that multiple measurement obtains is uniformly processed the present invention, and the information is converted into flow rate information, More accurate flow velocity is obtained, reduces error.At the same time multiple pressure sensors, digital treating meter are fixed with the pressure disc 11 21 pairs of its pressure informations obtained carry out Screening Treatment, obtain flow speed value V.So reduce the shadow that foreign matter measures pressure disc 11 Ring, reduce error.The position of flow rate measuring device in water can be controlled by adjusting tape measure 31 at the same time, in flow rate measuring device Lower section sets weight 32, can increase its stability.The present invention is controlled using remote controler, prevents pressure disc 11 by extraneous shadow Ring, it is worked to precalculated position, reduce error.
It is specific in actually definite riparian vegetation protects the evaluation method of the environment flow of target for the present invention below Using.
It is described to protect the environment flow evaluation method of target to comprise the following steps based on riparian vegetation, the river in step Flow speed data is determined by above-mentioned flow rate measuring device:
Step 1:Based on the consideration of hydrology, geography and ecological key element, research river is divided into several sections, And representative point position is selected in each section;
Step 2:Determine to need riparian vegetation protection target to be protected by inquiry, it is such as annual to maintain level of ground water slope Drop, spring increase bank slope soil moisture, autumn is disseminated seeds by current, summer and autumn maintains alluvial flat Wetland Communities moisture Demand etc.;
Step 3:Need the correlation of water process and River Hydrology process by analyzing Riparian vegetation, structure flow component with Riparian vegetation needs the relational model of water;
Step 4:The relation curve of river hydraulics parameter and flow is established by way of simulating or surveying;
Step 5:A set of multicomponent environment flow for including multiple hydrologic parameters is provided on the basis of comprehensive analysis.
Such as the Taizihe River downstream river course environment flow estimation side based on riparian vegetation protection target:
Based on the consideration of the key elements such as hydrology, geography, Taizihe River downstream is divided into small woods, 2, Tang Ma stockaded villages section Studied, small woods section is located at northern Shahe remittance and section at the remittance of Shahe;Tang Ma stockaded villages section is located at the remittance of Shahe With Hun River intersection section.The selection of point position should consider the representativeness to place section, consider the hydrology, river cross-section shape again The accessibility of the data such as state, therefore small woods hydrometric station, Tang Ma stockaded villages hydrometric station and its control section are selected respectively as crown prince The representative points position of 2, river downstream section.
Step S2:River detection device measures the river cross-section of small woods section and Tang Ma stockaded villages section, wetted perimeter, water level, stream The parameters such as amount simultaneously determine important riparian vegetation protection target
By 9~October in 2009 in the on-site inspection of crown prince's river valley, the riverbank vegetation of discovery Taizihe River downstream river course Appearance degenerates, diminishes, even disappearing, and many riverbank soils are opened up wasteland as agricultural land.Therefore, protect Riparian Zone remaining Vegetational type and ecological degradation Riparian Zone carry out vegetation repair for maintain Taizihe River health it is particularly significant.
The protection of Taizihe River riparian vegetation needs both sides effort with repairing:On the one hand local government is needed to take suitable When measure come prevent ecological degradation and encourage restoration of the ecosystem;On the other hand then need to provide and riverbank vegetational type life cycle phase Matched environment flow component.The latter specifically includes:
(1) annual to maintain the suitable gradient of water table, i.e., the flowing water in river should maintain level of ground water in certain altitude, So that the soil moisture of Riparian Zone disclosure satisfy that shore bank plant need water requirement.
(2) spring increase bank slope soil moisture, the main growth period of Taizihe River plant is 5~June, it is therefore desirable in vegetation 3~the May for growing early period provides dry season pulse to increase the soil moisture of bank slope.
(3) autumn is disseminated seeds by current, and the main flowering fruit bearing stage of Taizihe River plant is 7~September, it is therefore desirable to is being followed closely 9~November provides wet season pulse to disseminate Riparian vegetation seed after flower, fruit season.
(4) summer and autumn maintains alluvial flat Wetland Communities water demand, it is contemplated that small woods section, Tang Ma stockaded villages sections Remaining Wetland Communities, they have great importance Taizihe River environmental health, and Taizihe River downstream abuts river edge Dykes and dams the alluvial flat wetland on the outside of river and riverbank is separated, so needing to provide the river water beyond bank top level to flood Do not have alluvial flat wetland.
Step S3:Definite protection target structure flow component needs water requirement relational model with riparian vegetation
Analysis meets the river hydraulics standard needed for riparian vegetation protection
Meet to protect the river water needed for target based on riparian vegetation by literature analysis and expert opinion method analysis Mechanics standard:
Meet that riparian vegetation protects the uninterrupted of target (1) to refer to the result of study of Bartschi (1976), i.e., Maintaining the uninterrupted of the suitable gradient of water table should meet that wetted perimeter maximum 20% allows slip rule (during relative to building before dam Phase).
Meet that riparian vegetation protects the uninterrupted of target (2) at least to flood whole riverbed completely, so setting For natural runoff period (build dam before period) August intermediate value Dryweather flow when whole wetted perimeter (WP100% (August))。
Meet that riparian vegetation protects the uninterrupted of target (3) equally should at least flood whole riverbed completely, therefore It is set as whole wetted perimeter (WP during nature runoff period (building period before dam) August intermediate value Dryweather flow100% (August))。
Meet that riparian vegetation protection target (4) needs exceed the overland flow of bank top (levee crown) level, may be set to flat beach Flow (Qbf) plus the flow of 0.1m height water levels.
Structure flow component needs water requirement relational model with riparian vegetation
Summary respectively walks analysis, needs the correlation of water process and River Hydrology process by analyzing Riparian vegetation, builds Vertical crown prince's river flow component needs the relational model of water requirement with riparian vegetation.Wherein, riparian vegetation protection target is to pass through Analysis crown prince's Riparian vegetation coenotype and its life cycle process determine that the setting of hydraulics standard is analyzed according to above-mentioned Go out, be the foundation for calculating uninterrupted.Other hydrologic parameters such as frequency, last, time of origin etc., and with reference to IHA software analysis Hydrological characteristics synthesis determines before dam is built in obtained each section.
1 flow component of table needs water requirement relational model with riparian vegetation
S4. the relation curve of river hydraulics parameter and flow is established
The relation curve of river hydraulics parameter and flow can be established by two ways:For the river that section is relatively regular Road, can establish river discharge and the depth of water, the relation of wetted perimeter using Manning formula;For irregular section river, then can pass through The mode of actual measurement establishes the relation of flow-water level, and combines actual measurement river cross-section, obtains the relation between wetted perimeter-water level.The latter Concretely comprise the following steps:
(1) river channel cross section figure is surveyed and drawn in the way of start point distance-elevation;(2) by frequently monitoring river level and at the same time Corresponding flow is measured, to draw flow-water level calibration curve;(3) wetted perimeter corresponding to any water level can be cross-section from river Measured in the figure of face.
Since the river very section in small woods river and Tang Ma stockaded villages river is therefore irregular shape is drawn with measurement method River discharge and the depth of water, the relation curve of wetted perimeter.According to fluid continuity equation flow Q:
Q=V*A
V is river flow in formula, and A is cross-sectional area.
Above-mentioned required river flow V is measured using flow rate measuring device, then required cross-sectional area A is measured both Flow Q needed for can obtaining.
The flow rate measuring device includes measuring unit 1, adjustment unit 3, information process unit 2 and control unit 4.
The measuring unit 1 is used to measure river water pressure, and pressure information is passed to information process unit 2;The letter Breath processing unit 2 receives the pressure information, and the information is converted into flow rate information, outputs it at the same time;The control is single The open and close of the control of member 4 flow rate measuring device;The adjustment unit 3 adjusts the height of flow rate measuring device, makes It can measure deep water and shallow water flow velocity, while can also increase its stability.
The measuring unit 1 includes a pressure disc 11 and a spring 12, and the pressure disc 11 is disk-like structure, and the pressure Multiple pressure sensors are fixed with power disk 11, for gathering multiple pressure datas, make measurement more accurate.
Described 12 one end of spring is connected with the center of the pressure disc 11, and 12 other end of spring is handled with described information Unit 2 is connected, and reduces the impact that pressure disc 11 is brought, and plays cushioning effect, can guarantee that the impact side of 11 face current of pressure disc To, while described information processing unit 2 is protected.Waterproof membrane is equipped with outside the spring 12 and the pressure disc 11, Prevent current from entering inside device, in order to avoid damage device.
Described information processing unit 2 includes a digital treating meter 21, receives the pressure information that the pressure disc 11 exports, and Integration processing is carried out to the pressure information, and the information is converted into flow rate information, finally obtains a preferable flow speed value V, The digital treating meter 21 includes pressure screening module and pressure treatment module.
The pressure screening module receives the information that the pressure disc 11 exports and carries out Screening Treatment to these data, and Handling result is exported.Since the pressure disc 11 is impacted be subject to may also be subjected to other objects outside water impact, such as fish, The impact of the foreign matters such as batten and foreign matter be point type or wire type and the impact of current is then entire surface, while the impact of foreign matter Power is larger, therefore the data that the pressure screening module needs to measure pressure sensor each time are screened, and is surveyed Measure pressure F.The wherein calculation formula of F is:
Wherein FgMeet formula:
max(Fg)-min(Fg) < a
F is the measurement pressure that measures every time in formula, FgThe pressure data measured for g-th of sensor, X are pressure sensor Quantity, a are threshold pressure difference, max (Fg) for measurement every time when X pressure sensor in the maximum pressure that measures, min (Fg) be The minimum pressure measured every time during measurement in X pressure sensor.Measured when X pressure sensor in the pressure disc 11 When pressure differential is less than threshold value a in pressure data, F of the digital treating meter to acquisitiongHandled, obtain measurement pressure F, by This can discharge foreign matter influences caused by measurement.
The pressure treatment module receives the pressure information of the pressure screening module output, and carries out processing to it and turn Change, obtain flow speed value V, its calculation formula is:
Wherein,Determined by the following formula:
Fi=min (F')
In formula, V is required flow speed value, and ρ is river water density, and g is gravity acceleration constant,For the pressure finally obtained Value, h are the period number split in one day,For the pressure mean values of i-th of period, Fi' for the pressure of i-th period Power standard deviation, FiFor the minimum value of pressure criteria difference in h period, FsjFor the profundal zone pressure of i-th of period jth time measurement Power, FqjFor the phytal zone pressure of i-th of period jth time measurement, n is to measure F in each periodsj, FqjNumber, f (Fi') for screening function, the numerical value to meeting function requirements screens.
Pressure treatment module receives the measurement pressure F of the pressure screening module output, and to the survey of each period Measure pressure F and be averaging pressure, and standard deviation, and obtain minimum sandards difference as screening function f (Fi') screening criteria to every The average pressure of a period is screened, and obtains the average pressure of satisfactory period, and the pressure is handled, Finally obtain a preferable pressure valueAnd required flow velocity V is calculated to obtain according to the pressure value, it can subtract by multiple measurement The error of small amount data.The outside of digital treating meter 21 is equipped with waterproof membrane, prevents water from entering in device.
Described control unit 4 includes a remote controler, and the remote controler is controlled flow rate measuring device switch.It is anti- Only the flow rate measuring device just measures in advance when not reaching desired depth and position also, prevents it from being damaged because excessively using It is bad.
The adjustment unit 3 includes a tape measure 31 and a weight 32.At tape 312 and the data in the tape measure 31 Manage instrument 21 to be connected, the tape measure is equipped with one handle 311, and the length of the stretching tape measure 31 of tape 312 is controlled by swinging handle 311 Degree so that the water-immersed depth of regulating device, and can from tape direct read-out device underwater penetration.
The flow rate measuring device specific work process is:To the measuring section of the flow rate measuring device, survey every time Amount time interval is set according to measurement needs, and the flow rate measuring device is put into predetermined waters.Regulation handle 311 is right Tape measure 31 is controlled, and the flow rate measuring device is reached desired depth.The weight 32 is suspended on the digital treating meter 21 lower section, avoids the flow rate measuring device from being rocked because of foreign impacts such as current, unstable, so as to cause inclined in measurement Difference.Flow rate measuring device described in the remote control control operates, and the pressure sensor sensing current in the pressure disc 11 rush Hit, and induction information input data processing instrument 21 is handled.Pressure screening module in the digital treating meter 21 is to surveying Pressure screened, obtain measurement pressure, and by the measurement pressure input pressure processing module of acquisition, the pressure treatment Module handles the data, finally obtains flow speed value.
The pressure information that multiple measurement obtains is uniformly processed, and the information is converted into flow rate information, is obtained more Add accurate flow velocity, reduce error.Multiple pressure sensors are fixed with the pressure disc 11 at the same time, digital treating meter 21 is to it The pressure information of acquisition carries out Screening Treatment, obtains flow speed value V.So reduce the influence that foreign matter measures pressure disc 11, reduce Error.The position of flow rate measuring device in water can be controlled by adjusting tape measure 31 at the same time, be set below flow rate measuring device Weight 32 is put, its stability can be increased.The device is controlled using remote controler, prevents pressure disc 11 from, by ectocine, making it Work to precalculated position, reduce error.
Above-mentioned required river flow V so is measured using flow rate measuring device, then again to required cross-sectional area A Measure flow Q needed for can both obtaining.
Refer to shown in Fig. 3 to Fig. 5, be small woods river start point distance-elevation big cross section figure, level-flow relation curve Figure and water level-wetted perimeter graph of relation.They are the present invention according to the small woods hydrometric station flow-water of 1985~2007 years Position measured data, three width figures are combined into small woods river channel cross section and its hydraulics graph of relation.
Refer to shown in Fig. 6 to Fig. 7, be Tang Ma stockaded villages river start point distance-elevation big cross section figure, level-flow relation curve Figure and water level-wetted perimeter graph of relation.They are the present invention according to the Tang Ma stockaded villages hydrometric station flow-water of 1985~2007 years Position measured data.
Significant positive correlation is presented in the water level and flow for analyzing 2 hydrometric stations in Taizihe River downstream.Then according to 2 water The river form observation data that text is stood 2007 draw river cross-section aspect graph, with reference to level-flow relation curve, determine 2 Dependency relation between the flow of typical section and other hydraulic parameters.
Step 5:Provide the environment flow recommendation results of each section
Water requirement relational model, typical river cross-section figure are needed with reference to Taizihe River downstream river course flow component and riparian vegetation And its relation curve of river hydraulics parameter and flow, it is possible to calculate every kind of based on needed for riparian vegetation protection target Uninterrupted.The same time protects target there may be different based on riparian vegetation, meets different protection mesh at the same time as far as possible Target needs water requirement.Taizihe River downstream river course environment flow final result based on riparian vegetation protection target is by 3 kinds of keys Flow component is formed.Wherein, base flow provides month by month, it is desirable to which daily average water discharge is no less than the given threshold value in place month.Stream of pulses according to Water requirement is needed according to riparian vegetation, with reference to Taizihe River nature hydrologic regime, is provided by rich, dry season, overland flow usually occurs 7~the November in abundance of water season.
The consequently recommended result of Taizihe River downstream river course environment flow based on riparian vegetation protection target is by 3 kinds of crucial streams Amount component, which is formed, to be referred to shown in table 2 and table 3, is that small woods section protects the flow component of target, stream based on riparian vegetation Measure size, average annual frequency and duration and Tang Ma stockaded villages section in the flow component of riparian vegetation protection target, uninterrupted, Average annual frequency and duration.
The small woods section of table 2 is based on the riparian vegetation protection flow component of target, uninterrupted, average annual frequency and continues Time
Note:The unit of flow is m in table3/s;The unit of frequency is secondary annual, if 1/a is annual 1 time;The unit lasted It it is 1 day for day, such as 1d.
3 Tang Ma stockaded villages section of table is based on the riparian vegetation protection flow component of target, uninterrupted, average annual frequency and continues Time
Note:The unit of flow is m in table3/s;The unit of frequency is secondary annual, if 1/a is annual 1 time;The unit lasted It it is 1 day for day, such as 1d.
The pressure information that multiple measurement obtains is uniformly processed the present invention, and the information is converted into flow rate information, More accurate flow velocity is obtained, reduces error.While multiple pressure sensors are fixed with the pressure disc 11, at the data The pressure information that reason instrument 21 obtains it carries out Screening Treatment and obtains flow speed value V.So reduce what foreign matter measured pressure disc 11 Influence, reduce error.The position of flow rate measuring device in water can be controlled by adjusting tape measure 31 at the same time, measured and filled in flow velocity Put lower section and weight 32 is set, its stability can be increased.The present invention is controlled using remote controler, prevents pressure disc 11 by extraneous shadow Ring, it is worked to precalculated position, reduce error.
The foregoing is merely presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, is merely illustrative for the purpose of the present invention, and non-limiting 's.Those skilled in the art understands, many changes can be carried out to it in the spirit and scope that the claims in the present invention are limited, Modification, in addition it is equivalent, but fall within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

  1. A kind of 1. flow rate measuring device being used in environment flow evaluation method, it is characterised in that including:One pressure disc, its is right Water flow pressure measures, and the pressure information measured is exported;One digital treating meter, it is connected with the pressure disc;It is described Digital treating meter includes a pressure treatment module, wherein, the pressure treatment module receives the pressure information and is handled, Flow speed value is calculated, the calculation formula of the flow speed value is:
    <mrow> <mi>V</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <mover> <mi>F</mi> <mo>&amp;OverBar;</mo> </mover> <mrow> <mi>&amp;rho;</mi> <mo>*</mo> <mi>g</mi> </mrow> </mfrac> </mrow>
    Wherein,Determined by the following formula:
    <mrow> <mover> <mi>F</mi> <mo>&amp;OverBar;</mo> </mover> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <munderover> <mo>&amp;Sigma;</mo> <mrow> <mi>i</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mn>1</mn> </mrow> <mi>h</mi> </munderover> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mover> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mi>i</mi> </msub> <mo>&amp;OverBar;</mo> </mover> <mo>*</mo> <mi>f</mi> <mo>(</mo> <msup> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mi>i</mi> </msub> <mo>&amp;prime;</mo> </msup> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mrow> <munderover> <mo>&amp;Sigma;</mo> <mrow> <mi>i</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mn>1</mn> </mrow> <mi>h</mi> </munderover> <mi>f</mi> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <msup> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mi>i</mi> </msub> <mo>&amp;prime;</mo> </msup> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow> </mfrac> </mrow>
    <mrow> <mi>f</mi> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <msup> <mi>F</mi> <mo>&amp;prime;</mo> </msup> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mo>=</mo> <mfenced open = "{" close = ""> <mtable> <mtr> <mtd> <mn>1</mn> <mo>,</mo> <msup> <mi>F</mi> <mo>&amp;prime;</mo> </msup> <mo>&amp;Element;</mo> <mo>(</mo> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mi>i</mi> </msub> <mo>-</mo> <mn>1</mn> <mo>,</mo> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mi>i</mi> </msub> <mo>+</mo> <mn>1</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mtd> </mtr> <mtr> <mtd> <mn>0</mn> <mo>,</mo> <msup> <mi>F</mi> <mo>&amp;prime;</mo> </msup> <mo>&amp;NotElement;</mo> <mo>(</mo> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mi>i</mi> </msub> <mo>-</mo> <mn>1</mn> <mo>,</mo> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mi>i</mi> </msub> <mo>+</mo> <mn>1</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mtd> </mtr> </mtable> </mfenced> </mrow>
    Fi=min (F')
    <mrow> <msup> <mi>F</mi> <mo>&amp;prime;</mo> </msup> <mo>=</mo> <msqrt> <mfrac> <mrow> <munderover> <mo>&amp;Sigma;</mo> <mrow> <mi>j</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mn>1</mn> </mrow> <mi>n</mi> </munderover> <mo>&amp;lsqb;</mo> <msup> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mrow> <mi>s</mi> <mi>j</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo>-</mo> <mover> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mi>i</mi> </msub> <mo>&amp;OverBar;</mo> </mover> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mo>+</mo> <msup> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mrow> <mi>q</mi> <mi>j</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo>-</mo> <mover> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mi>i</mi> </msub> <mo>&amp;OverBar;</mo> </mover> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mo>&amp;rsqb;</mo> </mrow> <mi>n</mi> </mfrac> </msqrt> </mrow>
    <mrow> <mover> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mi>i</mi> </msub> <mo>&amp;OverBar;</mo> </mover> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <munderover> <mo>&amp;Sigma;</mo> <mrow> <mi>j</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mn>1</mn> </mrow> <mi>n</mi> </munderover> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mrow> <mi>s</mi> <mi>j</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo>+</mo> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mrow> <mi>q</mi> <mi>j</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow> <mrow> <mn>2</mn> <mi>n</mi> </mrow> </mfrac> </mrow>
    In formula, V is required flow speed value, and ρ is river water density, and g is gravity acceleration constant,For the pressure value finally obtained, h For the period number split in one day,For the pressure mean values of i-th of period, Fi' for the pressure mark of i-th period Poor, the F of standardiFor the minimum value of pressure criteria difference in h period, FsjThe profundal zone pressure measured for i-th of period jth time, FqjFor the phytal zone pressure of i-th of period jth time measurement, n is to measure F in each periodsj, FqjNumber, f (Fi') be Function is screened, the numerical value to meeting function requirements screens.
  2. 2. the flow rate measuring device according to claim 1 being used in environment flow evaluation method, it is characterised in that described Pressure disc is disk-like structure, is fixed with a plurality of pressure sensors thereon.
  3. 3. the flow rate measuring device according to claim 2 being used in environment flow evaluation method, it is characterised in that described Digital treating meter further includes a pressure screening module, and the cell pressure measured to the pressure sensor carries out Screening Treatment, Measurement pressure is obtained, the calculation formula of the measurement pressure is:
    <mrow> <mi>F</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <munderover> <mo>&amp;Sigma;</mo> <mrow> <mi>g</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mn>1</mn> </mrow> <mi>X</mi> </munderover> <msub> <mi>F</mi> <mi>g</mi> </msub> </mrow> <mi>X</mi> </mfrac> </mrow>
    Wherein FgMeet formula:
    max(Fg)-min(Fg) < a
    F is the measurement pressure that measures every time in formula, FgThe pressure data measured for g-th of sensor, X are number of sensors, and a is Threshold pressure difference, max (Fg) for measurement every time when X pressure sensor in the maximum pressure that measures, min (Fg) measured to be each When X pressure sensor in the minimum pressure that measures.
  4. 4. the flow rate measuring device according to claim 3 being used in environment flow evaluation method, it is characterised in that described Waterproof membrane is equipped with outside pressure disc and outside the digital treating meter.
  5. 5. the flow rate measuring device according to claim 4 being used in environment flow evaluation method, it is characterised in that described Flow rate measuring device further includes a remote controler, and the unlatching, closing to the flow rate measuring device are controlled.
  6. 6. it is used for the flow rate measuring device in environment flow evaluation method according to claim 1 or 5, it is characterised in that The flow rate measuring device further includes a spring, to connect the pressure disc and the digital treating meter.
  7. 7. the flow rate measuring device according to claim 6 being used in environment flow evaluation method, it is characterised in that described Spring is provided outside waterproof membrane, prevents water from entering the flow rate measuring device through the spring.
  8. 8. the flow rate measuring device according to claim 7 being used in environment flow evaluation method, it is characterised in that described Flow rate measuring device further includes a weight, and the weight is arranged on below the digital treating meter, makes the flow rate measuring device Balance is kept in water.
  9. 9. the flow rate measuring device according to claim 8 being used in environment flow evaluation method, it is characterised in that described Flow rate measuring device further includes a tape measure, wherein, the tape of the tape measure is connected with the digital treating meter, described to adjust The position of flow rate measuring device in water, and measure the underwater penetration of the flow rate measuring device.
  10. 10. the flow rate measuring device according to claim 9 being used in environment flow evaluation method, it is characterised in that institute State tape measure and be equipped with one handle, to adjust the length of the tape.
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