CN105157771B - A kind of transit-time ultrasonic flow measuring method and device - Google Patents

A kind of transit-time ultrasonic flow measuring method and device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105157771B
CN105157771B CN201510387517.5A CN201510387517A CN105157771B CN 105157771 B CN105157771 B CN 105157771B CN 201510387517 A CN201510387517 A CN 201510387517A CN 105157771 B CN105157771 B CN 105157771B
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mrow
flow
mfrac
msub
ultrasonic
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CN201510387517.5A
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CN105157771A (en
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郭楚文
王信用
王凤超
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中国矿业大学
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F1/00Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow
    • G01F1/66Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by measuring frequency, phaseshift, or propagation time of electromagnetic or other waves, e.g. ultrasonic flowmeters

Abstract

A kind of transit-time ultrasonic flow measuring method and device, belong to a kind of flow-measuring method and device.The VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION of real fluid is relevant with fluidised form, and VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION during laminar flow on pipe cross section is rotary parabolic type, and VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION when turbulent on pipe cross section is boss type;Ultrasonic wave has just carried the information of rate of flow of fluid when being propagated in the fluid of flowing, detect the flow velocity of fluid by the ultrasonic wave can received, and be converted into flow;Transit time ultrasonic flow meters are exactly by measuring time difference of the ultrasonic beam in following current and adverse current communication process come the outflow that converts.To uniformly larger measurement error be produced when the flowing velocity on ultrasonic wave propagation path is assumed to be, the flow drawn according to the method for the present invention is then much more accurate.Advantage:Party's law theory is reliable, and device is simple, and method is reliable, and it is convenient to realize, measurement accuracy is high, and measurement result can be made to improve 5%~33%, is adapted to all ultrasonic flowmeters based on propagation time difference measurement flow.

Description

A kind of transit-time ultrasonic flow measuring method and device

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of flow-measuring method and device, particularly a kind of transit-time ultrasonic flow measuring method and Device.

Background technology

Time difference ultrasonic flowmeter is to determine measured stream by measuring ultrasonic wave with the propagation time difference of adverse current and following current The flow velocity of body, ultrasonic wave have just carried the information of rate of flow of fluid, have passed through the ultrasonic wave received when being propagated in the fluid of flowing Time difference can detects the flow velocity of fluid, and is converted into flow.At present, transit time ultrasonic flow meters assume that ultrasonic wave Fluid-flow rate of the beam on propagation path is uniform, and the VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION of actual upper fluid is relevant with fluidised form, during laminar flow VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION on pipe cross section is rotary parabolic type, and VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION when turbulent on pipe cross section is boss type, therefore Necessarily cause larger measurement error.

The content of the invention

Simple the invention aims to provide a kind of device, it is convenient to realize, the high transit-time ultrasonic flow of measurement accuracy Measuring method and device, solve current transit-time ultrasonic flow meter do not consider VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION it is non-homogeneous caused by error ask Topic.

The object of the present invention is achieved like this:The flow-measuring method is as follows:

Propagation time difference of the ultrasonic beam along following current and adverse current be:

When tested flowing be laminar flow, by laminar velocity distribution substitution (1) formula, integrate the time difference is:

Wherein, R is the radius of tested pipeline;umFor conduit axis Peak Flow Rate;θ is ultrasonic beam and fluid flow direction Angle;C is spread speed of the ultrasonic wave in detected fluid;

Then flow during laminar flow is:

Wherein, 1,2,4 are taken respectively to three kinds of Z-type, V-type, W types different mounting means, COEFFICIENT K;

The heterogeneity of VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION is not considered, it is poor according to average speed calculating ultrasonic propagation time, then it is measured Flow is:

Obviously have:

When tested flowing for it is turbulent when, turbulent velocity is distributed (1) formula of substitution, integrate the time difference is:

Wherein, n is the empirical index number of turbulent velocity distribution, is typically increased with the increase of Reynolds number;

Flow when then turbulent is

Without considering that the obtained flow of inhomogeneities of VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION is:

Then have

Flow measurement device includes:Measured pipeline section, host scm, radiating circuit, downstream ultrasonic transducer, upstream surpass Sonic sensor, the first receiving processing circuit, the second receiving processing circuit, time difference measurement, clock, memory, keyboard and LCD show Show;Downstream ultrasonic transducer, upstream ultrasonic transducer are connected to measured pipeline section upstream and downstream ultrasonic sensor Output end is connected by the input of the first receiving processing circuit and time difference measurement, and the output end of upstream ultrasonic transducer passes through The input of second receiving processing circuit and time difference measurement connects;The output end of time difference measurement connects with host scm both-way communication Connect;Clock, memory, keyboard and LCD show and be connected with host scm, the output end of host scm and the input of radiating circuit End connection, the output end of the output end of radiating circuit respectively with downstream ultrasonic transducer and upstream ultrasonic transducer are connected.

After host scm sends measuring command, radiating circuit produces certain waveform, then synchronous first to counter O reset Start radiating circuit triggering ultrasonic transducer transmitting ultrasonic pulse, passed using downstream ultrasonic transducer, upstream ultrasonic Sensor, the first receiving processing circuit, the second receiving processing circuit and time difference measurement, the downstream propagation times of ultrasonic wave can be obtained With the adverse current propagation time;Host scm is counted using digital filtering and is filtered processing to these time signals, and according to reality Situation calculates corresponding flow velocity and flow, is saved in memory, and is sent to LCD and shows and show.

For the VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION type in the flow regime and cross section in tested pipeline, host scm uses integral algorithm Calculate flow velocity and flow.

Beneficial effect, as a result of such scheme, it is assumed to be uniformly when by the flowing velocity on ultrasonic wave propagation path Will produce larger measurement error, it is then much more accurate according to the flow that draws of method of the present invention.In order to eliminate due to speed Measurement error caused by skewness, is calculated by theory deduction, draws the correction factor for different flow regimes, and set Set of device is counted, realizes time difference ultrasonic measurement.Solve current transit-time ultrasonic flow meter and do not consider VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION Error problem caused by non-homogeneous.

Advantage:Party's law theory is reliable, and device is simple, and method is reliable, and it is convenient to realize, measurement accuracy is high, with it is existing when Differential type ultrasonic measurements are compared, and measurement result can be made to improve 5%~33%, are adapted to all to be surveyed based on propagation time difference Measure the ultrasonic flowmeter of flow.

Brief description of the drawings:

Fig. 1 is that ultrasonic sensor of the present invention presses Z-type arrangement figure.

Fig. 2 is that ultrasonic sensor of the present invention presses V-type arrangement figure.

Fig. 3 is that ultrasonic sensor of the present invention presses W type arrangement figures.

Embodiment

The invention will be further described with specific implementation below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

Embodiment 1:The flow-measuring method is as follows:

Propagation time difference of the ultrasonic beam along following current and adverse current be:

When tested flowing be laminar flow, by laminar velocity distribution substitution (1) formula, integrate the time difference is:

Wherein, R is the radius of tested pipeline;umFor conduit axis Peak Flow Rate;θ is ultrasonic beam and fluid flow direction Angle;C is spread speed of the ultrasonic wave in detected fluid;

Then flow during laminar flow is:

Wherein, 1,2,4 are taken respectively to three kinds of Z-type, V-type, W types different mounting means, COEFFICIENT K;

The inhomogeneities of VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION is not considered, it is poor according to average speed calculating ultrasonic propagation time, then it is measured Flow is:

Obviously have:

Laminar flow measured by existing transit-time ultrasonic flow meter is 1.33 times that flow is measured by the inventive method, Its error is apparent.

When tested flowing for it is turbulent when, turbulent velocity is distributed (1) formula of substitution, integrate the time difference is:

Wherein, n is the empirical index number of turbulent velocity distribution, is typically increased with the increase of Reynolds number;

Flow when then turbulent is

Without considering that the obtained flow of inhomogeneities of VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION is:

Then have

The empirical index number n of turbulent velocity distribution is generally 4~10, then disorderly measured by existing transit-time ultrasonic flow meter It is 1.16~1.05 times that flow is measured by the inventive method to flow flow, and its error is apparent.

Flow measurement device includes:Be measured pipeline section 1, host scm 2, radiating circuit 3, downstream ultrasonic transducer 4, on Swim ultrasonic sensor 5, the first receiving processing circuit 6, the second receiving processing circuit 7, time difference measurement 8, clock 9, memory 10, Keyboard 11 and LCD show 12;Downstream ultrasonic transducer 4, upstream ultrasonic transducer 5 be connected on measured pipeline section 1, The output end of downstream ultrasonic transducer 4 is connected by the first receiving processing circuit 6 with the input of time difference measurement 8, and upstream surpasses The output end of sonic sensor 5 is connected by the second receiving processing circuit 7 with the input of time difference measurement 8;Time difference measurement 8 it is defeated Go out end to be connected with the both-way communication of host scm 2;Clock 9, memory 10, keyboard 11 and LCD show that 12 connect with host scm 2 Connect, the output end of host scm 2 is connected with the input of radiating circuit 3, the output end of radiating circuit 3 respectively with downstream ultrasonic Sensor 4 connects with the output end of upstream ultrasonic transducer 5.

After host scm 2 sends measuring command, radiating circuit 3 produces certain waveform, first to counter O reset, then together Step starts radiating circuit 3 and triggers ultrasonic transducer transmitting ultrasonic pulse, utilizes downstream ultrasonic transducer 4, upstream ultrasonic Wave sensor 5, the first receiving processing circuit 6, the second receiving processing circuit 7 and time difference measurement 8, can obtain the following current of ultrasonic wave Propagation time and adverse current propagation time;Host scm 2 is counted using digital filtering and these time signals is filtered with processing, and Corresponding flow velocity and flow are calculated according to actual conditions, is saved in memory 10, and is sent to LCD and shows and shown on 12 Come.

For the VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION type in the flow regime and cross section in tested pipeline, host scm 2 is calculated using integration Method calculates flow velocity and flow.

Specifically:

Illustrated in Fig. 1, so that Z-type is arranged as an example.Described ultrasonic sensor is by Z-type arrangement:Downstream surpasses Sonic sensor 4 is located at downside, and upstream ultrasonic transducer 5 is located at the upside of the front end of downstream ultrasonic transducer 4.

As shown in figure 1, flow measurement device includes:It is measured pipeline section 1, host scm 2, radiating circuit 3, downstream ultrasonic Sensor 4, upstream ultrasonic transducer 5, the first receiving processing circuit 6, the second receiving processing circuit 7, time difference measurement 8, clock 9th, memory 10, keyboard 11 and LCD show 12;Downstream ultrasonic transducer 4, upstream ultrasonic transducer 5 be connected to by The output end for measuring the upstream and downstream ultrasonic sensor 4 of pipeline section 1 passes through the input of the first receiving processing circuit 6 and time difference measurement 8 Connection, the output end of upstream ultrasonic transducer 5 are connected by the second receiving processing circuit 7 with the input of time difference measurement 8;When The output end of difference measurements 8 is connected with the both-way communication of host scm 2;Clock 9, memory 10, keyboard 11 and LCD show 12 with master Single-chip microcomputer 2 is connected, and the output end of host scm 2 is connected with the input of radiating circuit 3, the output end of radiating circuit 3 respectively with Downstream ultrasonic transducer 4 connects with the output end of upstream ultrasonic transducer 5.

After host scm 2 sends measuring command, radiating circuit 3 produces certain waveform, first to counter O reset, then together Step starts radiating circuit 3 and triggers ultrasonic transducer transmitting ultrasonic pulse, utilizes downstream ultrasonic transducer 4, upstream ultrasonic Wave sensor 5, receiving processing circuit I6, receiving processing circuit II7 and time difference measurement 8, the downstream propagation of ultrasonic wave can be obtained Time and adverse current propagation time.Host scm 2 is counted using digital filtering and these time signals is filtered with processing, and according to Actual conditions calculate corresponding flow velocity and flow, are saved in memory 10, and are sent to LCD and show and shown on 12.

For the VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION type in the flow regime and cross section in tested pipeline, host scm 2 is calculated using integration Method calculates flow velocity and flow.

Because ultrasonic wave is when following current or adverse current are propagated, its spread speed is equal to the hydrostatic velocity of sound plus or minus flow of fluid Speed.Therefore, after ultrasonic wave is from a sensor emission, fluid layer different in flow rate is will be travelling through, namely ultrasonic wave is being propagated through Speed in journey is change.In order to accurately measure the downstream propagation times of ultrasonic wave and adverse current propagation time difference, it is necessary to use The method of integration.Ultrasonic beam is drawn along the propagation time difference of following current and adverse current by such as lower integral:

Wherein, R is the radius of tested pipeline;U is distributed for velocity in pipes;θ is the folder of ultrasonic beam and fluid flow direction Angle;C is spread speed of the ultrasonic wave in detected fluid.

For example, for laminar flow, the VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION on pipe cross section is:

Wherein, umFor conduit axis Peak Flow Rate.

By laminar velocity be distributed substitute into (1) formula, integrate the time difference is:

Then the flow of Z-type mounting means is during laminar flow:

And discounting for the heterogeneity of VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION, it is poor to calculate ultrasonic propagation time according to average speed, then institute The flow of measurement is:

Obviously have:

Laminar flow measured by existing transit-time ultrasonic flow meter be by the inventive method measure flow 1.16~ 0.39 times, its error is apparent.

When tested flowing for it is turbulent when, turbulent velocity is distributed (1) formula of substitution, integrate the time difference is:

Wherein, n is the empirical index number of turbulent velocity distribution, is typically increased with the increase of Reynolds number.

Flow when then turbulent is

Without considering that the obtained flow of inhomogeneities of VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION is:

Then have

The empirical index number n of turbulent velocity distribution is generally 4~10, then disorderly measured by existing transit-time ultrasonic flow meter It is 1.16~1.05 times that flow is measured by the inventive method to flow flow, and its error is apparent.

Embodiment 2:In Fig. 2, V-type arrangement, downstream ultrasonic transducer 4 and upstream ultrasonic are pressed for ultrasonic sensor The same side of wave sensor 5, downstream ultrasonic transducer 4 are located at the downside of upstream ultrasonic transducer 5;It is other same with embodiment 1.

Embodiment 3:Fig. 3 is that ultrasonic sensor of the present invention presses W type arrangement figures.Downstream ultrasonic transducer 4 with it is upper Swim ultrasonic sensor 5 the same side, downstream ultrasonic transducer 4 be located at the V-arrangement of downside two of upstream ultrasonic transducer 5 away from From;It is other same with embodiment 1.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of transit-time ultrasonic flow measuring method, it is characterized in that:The flow-measuring method is as follows:
Propagation time difference of the ultrasonic beam along following current and adverse current be:
<mrow> <mi>&amp;Delta;</mi> <mi>T</mi> <mo>=</mo> <msub> <mi>T</mi> <mn>2</mn> </msub> <mo>-</mo> <msub> <mi>T</mi> <mn>1</mn> </msub> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <mn>2</mn> <mrow> <mi>sin</mi> <mi>&amp;theta;</mi> </mrow> </mfrac> <msubsup> <mo>&amp;Integral;</mo> <mn>0</mn> <mi>R</mi> </msubsup> <mrow> <mo>&amp;lsqb;</mo> <mfrac> <mn>1</mn> <mrow> <mi>c</mi> <mo>-</mo> <mi>u</mi> <mi> </mi> <mi>c</mi> <mi>o</mi> <mi>s</mi> <mi>&amp;theta;</mi> </mrow> </mfrac> <mo>-</mo> <mfrac> <mn>1</mn> <mrow> <mi>c</mi> <mo>+</mo> <mi>u</mi> <mi> </mi> <mi>c</mi> <mi>o</mi> <mi>s</mi> <mi>&amp;theta;</mi> </mrow> </mfrac> <mo>&amp;rsqb;</mo> </mrow> <mi>d</mi> <mi>r</mi> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>1</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow>
Wherein, T1、T2Respectively ultrasonic beam is along following current and the propagation time of adverse current;R is the radius of tested pipeline;θ is ultrasonic wave The angle of beam and fluid flow direction;C is spread speed of the ultrasonic wave in detected fluid;U is the speed of detected fluid;
When tested flowing be laminar flow, by laminar velocity distribution substitution (1) formula, integrate the time difference is:
<mrow> <mi>&amp;Delta;</mi> <mi>T</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <mn>8</mn> <msub> <mi>Ru</mi> <mi>m</mi> </msub> <mi>c</mi> <mi>o</mi> <mi>s</mi> <mi>&amp;theta;</mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn>3</mn> <msup> <mi>c</mi> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mi>s</mi> <mi>i</mi> <mi>n</mi> <mi>&amp;theta;</mi> </mrow> </mfrac> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>2</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow>
Wherein, umFor conduit axis Peak Flow Rate;
Then flow Q during laminar flow is:
<mrow> <mi>Q</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mi>K</mi> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <mn>3</mn> <msup> <mi>&amp;pi;Rc</mi> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mi>t</mi> <mi>a</mi> <mi>n</mi> <mi>&amp;theta;</mi> </mrow> <mn>16</mn> </mfrac> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>&amp;Delta;</mi> <mi>T</mi> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>3</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow>
Wherein, 1,2,4 are taken respectively to three kinds of Z-type, V-type, W types different mounting means, COEFFICIENT K;
The heterogeneity of VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION is not considered, poor, the then measured flow Q that calculates ultrasonic propagation time according to average speed0 For:
<mrow> <msub> <mi>Q</mi> <mn>0</mn> </msub> <mo>=</mo> <mi>K</mi> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <msup> <mi>&amp;pi;Rc</mi> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mi>t</mi> <mi>a</mi> <mi>n</mi> <mi>&amp;theta;</mi> </mrow> <mn>4</mn> </mfrac> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>&amp;Delta;</mi> <mi>T</mi> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>4</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow>
Obviously have:
<mrow> <msub> <mi>Q</mi> <mn>0</mn> </msub> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <mn>4</mn> <mn>3</mn> </mfrac> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>Q</mi> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>5</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow>
When tested flowing for it is turbulent when, turbulent velocity is distributed (1) formula of substitution, integrate the time difference is:
<mrow> <mi>&amp;Delta;</mi> <mi>T</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <mi>n</mi> <mrow> <mi>n</mi> <mo>+</mo> <mn>1</mn> </mrow> </mfrac> <mfrac> <mrow> <mn>4</mn> <msub> <mi>Ru</mi> <mi>m</mi> </msub> <mi>c</mi> <mi>o</mi> <mi>s</mi> <mi>&amp;theta;</mi> </mrow> <mrow> <msup> <mi>c</mi> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mi>s</mi> <mi>i</mi> <mi>n</mi> <mi>&amp;theta;</mi> </mrow> </mfrac> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>6</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow>
Wherein, n is the empirical index number of turbulent velocity distribution, is typically increased with the increase of Reynolds number;
Flow when then turbulent is
<mrow> <mi>Q</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mi>K</mi> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <msup> <mi>n&amp;pi;Rc</mi> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mi>t</mi> <mi>a</mi> <mi>n</mi> <mi>&amp;theta;</mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn>4</mn> <mi>n</mi> <mo>+</mo> <mn>2</mn> </mrow> </mfrac> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>&amp;Delta;</mi> <mi>T</mi> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>7</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow>
Without considering that the obtained flow of inhomogeneities of VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION is:
<mrow> <msub> <mi>Q</mi> <mn>0</mn> </msub> <mo>=</mo> <mi>K</mi> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <msup> <mi>&amp;pi;Rc</mi> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mi>t</mi> <mi>a</mi> <mi>n</mi> <mi>&amp;theta;</mi> </mrow> <mn>4</mn> </mfrac> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>&amp;Delta;</mi> <mi>T</mi> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>8</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow>
Then have
<mrow> <msub> <mi>Q</mi> <mn>0</mn> </msub> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <mn>2</mn> <mi>n</mi> <mo>+</mo> <mn>1</mn> </mrow> <mrow> <mn>2</mn> <mi>n</mi> </mrow> </mfrac> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>Q</mi> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>9</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mo>.</mo> </mrow>
CN201510387517.5A 2015-07-03 2015-07-03 A kind of transit-time ultrasonic flow measuring method and device CN105157771B (en)

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