CN105158141A - Recyclable coarse fracture high velocity seepage testing apparatus - Google Patents

Recyclable coarse fracture high velocity seepage testing apparatus Download PDF

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CN105158141A
CN105158141A CN201510568351.7A CN201510568351A CN105158141A CN 105158141 A CN105158141 A CN 105158141A CN 201510568351 A CN201510568351 A CN 201510568351A CN 105158141 A CN105158141 A CN 105158141A
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crack
water
fracture
cap
test specimen
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CN201510568351.7A
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CN105158141B (en
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王媛
倪小东
李冬田
冯迪
杨庆刚
陈珂
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河海大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a recyclable coarse fracture high velocity seepage testing apparatus which comprises a water tank, a water supply pipe, a water inlet end cap, a fracture test piece, a water outlet end cap and a return pipe which are sequentially connected and a water pressure sensor; the water supply pipe is sequentially provided with a booster pump and a pressure regulating valve, both the water inlet end cap and the water outlet end cap are provided with horizontal seams for water diversion; the fracture test piece comprises a test piece main body and a fracture main body located in the test piece main body, the fracture main body comprises a fracture, smooth flat grooves and rubber gaskets, the smooth flat grooves are distributed at two sides of the fracture along the axial direction of the fracture, the rubber gaskets are used for filling the smooth flat grooves to seal the two sides of the fracture, the two ends of axial length of the fracture are connected with the horizontal seams, and the fracture aperture is regulated through changing rubber gaskets of different thicknesses; the water pressure sensor extends into the fracture through a probe for measuring flowing water pressure of the fracture, the process of coarse rock mass fracture high velocity seepage is accurately, conveniently and truly reflected, the working procedures are simple and clear, the water volume calculation is simple, used water is recyclable, and the fracture aperture is controllable.

Description

A kind of coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of seepage flow test device, particularly relate to a kind of coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, belong to technical field of civil engineering.
Background technology
Southwestern China area hydroelectric resources enriches, and many high mountain gorges in territory, karst landform is widely distributed, and in deep rock mass, crack is comparatively grown, and high pressure repeatedly occurs in Process of Engineering Construction and lies concealed Shuitu Shuitu mud accident.How to solve karst area and lie concealed the water bursting disaster problem of building in crack rock stratum, water body deep and running in large-scale hydropower tunnel project containing high pressure, become the pressing issues in China's water power and Geotechnical Engineering field.
The natural fissure structure of rock mass and seepage flow abnormal behavior are complicated, the difficulties that rock mass fissure seepage flow mechanism is ground with quantitative description always, mining industry, geology, petroleum and natural gas engineering are shown great attention to.In engineering practice in the past, linear darcy flow law is mostly adopted to calculate rock mass gushing water amount.But a large amount of scientific experimentation and case history show, seepage flow under specified conditions in rock cranny no longer follows Darcy's law, in a kind of nonlinear motion rule, now as still adopted linear darcy flow law to carry out the prediction of prominent water yield, certainly exist comparatively big error.At present, Seepage of Rock Masses mechanics is less for the research of coarse crack high speed seepage characteristic, and also ununified criterion describes coarse crack Non-Darcy's flow hydraulic property; As simulated the motion of coarse rock cranny high speed non-darcy flow by test, then will provide strong support for the research rock cranny high speed non-darcy flow characteristics of motion.
At present, be divided into theoretical research, shop experiment and numerical experimentation research to the research of rock mass fissure seepage flow, because rock mass high speed non-darcy flow characteristic is more complicated, the less especially experimental study of the research carried out at present is less.Mainly Test Condition Requirements is comparatively harsh to analyze reason, and high speed non-darcy flow research in the past mainly completes on high pressure three axle seepage tests instrument and other import testing tools, can obtain good test effect; But, the test of high pressure three axle seepage tests instrument mainly analyzes ess-strain to the impact of crack seepage characteristic, be difficult to the change controlling fracture opening, therefore the impact of fracture opening on seepage characteristic cannot be carried out, and because conventional high-tension three axle seepage tests instrument is higher to sample dimensions specification requirement, difficulty of processing is large, and seepage paths length is shorter, and limitation is larger.
Summary of the invention
Fundamental purpose of the present invention is, overcomes deficiency of the prior art, provides a kind of capable of circulation coarse crack high speed seepage flow test device of new structure, is specially adapted to the motion of research rock cranny high speed non-darcy flow.
Technical matters to be solved by this invention is to provide easy, safe and reliable, the practical capable of circulation coarse crack high speed seepage flow test device of compact conformation, easy accessibility, making, not only realize accurately convenient, reflect coarse rock cranny high speed flow event really and accurately, and operation is simple and clear, water yield cheek is simple, economical and efficient capable of circulation with water; The more important thing is that fracture opening is controlled, sample dimensions is easy to processing, has the value in industry.
In order to achieve the above object, the technical solution adopted in the present invention is:
A kind of coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, comprises the tank, supply channel, crack test specimen and the water return pipeline that are connected successively, and described tank forms by installing overflow triangular-notch weir the lower flume and upper flume two pool that current connect.
Wherein, the top of described supply channel is connected with the feed water inlet being located at lower flume, the end of supply channel is connected by the water intake end of water intake end cap with crack test specimen, and the top of described water return pipeline is connected with the water side of crack test specimen by water outlet end cap, the end of water return pipeline penetrates the water return outlet being located at upper flume and extends in upper flume; Described supply channel is disposed with supercharge pump and pressure regulating valve from top to end, described water intake end cap and water outlet end cap all offer the horizontal joint of diversion, described crack test specimen sets gradually at least three place's hydraulic pressure sensors vertically, and described overflow triangular-notch weir is positioned at upper flume side and is provided with needle water level gauge.
And described crack test specimen comprises test specimen main body and is positioned at the crack main body of test specimen main body, described crack main body is along test specimen main body axial distribution and divide test specimen main body equally; Described crack main body comprises crack, smoothly to rise as high as the banks and rubber sheet gasket, describedly smoothly rise as high as the banks along crack axial distribution in both sides, crack, described rubber sheet gasket is filled in smoothly rises as high as the banks crack both sides sealing, and the axial length two ends in described crack connect with horizontal joint and carry out fracture opening adjustment by the rubber sheet gasket changing different-thickness; Described hydraulic pressure sensor extends into crack by probe and carries out measurement crack overcurrent hydraulic pressure.
The present invention is set to further: described crack main body also comprises current zone of transition, and described current zone of transition is distributed in the axial length two ends in crack and connects with horizontal joint.
The present invention is set to further: described test specimen main body is clamping fixed by outer tube.
The present invention is set to further: be provided with slow water tank between the end of described supply channel and water intake end cap.
The present invention is set to further: described water intake end cap and water outlet end cap run through rear tightening nuts by long bolt to carry out tension and be connected.
The present invention is set to further: described water intake end cap and water outlet end cap all in be lined with packing washer.
The present invention is set to further: described hydraulic pressure sensor has been spacedly distributed three places, be followed successively by near crack test specimen water intake end top hydraulic pressure sensor, be positioned at middle the hydraulic pressure sensor at test specimen axial length center, crack and the end hydraulic pressure sensor of close test specimen water side, crack.
The present invention is set to further: described rubber sheet gasket is packed into smooth rising as high as the banks after smearing glass cement.
The present invention is set to further: the thickness of described rubber sheet gasket is X, 0 < X≤9mm.
The present invention is set to further: the thickness of described rubber sheet gasket is 1mm, 1.5mm, 2mm, 3mm, 3.5mm, 4mm, 5mm or 8mm.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effect that the present invention has is:
1, by the setting of connected successively tank, supply channel, crack test specimen and water return pipeline, its crack test specimen comprises test specimen main body and is positioned at the crack main body of test specimen main body, wherein crack main body comprises crack, smoothly to rise as high as the banks and rubber sheet gasket, not only realize accurately convenient, reflect coarse rock cranny high speed flow event really and accurately, and carry out fracture opening adjustment by the rubber sheet gasket changing different-thickness, realize fracture opening controlled, sample dimensions is easy to the object of processing, and carries out the research that fracture opening affects seepage characteristic.
2, supercharge pump is utilized to make current obtain high hydraulic pressure head, be convenient to improve the required hydraulic pressure value of test, overcome the limitation that tradition faces by improving tank height increase hydraulic pressure method, thus can the complicated processes such as indoor supercharged be avoided, high hydraulic pressure seepage tests can be carried out smoothly.
3, by being fit into water end (W.E.) cap and water outlet end cap respectively at the water intake end of crack test specimen and water side, and water intake end cap and water outlet end cap all offer the horizontal joint of diversion, and current can be guided to flow into crack and flow out crack; Be lined with packing washer in equal by two end caps, can sealing property be strengthened; And water intake end cap and water outlet end cap are strained and fixed by long bolt, the problem that in traditional experiment, sealing effectiveness is bad can be solved, ensure that test is carried out smoothly.
4, in process of the test current by flowing into upper flume behind crack, then lower flume is flowed back to by overflow triangular-notch weir, current self-loopa effect can be realized, solve the existing high hydraulic pressure seepage tests need that carry out and additionally supply water problem at any time, significantly improve test efficiency, save research cost.
5, test unit is in pressure survey, in the trip of upper, middle and lower, crack, the hydraulic pressure that accurate hydraulic pressure sensor measures 3 places is installed, calculate with this and obtain crack overcurrent differential water pressures and hydraulic gradient, precise and stable force value can be obtained, improve the precision of test.
6, owing to carrying out the test of high hydraulic pressure fracture seepage, in process of the test, water velocity is very fast, flow is larger, if it is unpractical that conventional bulk area method carries out flow measurement, and utilize triangular-notch weir principle of overflow, by the flow rate calculation formulae discovery outflow of overflow triangular-notch weir, flow instantaneous value comparatively accurately can be obtained, water yield cheek is simple, concisely efficient.
Foregoing is only the general introduction of technical solution of the present invention, and in order to clearer understanding technological means of the present invention, below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the invention will be further described.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of a kind of coarse crack capable of circulation of the present invention high speed seepage flow test device;
Fig. 2 is the STRUCTURE DECOMPOSITION figure of crack test specimen in the high speed seepage flow test device of a kind of coarse crack capable of circulation of the present invention.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with Figure of description, the present invention is further illustrated.
As shown in Figures 1 and 2, a kind of coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, comprise the tank 1, supply channel 2, crack test specimen 3 and the water return pipeline 4 that are connected successively, described tank 1 forms by installing overflow triangular-notch weir 5 lower flume 11 and upper flume 12 liang of pools that current connect.
The top of described supply channel 2 is connected with the feed water inlet 110 being located at lower flume 11, the end of supply channel 2 is connected by the water intake end of water intake end cap 6 with crack test specimen 3, and the top of described water return pipeline 4 is connected with the water side of crack test specimen 3 by water outlet end cap 7, the end of water return pipeline 4 penetrates the water return outlet 120 being located at upper flume 12 and extends in upper flume 12.Described water intake end cap 6 and water outlet end cap 7 all in be lined with packing washer, and run through rear tightening nuts by long bolt and carry out tension and be connected.
Described supply channel 2 is disposed with supercharge pump 8 and pressure regulating valve 9 from top to end, described water intake end cap 6 and water outlet end cap 7 all offer the horizontal joint (not shown) of diversion, described crack test specimen 3 sets gradually at least three place's hydraulic pressure sensors 30 vertically, and described overflow triangular-notch weir 5 is positioned at upper flume 12 side and is provided with needle water level gauge 51.Slow water tank 10 is provided with between the end of described supply channel 2 and water intake end cap 6.
As shown in Figure 2, described crack test specimen 3 comprises the test specimen main body 31 of being fixed by overcoat pipe clamp (not shown) and the crack main body 32 being positioned at test specimen main body 31, and described crack main body 32 is along test specimen main body 31 axial distribution and divide test specimen main body 31 equally; Described crack main body 32 comprises crack 321, smooth 322 and the rubber sheet gasket 323 of rising as high as the banks, and current zone of transition 324.
Describedly smoothly rise as high as the banks 322 along crack 321 axial distribution in both sides, crack 321, described rubber sheet gasket 323 is filled in smoothly rises as high as the banks 322 by crack 321 both sides sealing, and described current zone of transition 324 is distributed in the axial length two ends in crack 321 and connects with horizontal joint.The axial length two ends in described crack 321 to be connected with horizontal joint by current zone of transition 324 and the rubber sheet gasket 323 passing through to change different-thickness carries out crack 321 aperture regulates; Described hydraulic pressure sensor 30 extends into crack 321 by probe and carries out measurement crack 321 overcurrent hydraulic pressure.
As shown in Figure 1, described hydraulic pressure sensor 30 has been spacedly distributed three places, be followed successively by near crack test specimen 3 water intake end top hydraulic pressure sensor, be positioned at middle the hydraulic pressure sensor at crack test specimen 3 axial length center and the end hydraulic pressure sensor of close test specimen 3 water side, crack.
In fig. 2 a slice rubber sheet gasket 323 is only shown, described rubber sheet gasket 323 is packed into smooth rising as high as the banks after smearing glass cement, increases sealing; Thickness range can be adopted to be that the rubber sheet gasket of 0 < X≤9mm carries out fracture opening adjustment.
The test operation process of a kind of coarse crack capable of circulation provided by the invention high speed seepage flow test device is:
Step 1, prepare crack test specimen: before on-test, first prepare the coarse crack test specimen of test, guarantee cement crack test specimen maintenance for testing 28 days, test piece intensity at least reaches 70%;
Step 2, preparation rubber sheet gasket: the rubber sheet gasket that can prepare the various criterion thickness such as 1mm, 1.5mm, 2mm, 3mm, 3.5mm, 4mm, 5mm or 8mm; Crack is made to form certain aperture with the rubber sheet gasket of standard thickness, at the smooth glass cement of rising as high as the banks and rubber sheet gasket being smeared respectively thin layer of test specimen both sides, crack, to reach good sealing effectiveness;
Step 3, lay rubber sheet gasket: in standard thickness rubber sheet gasket being placed in test specimen both sides, crack are smooth and rising as high as the banks, the corresponding top and bottom of the test specimen main body of dividing equally of closing, to form the fracture opening of corresponding requirements, then with pipe clamp, test specimen main body is fixed, and destroy with preventing water leakage and hydraulic pressure with bolt tightening;
Step 4, measure fracture opening: after completing the installation of test specimen main body and rubber sheet gasket, then carry out multimetering with vernier caliper to Fracture Width and average, and record as final Fracture Width, now crack main part is made;
Step 5, end caps operate: be also all coated with in water inlet end cap and water outlet end cap and spread glass cement, be inside encased inside waterproof washer, to reach the fluid-tight object of sealing;
Step 6, installation end cap: loaded by crack test specimen in water inlet end cap, cover water outlet end cap, penetrate four long bolts and be fixed, front and back nut is tightened fixing, water pressure sensor is installed on point position on crack;
Step 7, leak check: connect water inlet water pipe and rising pipe, check each pipe clamp and bolt whether fixing compact, open supercharge pump power switch, pump capacity is regulated from small to large with pressure regulating valve, open slow water tank vent valve and discharge air in slow water tank, whether the sealing of first demonstration test device meets the demands, if do not meet, carries out remedial measures with quick-drying fluid sealant;
Step 8, test operation and reading data: after sealing meets the demands, pressure regulating valve is regulated from small to large, when the end hydraulic pressure sensor digital display meter index being positioned at upstream pressure tap changes, wait for a period of time, Deng reading needle water level gauge reading after upper flume stable level again, and record top hydraulic pressure sensor, the upper, middle and lower reaches reading at middle hydraulic pressure sensor and end hydraulic pressure sensor three place and needle water level gauge reading, utilize overflow triangular-notch weir flow rate calculation formulae discovery to obtain flow value;
Step 9, replacing rubber sheet gasket: after completing the measurement of battery of tests data, unload cement crack test specimen, change rubber sheet gasket and repeat step 3 ~ 8, carry out the measurement of the test figure of next fracture opening;
Step 10, replacing crack test specimen: after completing the measurement of all aperture test figures, unload cement crack test specimen, carry out the measurement of the test figure of different cracks test specimen;
The operation of step 11, revision test step 2 ~ 10, till the measurement completing all cracks test specimen;
After step 12, all tests complete, unload crack test specimen and test unit, pull down needle water level gauge and all web members, bleed off the water in upper flume and lower flume, by the water emptying in supercharge pump, put in order all test toolss in order to using again later.
In above-mentioned process of the test, current obtain high hydraulic pressure head by supercharge pump, and current, by flowing into upper flume behind crack, then flow into lower flume by overflow triangular-notch weir, realize circulating water flow effect; By the setting of slow water tank, realize stable water pressure and export; In the trip of upper, middle and lower, crack, the hydraulic pressure that accurate hydraulic pressure sensor measures 3 places is installed, crack overcurrent differential water pressures can be solved and measure problem; Survey in crack two and reserve smooth rising as high as the banks, by standard of replacement thickness rubber sheet gasket, the adjustment problem of fracture opening can be solved; The water intake end cap and water outlet end cap that all have horizontal joint are installed respectively in intake-outlet position, crack, and are strained and fixed two end caps by long bolt, the problem of drainage and sealing can be solved; Recycling needle water level gauge reads the water surface elevation of upper flume, by the flow rate calculation formulae discovery outflow of overflow triangular-notch weir, to solve in process of the test flow velocity comparatively large discharge not easily measure problem.
More than show and describe ultimate principle of the present invention, principal character and advantage.The technician of the industry should understand; the present invention is not restricted to the described embodiments; what describe in above-described embodiment and instructions just illustrates principle of the present invention; without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention; the present invention also has various changes and modifications, and these changes and improvements all fall in the claimed scope of the invention.Application claims protection domain is defined by appending claims and equivalent thereof.

Claims (10)

1. a coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, it is characterized in that: comprise the tank, supply channel, crack test specimen and the water return pipeline that are connected successively, described tank forms the lower flume that connects of current and upper flume two pool by installing overflow triangular-notch weir;
The top of described supply channel is connected with the feed water inlet being located at lower flume, the end of supply channel is connected by the water intake end of water intake end cap with crack test specimen, and the top of described water return pipeline is connected with the water side of crack test specimen by water outlet end cap, the end of water return pipeline penetrates the water return outlet being located at upper flume and extends in upper flume;
Described supply channel is disposed with supercharge pump and pressure regulating valve from top to end, described water intake end cap and water outlet end cap all offer the horizontal joint of diversion, described crack test specimen sets gradually at least three place's hydraulic pressure sensors vertically, and described overflow triangular-notch weir is positioned at upper flume side and is provided with needle water level gauge;
Described crack test specimen comprises test specimen main body and is positioned at the crack main body of test specimen main body, and described crack main body is along test specimen main body axial distribution and divide test specimen main body equally; Described crack main body comprises crack, smoothly to rise as high as the banks and rubber sheet gasket, describedly smoothly rise as high as the banks along crack axial distribution in both sides, crack, described rubber sheet gasket is filled in smoothly rises as high as the banks crack both sides sealing, and the axial length two ends in described crack connect with horizontal joint and carry out fracture opening adjustment by the rubber sheet gasket changing different-thickness; Described hydraulic pressure sensor extends into crack by probe and carries out measurement crack overcurrent hydraulic pressure.
2. one according to claim 1 coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, it is characterized in that: described crack main body also comprises current zone of transition, described current zone of transition is distributed in the axial length two ends in crack and connects with horizontal joint.
3. one according to claim 1 coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, is characterized in that: described test specimen main body is clamping fixed by outer tube.
4. one according to claim 1 coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, is characterized in that: be provided with slow water tank between the end of described supply channel and water intake end cap.
5. one according to claim 1 coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, is characterized in that: described water intake end cap and water outlet end cap run through rear tightening nuts by long bolt to carry out tension and be connected.
6. one according to claim 1 coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, is characterized in that: described water intake end cap and water outlet end cap all in be lined with packing washer.
7. one according to claim 1 coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, it is characterized in that: described hydraulic pressure sensor has been spacedly distributed three places, be followed successively by near crack test specimen water intake end top hydraulic pressure sensor, be positioned at middle the hydraulic pressure sensor at test specimen axial length center, crack and the end hydraulic pressure sensor of close test specimen water side, crack.
8. one according to claim 1 coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, is characterized in that: described rubber sheet gasket is packed into smooth rising as high as the banks after smearing glass cement.
9. one according to claim 1 coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, is characterized in that: the thickness of described rubber sheet gasket is X, 0 < X≤9mm.
10. one according to claim 9 coarse crack capable of circulation high speed seepage flow test device, is characterized in that: the thickness of described rubber sheet gasket is 1mm, 1.5mm, 2mm, 3mm, 3.5mm, 4mm, 5mm or 8mm.
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CN105606510A (en) * 2015-12-23 2016-05-25 山东大学 Contrast test detection method for seepage performance of rock with filled and connected fissures
CN106290107A (en) * 2016-08-05 2017-01-04 山东大学 A kind of coarse intersection crack permeation flow tester and method
CN106290107B (en) * 2016-08-05 2019-11-01 山东大学 The coarse intersection crack permeation flow tester of one kind and method
CN106198932A (en) * 2016-09-07 2016-12-07 山东大学 The experimental provision of water petrofacies interaction and method in a kind of simulation rock crack
CN106198932B (en) * 2016-09-07 2018-08-31 山东大学 The experimental provision and method of water lithofacies interaction in a kind of simulation rock crack
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CN106644889A (en) * 2017-02-10 2017-05-10 同济大学 Rock joint seepage device with controllable gap width under high seepage pressure
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