CN105145225A - Tea garden moisture conservation tillage minimizing method - Google Patents

Tea garden moisture conservation tillage minimizing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105145225A
CN105145225A CN201510391814.7A CN201510391814A CN105145225A CN 105145225 A CN105145225 A CN 105145225A CN 201510391814 A CN201510391814 A CN 201510391814A CN 105145225 A CN105145225 A CN 105145225A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
tea
fertilizer
soil
tea place
tea garden
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Pending
Application number
CN201510391814.7A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王烨军
苏有健
张永利
廖万有
王光熙
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Huangshan City Songluo Organic Tea Development Co ltd
Tea Research Institute Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Original Assignee
Huangshan City Songluo Organic Tea Development Co ltd
Tea Research Institute Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Publication date
Application filed by Huangshan City Songluo Organic Tea Development Co ltd, Tea Research Institute Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences filed Critical Huangshan City Songluo Organic Tea Development Co ltd
Priority to CN201510391814.7A priority Critical patent/CN105145225A/en
Publication of CN105145225A publication Critical patent/CN105145225A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2

Abstract

The invention belongs to the tea plant cultivation technical field, and specifically relates to a tea garden moisture conservation tillage minimizing method comprising the following steps: deep tillage impurity removing and base fertilizer reapplying are done before the tea garden is closed in September-October; uniformly broadcasting trifolium repens seeds in blank zones between lines in the tea garden according to a ratio of 1.0-1.5Kg/mu; raking seeds and capping soil in the surface; doing earthing work with the earthing depth of 0.5-1.0cm; keeping surface soil to be moisture after the earthing work; re-applying nitrogenous fertilizer for one time according to a ratio of 10kg/mu before rhizobium is not generated in a 30-50days period of the trifolium repens seedling stage. The method can utilize competition and allelopathy effects between plants so as to improve tea garden ecology, thus improving soil quality, reducing weed survival space, finally realizing less-tillage or even non-tillage effect of the tea garden cultivation management, and providing important meanings for tea sustainable production and simplification works.

Description

The soil moisture conservation of a kind of tea place subtracts cultivated method
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of tea tree cultivation, be specifically related to the soil moisture conservation of a kind of tea place and subtract cultivated method.
Background technology
Farming is an important technical links of tea place cultivation management, and its object is exactly briefly keep soil moisture and hoe weed in tea garden.Wherein, tea place water conservation mainly realizes by reducing soil moisture and running off and expand the water-holding capacity of soil, conventional Measures on Soil Moisture Conservation have in the ranks litter, plastic mulching, hoe water conservation etc.But plastic mulching can bring harmful effect to the permeability of tea garden soil, portion of water can be stopped by mulch film and be difficult to enter soil plough horizon, moreover mulch film itself also can cause secondary pollution to tea garden soil.Meanwhile, because how with a varied topography source, careless, tea district be not enough, add that transport difficult, management difficulty are large, adopt traditional littering then can the manpower and materials of at substantial with hoe Water-retaining Measure in the ranks, integrated cost be higher.And for hoe weed in tea garden for this, the control of current China weed in tea garden still removes based on traditional chemical herbicide, artificial and power shovel.Tea place artificial weeding work consuming is many, labor cost is high, continues without crop smothering time short (only 10-20 days), controls weeds inefficiencies.Adopt chemical weed control cost compare low, Weed control effect is also relatively good, but tealeaves is polluted in the use of weed killer herbicide in tea place, Pesticide Residues in Tea amount is caused to exceed standard, use herbicide residue composition in soil also can the structure of community of microorganism and soil insect and other small animals in spoiled soil simultaneously continuously, also can produce larger harm to the normal configuration of tea garden soil rhizosphere bio-diversity.How to seek the soil moisture conservation of a kind of effective tea place and subtract cultivated method, to overcome above-mentioned the deficiencies in the prior art, reach and improve tea place ecology, promote soil quality, reduce the object of weeds living space, what finally realize tea place cultivation management minimal tills even no-tillage effect, is this area compeled technical barrier to be solved in recent years.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention is for overcoming above-mentioned the deficiencies in the prior art, provide the soil moisture conservation of a kind of simple and easy to do tea place and subtract cultivated method, the method can utilize competition between plant and allelopathy, reach and improve tea place ecology, promote soil quality, reduce the object of weeds living space, what finally realize tea place cultivation management minimal tills even no-tillage effect, and it is to the sustainable production of tealeaves and the equal important in inhibiting of light simplification operation.
For achieving the above object, present invention employs following technical scheme:
The soil moisture conservation of a kind of tea place subtracts cultivated method, it is characterized in that: at 9-10 autumn and winter, tea place month Feng Yuanqian, after ploughing deeply impurity elimination and heavy base fertilizer application, to clover seed be spent in vain by the uniform broadcasting of 1.0-1.5Kg/ mu consumption on the blank tape in the ranks of tea place, then harrow even top layer seed and surface dust, carry out earthing operation, thickness of earth-fill cover 0.5-1.0cm; Wherein:
Ploughing deeply impurity elimination is by tea tree edge pruning, keeps tea line space 30-40cm; Opening then between tea is capable carries out deep ploughing operation, tilth: 20-25cm; And remove unnecessary foreign matter;
In heavy base fertilizer application, selected fertilizer is organic manure, cake fertilizer or K through fully becoming thoroughly decomposed 2sO 4composite fertilizer; Cake fertilizer or Rate of Organic Fertilizer are 200-400Kg/ mu; K 2sO 4composite fertilizer (15:15:15) every mu of consumption is 50Kg, and presses N:P 2o 5: K 2o=(2-4): the ratio of 1:1, joins and executes 7.5Kg nitrogenous fertilizer;
After earthing operation, keep table soil moistening; Spending in vain in clover 30-50 in seedling stage days, before its rhizobium not yet generate, spread fertilizer over the fields 1 nitrogenous fertilizer again by 10Kg/ mu pure nitrogen level.
In spring or phase in midsummer, remove higher than spending trefoil tall and big weeds in vain; Then increase interval between twice weeding gradually, until no-tillage farming.
The described mode that weeds a garden is for manually to pull out or mower is wiped out.
Spending in vain after clover seed is sown into earth's surface, carry out sprinkling pouring immediately; Selection of time is carried out, in the morning or at dusk until emerge.
Major advantage of the present invention is:
1), this method between plant spend clover in vain, there is following characteristics: stem is stolon, highly general between 10-20cm; Do not need after plantation to prune, management intensity is little.Well developed root system, can utilize the moisture of deep subsoil; Irrigation times is few, manages more extensive.Blossom and bear fruit, seed lands spontaneous, can realize natural renovation, lasting.Resistance to pruning, resistance to trample, regeneration capacity is strong; High strength is trampleed on or after rolling, within 3-5 days, can be recovered.Eustipes part lands and takes root, and aggressiveness is strong; And be broad leaved plant, blade horizontal stretching, can cover ground effectively, keeps soil moisture content, suppresses weeds propagation and widespread.
Consider soil and the lineament of the relatively barren complexity in tea district itself, in conjunction with above-mentioned fertilizing and planting mode, the present invention can guarantee sowed to spend the coverage rate that formation that clover can be practical can meet specific ground moistening degree needed for tea place in vain, finally reach and can suppress weed growth, reduce the input of artificial, weeding by machine's cost and chemical herbicide, its ground moistening degree demand can be met again and meet the object of corresponding microorganism growing environment, achieve many things at one stroke.
2), by such scheme of the present invention, its can not only Effective Regulation tea garden soil temp. and humidity, improvement soil physical and chemical property, improve Soil Microorganism active, and remarkable for the inhibition of injurious weed in tea place, be the important technical links realizing the light streamlining management in tea place.In addition, spend trefoil effective survival and covering in vain, too increase the green cover degree in earth's surface, tea place, decrease the loss of tea place water and soil fertilizer, and also can play Beneficial Effect to harmful substances such as purifying tea garden soil middle peasant is residual, heavy metal, there are significant ecological benefits.
Accompanying drawing illustrates:
Fig. 1 is the different levels soil water-containing scale in check plot and test region;
Fig. 2 is the different soil soil thermometer in check plot and test region;
Fig. 3 is the Character change table of the weeds in check plot and test region;
Fig. 4 is Soil Microorganism change list in check plot and test region.
Embodiment
For ease of understanding, following further describing is done to specific embodiment of the invention process herein:
The soil moisture conservation of a kind of tea place subtracts cultivated method, comprise plough deeply impurity elimination, heavy base fertilizer application, leveling earth, seed broadcasting, water management, nutrient management, weeds pull out, cut the steps such as blue or green.
Described impurity elimination of ploughing deeply is: autumn and winter 9-10 month, at tea place Feng Yuanqian, by tea tree edge pruning, keeps tea line space 30-40cm.Opening then between tea is capable carries out deep ploughing operation, tilth: 20-25cm.And remove as unnecessary foreign matters such as stub, rock, weeds.
Heavy base fertilizer application is: fertilizer type is based on the organic manure through fully becoming thoroughly decomposed, cake fertilizer or composite fertilizer.Wherein, cake fertilizer or Rate of Organic Fertilizer are generally 200-400Kg/ mu; K 2sO 4composite fertilizer (15:15:15) every mu of consumption is 50Kg, and presses N:P 2o 5: K 2o=(2-4): the ratio of 1:1, joins and executes 7.5Kg nitrogenous fertilizer.
Leveling earth is: break soil block into pieces with shallow finger rake, leveling rake is thin, while covering fertilizer, removes the foreign matters such as grass roots further.And keep Panasonic on soil real, in the ranks level ground bed is smooth fine and smooth.
Seed broadcasting is: select spend in vain clover seed (band dressing) by the uniform broadcasting of 1.0-1.5Kg/ mu seeding quantity in tea place opening in the ranks, then with shallow finger rake rake even top layer seed and surface dust, carry out earthing operation, overburden depth 0.5-1.0cm.
Water management is: after seed is sown into level ground bed, if there is sprinkling irrigation system, can spray immediately; The need do not had carry out artificial spray pouring.Selection of time is sprayed in the morning or at dusk, makes level ground bed table soil remain moistening, until emerge.
Nutrient management is: in butch clover 30-50 in seedling stage days, before rhizobium not yet generate, need spread fertilizer over the fields 1 nitrogenous fertilizer again, in order to strong sprout by 10Kg/ mu pure nitrogen level.
Weeds pull out into: in spring or phase in midsummer, when weeds growing way is more prosperous, adopts and manually to pull out or mode that mower is wiped out is removed higher than trefoil tall and big weeds.And backsight weed growth situation, reduce weeding number of times gradually, until no-tillage farming.
Embodiment:
Experiment place: tea place, sunglo organic tea development corporation, Ltd. Ba Zhuan base.
Tea place present situation: the yellow-red soil that phyllite and husky shale are grown, pH value about 4.51.Tea tree breed is local group's kind, and tea tree is that two bar plants dense planting mode.Mu is executed purity nitrogen year and is about 20kg, and Fertilization Level is medium, and output is lower.
Processing mode: adopted this method in 2012 ~ 2013 years, 1 test region (representing with T in table) is set in tea place, area 1000m 2.1 check plot (representing with CK in table), area 1000m 2.
Seed broadcasting, on the blank tape in the ranks of tea place, with shallow finger rake rake even top layer seed and surface dust, carries out earthing operation, overburden depth: 0.5-1.0cm, seed consumption: 1.0-1.5kg/ mu.The grass sowing time, after the autumn and winter, base manure was used in tea place (the 10-11 month).After kind, the front 1-2 of weed in tea garden, manually pulls out or adopts mower to wipe out higher than trefoil tall and big weeds.Formed after coverage rate until clover, depending on weed growth situation, reduce weeding number of times year by year, until no-tillage farming.
Detection analysis shows: increase by 3.2% ~ 5.1% according to tea place, test region soil capillary moisture capacity compared with the tea garden soil of check plot of process of the present invention, the bulk density of soil on average reduces 0.07g/cm 3~ 0.11g/cm 3, soil porosity increases by 1.5% ~ 2.3%.
As seen from Figure 1, soil moisture ratio check plot in test region wants high by 5.4% ~ 8.2%.Simultaneously as seen from Figure 2, test region tea garden soil range of temperature is 18.2 DEG C ~ 28.0 DEG C, check plot be 18.2 DEG C ~ 31.3 DEG C, the interval growth of tea plant preferably of test region variations in temperature.Be 72.5kg/ mu by each Ji Gancha gross yield in the test region of above-mentioned tillage method, apparently higher than contrast, rate of growth is 15.3%.
As from the foregoing, effect of the present invention is effectively to suppress weed in tea garden, deepen plough horizon, improvement soil physical and chemical property, tea district ability of retaining and conserveing soil moisture significantly strengthens, and the release etc. of deep layer available nutrient can be accelerated, so that the nutrient met better needed for Growth of Tea Plants and various nutritive element demand.Contrast above-described embodiment can be found out, adopts after this method, and the kind of its weeds, highly, density and biomass have dropped 30.5%, 62.8%, 54.7% and 84.1% respectively.The method with low cost, mode of operation is simple, is suitable for applying in tea place, subtropics as tea place ecological weed control measure.

Claims (4)

1. a tea place soil moisture conservation subtracts cultivated method, it is characterized in that: at 9-10 autumn and winter, tea place month Feng Yuanqian, after ploughing deeply impurity elimination and heavy base fertilizer application, to clover seed be spent in vain by the uniform broadcasting of 1.0-1.5Kg/ mu consumption on the blank tape in the ranks of tea place, then harrow even top layer seed and surface dust, carry out earthing operation, thickness of earth-fill cover 0.5-1.0cm; Wherein:
Ploughing deeply impurity elimination is by tea tree edge pruning, keeps tea line space 30-40cm; Opening then between tea is capable carries out deep ploughing operation, tilth: 20-25cm; And remove unnecessary foreign matter;
In heavy base fertilizer application, selected fertilizer is organic manure, cake fertilizer or K through fully becoming thoroughly decomposed 2sO 4composite fertilizer; Cake fertilizer or Rate of Organic Fertilizer are 200-400Kg/ mu; K 2sO 4composite fertilizer (15:15:15) every mu of consumption is 50Kg, and presses N:P 2o 5: K 2o=(2-4): the ratio of 1:1, joins and executes 7.5Kg nitrogenous fertilizer;
After earthing operation, keep table soil moistening; Spending in vain in clover 30-50 in seedling stage days, before its rhizobium not yet generate, spread fertilizer over the fields 1 nitrogenous fertilizer again by 10Kg/ mu pure nitrogen level.
2. a kind of tea place soil moisture conservation according to claim 1 subtracts cultivated method, it is characterized in that: in spring or phase in midsummer, removing higher than spending trefoil tall and big weeds in vain; Then increase interval between twice weeding gradually, until no-tillage farming.
3. a kind of tea place according to claim 2 soil moisture conservation subtracts cultivated method, it is characterized in that: described in weed a garden mode for manually to pull out or mower is wiped out.
4. a kind of tea place soil moisture conservation according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 subtracts cultivated method, it is characterized in that: spending in vain after clover seed is sown into earth's surface, carrying out sprinklings immediately and watering; Selection of time is carried out, in the morning or at dusk until emerge.
CN201510391814.7A 2015-07-03 2015-07-03 Tea garden moisture conservation tillage minimizing method Pending CN105145225A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105659963A (en) * 2016-01-25 2016-06-15 池州市贵池区静安茶行 Ecological improvement method for tea garden soil
CN109328844A (en) * 2018-12-06 2019-02-15 湖南省茶叶研究所(湖南省茶叶检测中心) A method of suitable at kind leguminous green manure between age tea place
CN110612866A (en) * 2019-09-27 2019-12-27 贵州省果树科学研究所 Dragon fruit planting method for reducing allelopathy of plants

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CN104542164A (en) * 2015-01-27 2015-04-29 芜湖恒诺能源技术有限公司 Tea interplanting method
CN104686156A (en) * 2015-03-10 2015-06-10 胡齐放 Interplanting method of selenium-rich tea

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101461307A (en) * 2008-11-19 2009-06-24 陈光辉 Method for planting tree plant
CN102138380A (en) * 2011-04-02 2011-08-03 福建省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所 Tea garden fertilizing method
CN104542164A (en) * 2015-01-27 2015-04-29 芜湖恒诺能源技术有限公司 Tea interplanting method
CN104686156A (en) * 2015-03-10 2015-06-10 胡齐放 Interplanting method of selenium-rich tea

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105659963A (en) * 2016-01-25 2016-06-15 池州市贵池区静安茶行 Ecological improvement method for tea garden soil
CN109328844A (en) * 2018-12-06 2019-02-15 湖南省茶叶研究所(湖南省茶叶检测中心) A method of suitable at kind leguminous green manure between age tea place
CN110612866A (en) * 2019-09-27 2019-12-27 贵州省果树科学研究所 Dragon fruit planting method for reducing allelopathy of plants

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