CN105141049A - Single-winding low-cost high-power density permanent magnet linear generator - Google Patents

Single-winding low-cost high-power density permanent magnet linear generator Download PDF

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CN105141049A
CN105141049A CN201510694316.XA CN201510694316A CN105141049A CN 105141049 A CN105141049 A CN 105141049A CN 201510694316 A CN201510694316 A CN 201510694316A CN 105141049 A CN105141049 A CN 105141049A
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stator
permanent magnet
armature
winding
mover
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CN105141049B (en
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王道涵
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Shandong University
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Shandong University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a single-winding low-cost high-power density permanent magnet linear generator. The stator is uniformly provided with an even number of stator teeth; a stator groove is arranged in adjacent two stator teeth; a permanent magnet is arranged between a stator groove yoke and a stator back yoke; a main air gap is arranged between the stator tooth and a rotor tooth; magnetic flux generated by adjacent two permanent magnets enters the stator via the main air gap to form main magnetic flux; the permanent magnet does not rotate along with the rotor; a set of armature winding is arranged inside adjacent two stator grooves; the armature winding passes in from the groove where one armature winding is and passes out from the adjacent armature groove, windings inside the adjacent two armature grooves form an armature coil, each armature coil crosses for a distance of two stator teeth, and windings inside the adjacent two armature grooves have the same magnitude and opposite directions. Only one set of winding exists, the magnitude and the direction of current of one set of armature winding need to be controlled in the case of operation, and the power circuit only needs two power switch devices.

Description

The low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding
Technical field
The present invention relates to the low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding.
Background technology
Inputted electric energy can be converted into straight line kinetic energy in required occasion by linear motor driver, realize rectilinear motion, save the machine driving conversion equipment in tradition rotation-straight line conversion type of drive, substantially reduce the volume of transmission device, improve reliability and the efficiency of whole system, and effectively reduce cost and the maintenance cost of equipment, moreover, tradition rotation-straight line conversion type of drive is also had to be beyond one's reach at a high speed, high accuracy and robustness.In addition, because transmission converting device significantly can increase the vibration & noise of drive system, control precision and the performance of system is reduced.Therefore, in modern industry production process, especially all particular application, as precision instrument, aero-space instrument, Medical Instruments etc., linear motor obtains to be applied more and more widely.
The kinetic transformation that rectilinear motion can directly produce by linear electric generator is electric energy, linear electric generator is adopted directly to drive generating, significantly can strengthen the mutual matching of machinery of moving component and Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT), kinetic energy capture rate is high, especially at the linear motion system of low speed, linear electric generator is adopted more to have advantage.
At present, linear electric generator has following kind, and 1) linear induction generator, its feature is: end effect is obvious, and especially during high-speed cruising, end effect makes motor propulsive force obviously reduce; Efficiency and power factor are all lower, and usual efficiency is 50% ~ 60%, and power factor only has about 0.5, and control system and control strategy are very complicated; 2) permanent magnet linear generator, has the advantage such as high power density and high efficiency, has been applied to ocean wave energy at present and has directly driven electricity generation system.But the permanent magnet of existing permanent-magnetism linear motor is positioned on mover mostly, along with mover moves reciprocatingly, the magnetic property of permanent magnetic material is subject to temperature, the impact of the external environmental factor such as corrosion and vibration, therefore, for the occasion that running environment is comparatively severe, permanent magnet linear generator is also inapplicable; 3) straight line switch reluctance generator, motor body structure is simple, and low cost of manufacture, operational reliability is high, and have the advantage can run under various mal-condition, maintenance cost is low.In addition, its whole system efficiency higher than linear induction motor, and has broad economical operation scope, can realize a series of gratifying performance, but linear switched reluctance motor power density is lower by various control strategy flexibly.
In recent years, along with the raising of permanent magnetic material resistance to elevated temperatures and the reduction of price, magneto obtains applying more widely in national defence, industrial and agricultural production and daily life etc., forward high-power, high performance and microminiaturized future development.The power of current magneto is from a few milliwatt to a few megawatt, the large-scale magneto that range of application is drawn from toy motor, commercial Application to naval vessel, be widely applied in national economy, daily life, war industry, aerospace various aspects, similar with permanent magnet rotating electric machine, existing permanent-magnetism linear motor winding is generally 3 phases, stator slot number is many, winding inserting complex process, and manufacturing cost is high; Existing most of permanent-magnetism linear motor permanent magnet is positioned on mover, move with mover during operation, permanent magnet need adopt special procedure to fix, manufacturing cost is high, especially, when the motor speed of service is higher, the fixing difficulty of permanent magnet, because permanent magnet is positioned on mover, heat radiation difficulty during operation, temperature rise and the vibration caused due to reciprocating motion can cause permanent magnet mechanical structure to be damaged and irreversible demagnetization occurs; Existing permanent-magnetism linear motor is generally three-phase; require that the power inversion circuit of motor at least needs 6 device for power switching; as IGBT or MOSFET etc.; and the drive circuit of corresponding this device for power switching of driving and protective circuit; make power of motor inverter circuit cost quite high, even reach two to three times of motor body cost, quantity of power switches increases and adds control circuit complexity; the possibility of device failure increases, and the reliability of runtime system reduces.Existing permanent-magnetism linear motor is that permanent magnet is directly in the face of air gap mostly, permanent magnet faces danger of can not demagnetizing, and, the existing permanent-magnetism linear motor winding number of phases is many, iron core inside groove number is many, winding inserting complex process during manufacture, iron core consumption is large, motor quality is large, when electric power generation runs, stock utilization is low, therefore, seek a kind of winding number of phases few, iron core consumption is few, motor body manufacturing process is simple, permanent magnet is positioned on stator, easy for installation, cost is low, power circuit switching device number is few, controller and the low permanent magnet linear generator of power circuit cost most important.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is in order to solve the problem, propose the low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding, the stator of this permanent magnet motor only has a set of stator armature winding, and only lay a set of armature winding in each groove of motor, phase insulation is not needed in groove, copper factor is high, and motor winding inserting operation is simple, and whole cost is lower than existing all kinds of three-phase induction motor and magneto; Permanent magnet is fixed on stator, not with mover reciprocating motion, easy for installation, is conducive to heat radiation, eliminates the mechanical stress damage that common permanent-magnetism linear motor produces with mover reciprocating motion due to permanent magnet, the shortcomings such as permanent magnet heat radiation is bad.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
The low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding, comprises stator, mover and main air gap, wherein:
Described stator is evenly provided with even number stator tooth, stator slot is provided with in adjacent two stator tooths, permanent magnet is provided with between stator slot yoke and stator back yoke, be provided with main air gap between the mover tooth of described stator tooth and mover, the magnetic flux that described adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets produce enters mover through main air gap and forms main flux;
Described permanent magnet does not rotate with mover, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet on same stator slot yoke is identical, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet in adjacent two stator slot yoke portions is contrary;
A set of armature winding is laid in adjacent two stator slots, armature winding penetrates from an armature winding place groove, pass from adjacent armature slot, winding in adjacent two armature slots forms an armature coil, each armature coil is across two stator tooth distances, in adjacent two armature slots, the size of current of winding is identical, and direction is contrary.
Further, when motor runs, only need the size of current and the direction that control a set of armature winding, the magnetic field interaction that armature supply magnetic field and permanent magnet produce makes the magnetic flux on stator tooth mutually strengthen or offset, stator field is opened continuously in a certain direction or is turned off, and utilizes magnetic resistance change rate between stator and mover produce torque and generate electricity.Only lay a set of armature winding in stator slot, do not need phase insulation in stator slot, groove utilance is high, and winding inserting technique is simple, low cost of manufacture.
Permanent magnet with the setting that mover rotates, does not make easy for installation, is conducive to heat radiation, eliminates mechanical stress that common electric machine produces because permanent magnet rotates with mover and to damage and permanent magnet dispels the heat the shortcoming such as bad.
Further, every block permanent magnet is magnetized by a monoblock permanent magnet and forms or be spliced by the permanent magnet that polylith width is narrower, and the width of described permanent magnet can be identical, also can be different.
The number of described stator tooth be more than or equal to 2 even number.
The number of described mover tooth is more than or equal to 1/2 of stator tooth number.
The several number of block of described permanent magnet be the m of mover tooth doubly, m be more than or equal to 1 natural number.
Described stator tooth, stator slot yoke, stator back yoke and mover tooth form by silicon steel plate stacking or are made up of high magnetic permeability core material.
Described permanent magnet and stator back yoke iron core and the equal close contact of stator slot yoke core.
Described two adjacent stator tooths are connected by stator slot yoke, every two stator tooths and between stator slot yoke form one piece of integrated iron core, in motor, this integrated iron core block number is 1/2 of stator tooth number.
The width of the permanent magnet of described motor can by determining according to the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet or residual flux density flexibly, can according to the residual flux density of the design air gap flux density determination permanent magnet of motor, pole embrace again by changing permanent magnet determines the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet, and existing magneto is subject to the restriction of number of poles due to pole embrace, usually only has and adopt high-performance permanent magnet could meet the close needs of design magnetic.
Described permanent magnet both can be that permanent magnetic material such as ferrite or the aluminium nickel cobalt of permanent magnetic material if neodymium iron boron also can be low magnetic energy product of high energy product is made.
Operation principle of the present invention is:
Stator core and mover core adopt silicon steel plate stacking to form or the core material of high permeability is once made, when armature winding no power, the magnetic flux that described permanent magnet produces is through stator slot yoke, stator tooth and main air gap are along flowing into mover tooth, again through adjacent mover tooth flow out to main air gap arrive another extremely under permanent magnet, and closed by stator back yoke, form the main flux of motor.When armature winding is energized, the magnetic field that armature winding electric current produces makes the stator tooth of armature slot both sides, armature winding place present different polarity respectively, the magnetic fields produced with permanent magnet superposes, make a stator tooth display polarity, main flux magnetic flux is had to pass through, another adjacent stator tooth does not have polarity, flow through without magnetic flux, because armature winding is arranged every a groove, therefore, the stator tooth of half is had to have polarity in motor, the stator tooth of half does not have polarity, according to magnetic resistance minimum principle, the position that mover tooth is overlapped with the stator tooth with polarity is moved to by making mover, due to the half that the mover number of teeth is the stator number of teeth, now just in time each mover tooth is all just right with stator tooth, this position is the aligned position of mover tooth and stator tooth, inductance corresponding to this position is maximum and magnetic resistance is minimum.Now, mover continues motion, keeps sense of current in armature winding constant, mover will be subject to the power hindering it to move, and generator operation, continue to be energized in inductance last transition, power generation process will continue always, after stator and mover align once again, change the direction of armature supply, make the stator tooth display polarity just now without polarity, and originally had the stator tooth of polarity not show polarity, mover continues stressed and generates electricity, and this process will repeat always, and power generation process continues always.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
(1) motor of the present invention only has a set of winding, the size of current and the direction that control a set of armature winding is only needed during operation, power circuit only needs two device for power switching, and common three phase electric machine needs at least 6 device for power switching, electric machine controller power demand switching device number is few, and cost is low;
(2) magnetic field that when motor of the present invention runs, armature winding and permanent magnet produce mutually strengthens on the stator teeth or offsets, when motor runs, armature winding and excitation winding complete period are energized simultaneously, therefore, there is power density high, the advantage that stock utilization is high, the motor of same design power, material usage saved by motor of the present invention, reduces costs;
(3) motor permanent magnet of the present invention is fixed on stator, does not rotate with mover, easy for installation, is conducive to heat radiation, eliminates the mechanical stress damage that common electric machine produces because permanent magnet rotates with mover, the shortcomings such as permanent magnet heat radiation is bad;
(4) a set of winding is only laid in each stator slot of motor of the present invention, this winding is simple concentratred winding, penetrate from an armature slot, pass outside stator back yoke in outward direction, form a coil, armature winding is around stator slot yoke, permanent magnet and stator back yoke are wound around, winding construction is simple and simplify inserting-coil process, End winding length can be effectively reduced, reduce copper consumption, effective reduction motor cost also reduces the copper loss of motor, raise the efficiency, the armature winding of each armature slot forms 1 cover coil, all coils can parallel with one another or series connection, motor winding inserting technique is simple, do not need in groove to place phase insulation, be conducive to improving copper factor and groove utilance,
(5) permanent magnet in motor of the present invention can be the permanent magnet that one piece of entirety magnetizes, also can be spliced by polylith permanent magnet, therefore manufacturing process is simple, cost is low, the cost improved due to the permanent magnet of motor wider width is higher, easily break time mechanically stressed, comparatively difficult during installation, the problem that the permanent magnet that mechanical strength is less not as good as polylith width is spliced;
(6) width of the permanent magnet of motor of the present invention can be determined flexibly according to the design magnetic energy product of permanent magnet or design residual flux density, so motor of the present invention both can adopt the permanent magnet of high energy product also can adopt the permanent magnet of low magnetic energy product, high energy product permanent magnet and low magnetic energy product permanent magnet mix and match can also be adopted, solve existing magneto and be subject to the restriction of number of poles due to pole embrace, usually only have the problem adopting high-performance permanent magnet could meet high performance motor needs.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the power converter circuit figure of motor of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is existing brushless direct current permanent magnetic and permagnetic synchronous motor power converter circuit figure;
Fig. 3 is motor embodiment 1 structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is motor embodiment 2 structural representation of the present invention;
Wherein, 1. stator tooth, 2. stator back yoke, 3. stator slot yoke, 4. armature slot, 5. armature winding, 6. permanent magnet, 7. mover tooth, 8. mover groove, 9. main air gap.
Embodiment:
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment, the invention will be further described.
The low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear motor of a kind of simplex winding, it comprises stator, mover and main air gap, and described stator comprises permanent magnet, stator yoke, stator tooth, stator slot and stator winding, described mover comprises mover tooth and mover groove, stator yoke comprises stator slot yoke and stator back yoke, stator slot yoke is positioned at bottom stator slot near lateral direction, permanent magnet is provided with between stator slot yoke and stator back yoke, permanent magnet does not move with mover, easy for installation, be conducive to heat radiation, eliminate common permanent magnet linear generator to damage due to mechanical stress that permanent magnet produces with mover motion and permanent magnet dispels the heat the shortcoming such as bad, every block permanent magnet both can have been magnetized by a monoblock permanent magnet and form, also can be spliced by the permanent magnet that polylith width is narrower, the width of permanent magnet can be identical, also can be different, the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet on described same stator slot yoke is identical, the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet in adjacent two stator slot yoke portions is contrary, the magnetic flux that adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets produce enters mover through main air gap and forms main flux, described stator slot is armature winding place groove (armature slot), a set of armature winding is laid in armature slot, when motor runs, only need the size of current and the direction that control a set of armature winding, the magnetic field interaction that armature supply magnetic field and permanent magnet produce makes the magnetic flux on stator tooth mutually strengthen or offset, stator field is opened continuously in a certain direction or is turned off, and utilizes magnetic resistance change rate between stator and mover produce torque and generate electricity, main air gap is provided with between described stator tooth and mover tooth.
The number n of motor stator tooth smeet: n s=2*n, wherein n be more than or equal to 1 natural number.
The number n of electric mover tooth rwith the number n of motor stator tooth smeet: nr>=n s/ 2.
The block number n of permanent magnet pmwith the number n of motor stator tooth smeet: n pm/ m=0.5*n s, m be more than or equal to 1 natural number.
Only lay a set of armature winding in stator slot, do not need phase insulation in stator slot, groove utilance is high, and winding inserting technique is simple, low cost of manufacture.
Motor stator tooth, stator slot yoke, stator back yoke and mover tooth form by silicon steel plate stacking or are made up of high magnetic permeability core material.
Permanent magnet and stator back yoke iron core and the equal close contact of stator slot yoke core.
Two adjacent stator tooths are connected by stator slot yoke, every two stator tooths and between stator slot yoke form one piece of integrated iron core, this integrated iron core block number n in motor cmeet n c=n s/ 2.
Armature winding penetrates from an armature winding place groove, pass from adjacent armature slot, the winding in adjacent two armature slots forms an armature coil, and each armature coil is across two stator tooth distances, in adjacent two armature slots, the size of current of winding is identical, and direction is contrary.
The width of the permanent magnet of motor can by determining according to the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet or residual flux density flexibly, can according to the residual flux density of the design air gap flux density determination permanent magnet of motor, pole embrace again by changing permanent magnet determines the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet, and existing magneto is subject to the restriction of number of poles due to pole embrace, usually only has and adopt high-performance permanent magnet could meet the close needs of design magnetic.
Permanent magnet both can be that permanent magnetic material such as ferrite or the aluminium nickel cobalt of permanent magnetic material if neodymium iron boron also can be low magnetic energy product of high energy product is made.
As shown in Figure 1, described armature winding penetrates from an armature winding place groove, passes from adjacent armature slot, winding in adjacent two armature slots forms an armature coil, each armature coil is across two stator tooth distances, and in adjacent two armature slots, the size of current of winding is identical, and direction is contrary.Electric power generation of the present invention only has a set of armature winding A indirect current stream when running, and therefore the control circuit of motor only needs two electric and electronic power switching devices, as IGBT or MOSFET.
As shown in Figure 2, existing all kinds of induction motor and permanent magnet motor stator all there are three-phase and above armature winding, need at least 6 electric and electronic power switching devices.Therefore, needed for the control system of motor of the present invention, switching device is few, and cost is low, and structure is simple.In addition, because device for power switching number is few, reduce the possibility that device for power switching in circuit for controlling motor breaks down, reliability improves.
Embodiment one:
The motor stator number of teeth is 8, the mover number of teeth is 4, permanent magnet blocks number is 4, present embodiment comprises stator, mover and main air gap, stator comprises stator core, permanent magnet and stator slot, stator core comprises stator tooth 1, stator back yoke 2 and stator slot yoke 3, stator core is made up of high permeability ferromagnetic material, stator core is provided with stator slot, stator slot is armature slot 4, armature winding 5 is laid in armature slot, armature winding 5 penetrates from an armature slot, pass from another adjacent armature slot, form a coil, make the size of current in every adjacent two armature slots identical, direction is contrary, lay permanent magnet 6 between stator slot yoke 3 and stator back yoke 2, permanent magnet 6 adopts the ferrite permanent magnet material of low magnetic energy product, and permanent magnet 6 takes parallel magnetization, and the magnetizing direction of adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets is contrary, mover comprises mover tooth 7 and mover groove 8, and mover tooth 7, along axisymmetrical distribution, is provided with main air gap 9 between mover tooth 7 and stator tooth 1.
Embodiment two:
As shown in Figure 4, the motor stator number of teeth is 8, the mover number of teeth is 4, permanent magnet blocks number is 12, present embodiment comprises stator, mover, main air gap, stator comprises stator core, permanent magnet and stator slot, stator core comprises stator tooth 1, stator back yoke 2 and stator slot yoke 3, stator core is made up of high permeability ferromagnetic material, stator core is provided with stator slot, stator slot is armature slot 4, armature winding 5 is laid in armature slot 4, armature winding 5 penetrates from an armature slot, pass from another adjacent armature slot, form a coil, make the size of current in every adjacent two armature slots identical, direction is contrary, permanent magnet 6 is laid between stator slot yoke 3 and stator back yoke 2, each stator slot yoke 3 there are 3 pieces of permanent magnets, permanent magnet 6 adopts the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material of high energy product, the magnetizing direction of 3 pieces of permanent magnets on same stator slot yoke is identical, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet on adjacent different stator slot yokes is contrary, mover comprises mover tooth 7 and mover groove 8, is provided with main air gap 9 between mover tooth 7 and stator tooth 1.
Meanwhile, motor provided by the invention, according to the difference of its application; those skilled in the art are for the difference of embody rule environment and object; not creative change is carried out to electric machine structure of the present invention, easily expects, also should be under the jurisdiction of protection scope of the present invention.
By reference to the accompanying drawings the specific embodiment of the present invention is described although above-mentioned; but not limiting the scope of the invention; one of ordinary skill in the art should be understood that; on the basis of technical scheme of the present invention, those skilled in the art do not need to pay various amendment or distortion that creative work can make still within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. the low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of simplex winding, comprises stator, mover and main air gap, wherein:
Described stator is evenly provided with even number stator tooth, stator slot is provided with in adjacent two stator tooths, permanent magnet is provided with between stator slot yoke and stator back yoke, be provided with main air gap between the mover tooth of described stator tooth and mover, the magnetic flux that described adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets produce enters mover through main air gap and forms main flux;
It is characterized in that: described permanent magnet does not rotate with mover, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet on same stator slot yoke is identical, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet in adjacent two stator slot yoke portions is contrary;
A set of armature winding is laid in adjacent two stator slots, armature winding penetrates from an armature winding place groove, pass from adjacent armature slot, winding in adjacent two armature slots forms an armature coil, each armature coil is across two stator tooth distances, and in adjacent two armature slots, the size of current of winding is identical, direction is contrary.
2. the low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: when motor runs, only control size of current and the direction of a set of armature winding, the magnetic field interaction that armature supply magnetic field and permanent magnet produce makes the magnetic flux on stator tooth mutually strengthen or offset, stator field is opened continuously in a certain direction or is turned off, and utilizes magnetic resistance change rate between stator and mover produce torque and generate electricity.
3. the low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: the number of described stator tooth be more than or equal to 2 even number.
4. the low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: the number of described mover tooth is more than or equal to 1/2 of stator tooth number.
5. the low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: the several number of block of described permanent magnet be the m of mover tooth doubly, m be more than or equal to 1 natural number.
6. the low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: described stator tooth, stator slot yoke, stator back yoke and mover tooth form by silicon steel plate stacking or be made up of high magnetic permeability core material.
7. the low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: described permanent magnet and stator back yoke iron core and the equal close contact of stator slot yoke core.
8. the low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described two adjacent stator tooths are connected by stator slot yoke, every two stator tooths and between stator slot yoke form one piece of integrated iron core, this integrated iron core block number is 1/2 of stator tooth number in motor.
9. the low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of a kind of simplex winding as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: the width of the permanent magnet of described motor is determined flexibly according to the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet or residual flux density, according to the residual flux density of the design air gap flux density determination permanent magnet of motor, then determined the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet by the pole embrace changing permanent magnet.
CN201510694316.XA 2015-10-22 2015-10-22 A kind of low cost high powered density permanent magnetic linear electric generator of simplex winding Active CN105141049B (en)

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