CN105136027B - A kind of laser on-line measurement machining and testing method and its device - Google Patents

A kind of laser on-line measurement machining and testing method and its device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105136027B
CN105136027B CN201510283921.8A CN201510283921A CN105136027B CN 105136027 B CN105136027 B CN 105136027B CN 201510283921 A CN201510283921 A CN 201510283921A CN 105136027 B CN105136027 B CN 105136027B
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laser
processing
workpiece
measurement
data
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CN201510283921.8A
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CN105136027A (en
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段军
邓磊敏
张菲
曾晓雁
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华中科技大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of laser on-line measurement machining and testing method and device, laser measurement, processing and detection are integrated in one, the plane or surface geometry scale topography of on-line measurement workpiece to be processed before laser machining can be achieved, obtain true planar or spatial constructional dimensions and feature, error caused by workpiece to be processed is eliminated because of deformation caused by early stage working process flow or secular distortion between theoretical digital-to-analogue, improves and laser machines precision and quality.Device includes processing laser, light path system and the laser Machining head being sequentially located in same light path;Also include LDMS, computer control system, moving assembly and workbench;LDMS is used to obtain the forward and backward measurement data of work pieces process, includes the spatial value and normal angle of workpiece every, and be supplied to computer control system.Apparatus of the present invention can be with bidimensional platform and D surface masurement and detected size precision and quality, and can improve Laser Processing precision and quality.

Description

A kind of laser on-line measurement machining and testing method and its device

Technical field

The invention belongs to laser measuring technique field, specially a kind of laser on-line measurement machining and testing method and device.

Background technology

With the demand that Laser Processing dimensional accuracy, quality stability, repeatability and uniformity improve constantly, Laser Processing Front and rear geometric accuracy and roughness quality is required to strictly be measured and detected.Current measurement and detection method is equal It is that geometry is carried out to processing object by the contourgraph of contact type off-machine electrical measurement or non-contact optical mode using offline mode Dimensional accuracy and mass measurement and detection.There are the following problems for this off-line measurement and detection mode:It is Laser Processing first It is front and rear that heat distortion amount caused by rapidoprint can not be known as laser, cause Laser Processing geometric accuracy inevitable Error be present;Secondly, it can only measure and detect planar dimension precision and roughness and can not measure and detect curved surface dimensional accuracy And roughness, measurement and detection range are restricted;In addition, wanted when the depth and width and roughness of detection do not meet index such as When asking the needs to continue processing, processed sample has to return to carries out repositioning processing on Laser Processing platform, not only time-consuming Arduously, the uncertainty and uniformity of accurate to dimension are also increased while;Finally, both measurements and detector are not only tied Structure is complicated, bulky and heavy, and measures and detected size is limited in scope, it is impossible to large-size sample is measured and Detect and high to detection environmental requirement, be not used to on-line measurement and detection.These problems will all turn into laser processing technology The obstruction developed in terms of the high accuracy, high quality stabilization and uniformity and high efficiency processed across yardstick.

At present, CN202928523U discloses a kind of " laser measurement system for on-line measurement in terms of laser measurement System ", it includes test desk and laser aid, and the laser aid includes being oppositely disposed at the both sides of the test desk Emission part and acceptance division, the test desk include:Bottom plate is measured, it is described to measure on bottom plate formed with multiple first recesses, it is described Height adjuster is respectively arranged with multiple first recesses.The technical scheme is that instead of mechanical probes contact type measurement mode, A kind of method of measurement plane bottom plate recess is only used for, three dimensions physical dimension can not be measured, purposes is extremely limited, and should Technical scheme does not provide any method about laser measurement, principle and precision, can not actually apply. CN103900489A discloses " a kind of line laser structured light measuring three-dimensional profile method and corresponding device ", and the device puts object In in horizontal reference plane, a wordline laser device is formed to detected material in the control lower swing of magnetostriction microdisplacement controller The scanning plane of body, swing angle ω are determined by the size of object, ensure the wheel of a wordline laser device complete scan object to be detected It is wide.There are the following problems for the invention:Firstly, since a wordline laser device carries out swing fortune by magnetostriction microdisplacement controller It is dynamic, and the camera for obtaining laser diffusion is transfixion, therefore, the physical geometry chi between a wordline laser beam and camera Very little relation is not fixed value, leads to not the position relationship between Accurate Calibration laser and camera;Secondly as laser is As the motion that swings back and forth, therefore, the factor such as conversion of small vibrations and both forward and reverse directions swing causes swing angular velocity to be One variable, therefore so-called at the uniform velocity swing can not be obtained and come accurate survey calculation curved space each point coordinate value and normal direction, There is random measurement calculation error;Finally, due to measure the transfixion of object and camera and laser only carry out it is small Swing, therefore, limited by the camera depth of field and camera imaging plane, cause measurement range small, be not used to large scale three Profile measurement is tieed up, less says and application is measured and detected for online three-dimensional high-precision.

The content of the invention

The invention provides a kind of laser on-line measurement machining and testing method and device, it is therefore intended that solves existing measurement skill The problem of art is present, to improve Laser Processing precision and quality.

A kind of laser on-line measurement machining and testing method provided by the invention, this method is including online process and online Detection process;

The on-line machining process includes step (a1) to (a4):

(a1) on-line measurement is carried out to workpiece before processing, acquisition includes the spatial value of every and normal angle on workpiece Measurement data inside, recycle Butterworth wave digital lowpass filter to carry out noise reduction process to the measurement data, obtain just Beginning process data;

(a2) abnormity point in initial manufacture data is eliminated, and carries out data compaction;

(a3) surface fitting is carried out using cubic NURBS curve, the patch of acquisition is formed by transition, mixing, connection The three-dimensional geometry reconstruct of final surface model, the space geometry size of workpiece or the geometry of Laser Processing before finally being processed Size and normal angle;

(a4) the Laser Processing data obtained using step (a3) are processed, and are directly managed with eliminating using workpiece to be processed Caused error is processed by digital-to-analogue;

The on-line checking process includes step (b1) to (b4):

(b1) on-line measurement is carried out to workpiece after processing using mechanism used in step (a1), acquisition includes every on workpiece Measurement data including the spatial value and normal angle of point,

(b2) recycle Butterworth wave digital lowpass filter to carry out noise reduction process to the measurement data, initially examined Survey data;

(b3) profile filtering is carried out to initial detecting data using Gaussian filter, and calculated using difference recursive algorithm To the surface roughness of finished work;In addition, the surface profile of workpiece after processing is also drawn out using initial detecting data, with The position of etched shape is determined, further according to the position of the etched shape of determination, using least square method respectively to the number of its both sides According to fitting a straight line is carried out, the depth and width of etched shape are then calculated;

(b4) surface roughness is detected, whether the depth and width of etched shape reach necessary requirement, if it is, Terminate, be otherwise modified processing again.

A kind of laser on-line measurement processing detection means provided by the invention, including the processing being sequentially located in same light path Laser, light path system and laser Machining head;Characterized in that, the system also includes LDMS, computer control system System, moving assembly and workbench;

LDMS is used to obtain the forward and backward measurement data of work pieces process, includes the spatial value of workpiece every And normal angle, and it is supplied to computer control system;LDMS is rigidly connected with laser Machining head by connector And be fixed on moving assembly, workbench is located at below laser Machining head, for installing the workpiece;The laser ranging system System, laser Machining head and workpiece can carry out three-dimensional space motion with moving assembly and workbench;

Computer control system is used to carry out noise reduction, filtering process to the foreprocess gauge data of reception, eliminates abnormity point With carry out data compaction, then surface fitting carried out using cubic NURBS curve, the patch of acquisition is by transition, mixing, connection Form the three-dimensional geometry reconstruct of final surface model, the space geometry size of workpiece or Laser Processing before finally being processed Physical dimension size and normal angle, control processing laser, Z axis travel mechanism and four axle workbench enter according to obtained data Row processing, to improve machining accuracy;

Measurement data carries out profile filtering after computer control system is additionally operable to the processing to reception, and uses difference recurrence The surface roughness of workpiece after processing is calculated in algorithm;In addition, also draw out processing using measurement data after obtained processing The surface profile of workpiece afterwards, to determine the position of etched shape, further according to the position of the etched shape of determination, using least square Method carries out fitting a straight line to the data of its both sides respectively, and the depth and width of etched shape are then calculated;Finally detect work Whether the surface roughness of part, the depth and width of etched shape are met the requirements, and undesirable workpiece is carried out again to add Work.

The present invention has following technological merit:

1. laser measurement, processing and detection are integrated in one by the present invention, on-line measurement is to be processed before Laser Processing can be achieved The plane or surface geometry scale topography of workpiece, true planar or spatial constructional dimensions and feature are obtained, eliminate workpiece to be processed Error caused by deformation or secular distortion caused by early stage working process flow between theoretical digital-to-analogue, is improved sharp Light machining accuracy and quality;

2. after Laser Processing, without offline inspection, online rapid detection accurate to dimension and quality and change can be achieved Shape amount, does not reach index request such as, can process again online, until meeting index request, saves manpower and time, improves sharp Light processing and fabricating efficiency, stability, repeatability and uniformity;

3. apparatus of the present invention on-line measurement, processing and detection function can be not only used for two-dimensional plane measurement and detected size Precision and quality, but also can be used for D surface masurement and detected size precision and quality, thus add measurement and detection Application;

4. apparatus of the present invention on-line measurement, processing and detection function are not limited by the size of workpiece to be processed, thus are expanded Measurement and detected size scope.

5. noise reduction process is carried out to measurement data present invention preferably employs Butterworth digital filter, can be to a certain degree Upper removal noise jamming as caused by mechanical oscillation and motor random vibration;Using Gaussian function approximatioss and impulse response not Political reform devises Gaussian filter, carries out profile filtering to laser-textured surface, is added using difference recursive algorithm to calculate laser The roughness on work surface;Profile leveling processing is carried out to the outline data of measurement by the method that coordinate rotates, eliminated due to surveying Examination platform out-of-flatness or the not gentle reason such as defective of sample surfaces cause the deviation of depth and width result of calculation.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the first laser on-line measurement machining and testing method and the structural representation of device embodiment;

Fig. 2 is the structural representation of LDMS measurement and detection method and device embodiment;

Fig. 3 (a), (b) are point set schematic diagram used in step (A3);

Fig. 4 is the structural representation of the first laser on-line machining method and device embodiment;

Fig. 5 is second of laser on-line measurement machining and testing method and the structural representation of device embodiment;

Fig. 6 is the structural representation of second of laser on-line machining method and device embodiment;

Fig. 7 is the third laser on-line measurement machining and testing method and the structural representation of device embodiment;

Fig. 8 is the structural representation of the third laser on-line machining method and device embodiment;

Fig. 9 is the workflow diagram of laser on-line measurement device.

Embodiment

The embodiment of the present invention is described further below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.Herein it should be noted that for The explanation of these embodiments is used to help understand the present invention, but does not form limitation of the invention.It is in addition, disclosed below As long as each embodiment of the invention in involved technical characteristic do not form conflict can each other and be mutually combined.

Device that first example of the present invention provides is as shown in figure 1, the device includes processing laser 1, light path system 2, Laser Machining head 3, LDMS 4, computer control system 6, the axle workbench 5 of Z axis travel mechanism 12 and four.Laser ranging System 4 is rigidly connected and is fixed in Z axis travel mechanism 12 by connector 8 with laser Machining head 3, can be with Z axis moving machine Structure 12 is moved up and down along Z-direction together, and workpiece to be processed 7 is fixed on four axle workbench 5.

As shown in Fig. 2 LDMS 4 be by send a little or the measurement laser 20 of line laser beam, light collimation meeting Poly- lens light path 21, condenser lens 22 and light collector 23 form.

Light collimation convergent lens light path 21 includes collimating mirror and convergent lens, the light beam that can send measurement laser 20 First focused on, then projected on workpiece to be processed 7 by convergent lens again after light collimation.

Condenser lens 22 is used for the reflected light for receiving workpiece 7, reduces its spot diameter or width of light beam, such as makes spot diameter Focus to 20 microns or linear light beam width is focused on into 20 microns, to improve the resolution ratio for measuring and detecting;Focus on Lens 22 can also eliminate not same measurement plane cause the different and caused distortion of enlargement ratio, parallax and light source it is several What error, causes probabilistic factor of image edge location, while can obtain with low optical distortion rate and high order focusing Telecentricity feature, realize accurate reproduction plane especially three-dimensional body characteristic size function.

The operation principle of LDMS 4 is to employ laser triangulation principle, by measurement laser 20 to measurement Or detection workpiece 7 launches a spot or line laser beam 9 and focuses on the surface of workpiece 7 by light collimation convergent lens light path 21, Laser beam is formed light by the surface of workpiece 7 with certain α angle reflections to condenser lens 22, focal imaging on light collector 23 Spot, by the light signal progress of disease it is electric signal by light collector 23, measurement result is output to computer control after treatment System 6 processed.

When the distance between LDMS 4 and the surface of workpiece 7 change, the reflection light α angles of laser beam It can all change therewith with the facula position on light collector 23.Due to the dimensioning of measurement laser 20 and light collector 23 The distance of very little angle and measured workpiece for after fixed given value and light reflection is proportional, therefore, can obtain ray-collecting Reflected laser light spot exact position on device 23, the changing value that the height distance of workpiece 7 is can obtain by triangle geometrical relationship are big It is small, so as to obtain the height dimension of workpiece 7 (z coordinate value).When the measurement of workpiece 7 or detection height will exceed laser ranging system The range ability of system 4 is (i.e.:What the facula position of the reflection of laser beam will overflow light collector 23 receives scope) when, Z axis 12 incite somebody to action (or downward) mobile distance upwards, the flare position of workpiece 7 is come back to the zero point of light collector 23 (centre) position, the vector sum that the moving distance value for recording Z axis 12 and LDMS 4 are worth by computer control system 6 According to calculating the actual height size (z coordinate value) of workpiece 7.

Four axle workbench 5 are made up of two planar movement axles of xy and 360 ° of rotary shaft A and ± 90 ° of swinging axle C, are used for Workpiece 7 is placed, workpiece 7 is moved on x/y plane and Space Rotating, and LDMS is inputted to computer control system 6 The plane coordinate value (x and y coordinates) and revolution space angle value (A and C angle values) of 4 points focused at workpiece 7 or line.

The function of computer control system 6 has two, first, control function, that is, control laser 1 to export laser, laser adds Work system 3 laser machines to workpiece to be processed 7, LDMS 4 workpiece to be processed 7 is measured and detected and The movement of the axle workbench 5 of Z axis 12 and four;Second, data processing function, i.e., to LDMS 4, the axle workbench of Z axis 12 and four The data of 5 outputs are acquired, and the data to collecting are handled, and structure graph and machining area to workpiece 7 Pattern carries out three-dimensionalreconstruction.

The data processing of computer control system 6 includes two parts, when the processing to process data, second, to detection The processing of data.

(1) concrete processing procedure of process data is:

(A1) before to be processed, computer control system 6 receives measurement number of the LDMS 4 to workpiece to be processed 7 According to, including every height z coordinate value and corresponding x/y plane coordinate value and A and C angle values, that is, obtain workpiece 7 to be processed Upper every spatial value and normal angle;

(A2) Butterworth wave digital lowpass filter (amplitude versus frequency characte is steady), the measurement number to LDMS 4 are utilized According to noise reduction process is carried out, initial manufacture data are obtained, mechanical oscillation production when coming from the movement of the axle workbench 5 of Z axis 12 and four to eliminate Raw noise is to measurement and the influence of detected size precision.

According to the beam diameter and measuring speed of LDMS 4, it is known that the pitch of waves is less than the letter of laser beam spot sizes Number and higher than the frequency that tests the speed vertical movement frequency signal components be noise, filtered out.

(A3) initial manufacture data are handled, further eliminates abnormity point and data compaction;

In this example, curve inspection technique can be utilized to eliminate the abnormity point in data, specific method is:With Fig. 3 (a) point Exemplified by collection, we obtain a SPL by first and last data point with least square fitting first, and order of a curve time can root Set according to curved interface shape, usually 3~4 rank, then calculate intermediate data points respectively to the Euclidean distance e of SPL, If | | e | | >=[ε], [ε] they are given franchise, then it is assumed that PiIt is noise spot, should give rejecting.

Data compaction is carried out using action-preset angle configuration, specific method is:Such as Fig. 3 (b), we use action h and angle a two Individual parameter weighs whether cloud data simplifies.When action h is less than the franchise h0 that we give, it is believed that P2 points are to us Permissible accuracy does not impact, and can reject point P2;And when consecutive points are closer to the distance, when action h is again very big, this is can be with A little whether removed with angle a to weigh, if a be less than we give franchise a0, it is believed that P2 points to our precision not Impact, point P2 can be rejected.Wherein franchise h0 and a0 are determined by reverse precision.

(A4) data obtained using cubic NURBS curve method to step (3) carry out surface fitting, the patch of acquisition The three-dimensional geometry reconstruct of final surface model is formed by transition, mixing, connection, finally obtains the space of workpiece to be processed 7 Physical dimension or the physical dimension size and normal angle of Laser Processing;

Computer control system 6 is according to the space geometry size of workpiece to be processed 7 or the dimensioning of Laser Processing of acquisition Very little and normal angle, workpiece to be processed 7 is processed using laser Machining head 3, eliminates workpiece to be processed 7 because being processed in early stage Error in handling process caused by caused deformation or secular distortion between theoretical digital-to-analogue.

(2) concrete processing procedure of detection data is

(B1) after process finishing, computer control system 6 receives measurement data of the LDMS 4 to workpiece 7, including Every height z coordinate value and corresponding x/y plane coordinate value and A and C angle values, that is, every is obtained on machined workpiece 7 Spatial value and normal angle;

(B2) data (the every point on i.e. machined workpiece 7 obtained according to step (A2) identical method to step (B1) Spatial value and normal angle) carry out noise reduction process, obtain initial detecting data.

(B3) profile filtering is carried out to initial detecting data using Gaussian filter, finally calculated using difference recursive algorithm The roughness of laser-textured surface on workpiece to be processed 7.

According to standard GB/T/T 18777-2009 and international standard ISO 16610-21-2011 regulation, gaussian filtering Device is surface roughness profile wave filter, and Gaussian filter used in the present invention is the approximatioss and impulse using Gaussian function Response invariant method design.

(B4) surface profile of workpiece 7 is drawn out according to initial detecting data, to determine the position of etched shape;Further according to The position of the etched shape of determination, fitting a straight line is carried out to the data of its both sides using least square method respectively;Finally, calculate and carve Lose the depth and width of shape, it is generally the case that because test platform out-of-flatness or sample surfaces are uneven and defective etc. Reason can cause the inclination of measurement profile, cause the deviation of depth and width result of calculation, the side that can be now rotated by coordinate Method carries out profile leveling processing to measurement outline data (depth and width being calculated), eliminates because test platform is uneven The not gentle reason such as defective of whole or sample surfaces causes the deviation of depth and width result of calculation.

The present invention can use unilateral algorithm or bilateral algorithm to calculate the depth of etched shape.

Step (B3) and the order of (B4) can be exchanged or carried out simultaneously.

(B5) surface roughness that judgment step (B3) obtains, and the etching depth and width etching degree that step (B4) obtains Whether requirement, if it is, terminating, be otherwise modified processing using laser Machining head 3 if touching the mark.

The course of work of said apparatus is as follows:

(1) before laser processing workpiece 7, LDMS 4 is first started, sending measurement laser beam 9, (laser beam can be point Laser and line laser beam), mobile Z axis 12, distance reaches measurement between making the surface of LDMS 4 and workpiece to be processed 7 In the range of dimensional accuracy;

(2) then start four axle workbench 5 to the physical dimension of workpiece 7 carry out two-dimensional plane (workbench 5 carry out xy bidimensionals put down Move in face) or three-dimension curved surface (the progress xz bidimensionals movement of workbench 5 and the rotation of A axles and the oscillating motion of C axles) point-by-point (laser beam of progress For spot beam) or by-line (laser beam is linear beam) scanning survey, by plane three-dimensional data (x, y and the z of every of acquisition Coordinate) or three-dimension curved surface data (x of every, y, z coordinate and the A axles anglec of rotation and C axles swing angle) input computer control System 6 processed;

(3) computer control system 6 carries out noise reduction to the measurement data of collection by Butterworth wave digital lowpass filter After processing, curved surface is fitted using cubic NURBS curve method, the patch of acquisition is formed by transition, mixing, connection The three-dimensional geometry reconstruct of final surface model, 7 carries out physical dimension reconstruction to machined part, obtains actual workpiece 7 to be added Physical dimension and feature, workpiece to be processed 7 is eliminated because deformation caused by early stage working process flow or secular distortion are drawn Play the error between theoretical digital-to-analogue;

(4) workpiece to be processed 7 is moved to below laser-processing system by four axle workbench 5, starts laser-processing system 3 With four axle workbench 5, processing laser beam 10 is sent, two-dimensional plane is carried out to workpiece 7 according to the physical dimension that workpiece 7 to be added is rebuild Or three-dimension curved surface working process (as shown in Figure 4);

(5) after Laser Processing terminates, it is 3 to close Laser Processing, and machined workpiece 7 is moved on into LDMS again 4 lower sections, start LDMS 4, the (see figure 1) of detection laser beam 9 are sent, by four axle workbench 5 to workpiece planarization Working position carries out two-dimensional plane or processing three-dimensional curved surface position carries out point-by-point (laser beam is spot beam) or by-line (laser beam For linear beam) Scanning Detction, by the plane three-dimensional data (x of every, y and z coordinate) or three-dimension curved surface data (every point of acquisition X, y, z coordinate and the A axles anglec of rotation and C axles swing angle) input computer control system 6;

(6) computer control system 6 carries out noise reduction to the measurement data of collection by Butterworth wave digital lowpass filter After processing, curved surface is fitted using cubic NURBS curve method, the patch of acquisition is formed by transition, mixing, connection The three-dimensional geometry reconstruct of final surface model, carries out physical dimension reconstruction to machining area, obtains the dimensioning of Laser Processing Very little (working width, length, depth and height), precision (processing dimension error and site error), using Gaussian filter to swashing Light finished surface carries out profile filtering, and the quality of laser-textured surface (roughness, edge-light are calculated using difference recursive algorithm Cleanliness and perpendicularity) and heated caused deformation data;

(7) judge whether processing dimension, precision and quality meet to require, be such as unsatisfactory for, again can be moved to workpiece 7 sharp The lower section of light system of processing 3 carries out laser amendment processing, and after laser amendment process finishing, workpiece 7 is moved into laser ranging again The lower section of system 4 is detected, untill meeting to require.So as to realize that laser on-line measurement processing detection is integrated function.

The two of the device of the above method are realized, as shown in figure 5, apparatus of the present invention include laser 1, light path system 2, laser System of processing 3, LDMS 4, computer control system 6, by Z axis and 360 ° of rotary shaft A and ± 90 ° of swinging axle C structures Into kinematic system 13 and the axle workbench 15 of xy two.LDMS 4 is connected with laser-processing system 3 by the rigidity of connector 8 Connect and be fixed in kinematic system 13, move up and down along Z-direction with kinematic system 13 and swung with the rotation of A axles and C axles, it is to be added Work workpiece 7 is fixed on xy bidimensional axles workbench 15.Before laser processing workpiece 7, first start LDMS 4, send measurement Laser beam 9 (laser beam can be dot laser and line laser beam), the Z axis in moving movement system 13, make LDMS 4 with Distance reaches in measurement size accuracy rating between the surface of workpiece to be processed 7, then starts two axle workbench 15 and mobile fortune Z axis in dynamic system 13 workpiece 7 is carried out Z axis in two-dimensional plane or moving movement system 13,360 ° rotary shaft A and ± 90 ° Swinging axle C carries out three-dimension curved surface and carries out point-by-point (laser beam is spot beam) or by-line (laser beam is linear beam) scanning survey Amount, by the plane three-dimensional data (x of every, y and z coordinate) or three-dimension curved surface data (x of every, y, z coordinate and A axles of acquisition The anglec of rotation and C axles swing angle) input computer control system 6,7 physical dimension reconstruction is carried out to machined part, obtained The physical dimension and feature of actual workpiece 7 to be added, workpiece to be processed 7 is eliminated because of deformation caused by early stage working process flow Or the error caused by secular distortion between theoretical digital-to-analogue;Workpiece to be processed 7 is moved into laser by two axle workbench 15 to add The lower section of work system 3, starts laser-processing system 3, the axle workbench 15 of kinematic system 13 and two, sends processing laser beam 10, according to The physical dimension that workpiece 7 to be added is rebuild carries out two-dimensional plane or three-dimension curved surface working process (as shown in Figure 6) to workpiece 7;Laser Process finishing, laser-processing system 3 is closed, machined workpiece 7 is moved on into the lower section of LDMS 4 again, first starts and swashs Ligh-ranging system 4, measurement laser beam 9 (as shown in Figure 5) is sent, by the axle workbench 15 of kinematic system 13 and two to workpiece planarization The position of processing carries out two-dimensional plane or three-dimension curved surface position, and (laser beam is wire for (laser beam is spot beam) or by-line point by point Light beam) Scanning Detction, by the plane three-dimensional data (x of every, y and z coordinate) or three-dimension curved surface data of acquisition (x of every, y, Z coordinate and the A axles anglec of rotation and C axles swing angle) computer control system 6 is inputted, it is processed the physical dimension in region Rebuild, obtain physical dimension (working width, length, depth and height), precision (processing dimension error and the position of Laser Processing Error) and quality (roughness, edge finish, perpendicularity and heat affected area) and heated caused deformation data, judge Whether processing dimension, precision and quality, which meet, requires, is such as unsatisfactory for, and workpiece 7 can be moved into the lower section of laser-processing system 3 again Laser amendment processing is carried out, after laser amendment process finishing, workpiece 7 is moved to the lower section of LDMS 4 again and examined Survey, untill meeting to require.So as to realize that laser on-line measurement processing detection is integrated function.

The three of the device of the above method are realized, as shown in fig. 7, apparatus of the present invention include laser 1, light path system 2, laser System of processing 3, LDMS 4, computer control system 6 and by the axles of XYZ tri- and 360 ° rotary shaft A and ± 90 ° swing The kinematic system 16 and workbench 17 that axle C is formed.LDMS 4 is rigidly connected with laser-processing system 3 by connector 8 And be fixed in kinematic system 16, swung with XYZ axles and A axles rotary shaft and C axles axle and carry out three-dimensional space motion, work to be processed Part 7 is fixed on workbench 17.Before laser processing workpiece 7, first start LDMS 4, sending measurement laser beam 9, (this swashs Light beam can be dot laser and line laser beam), the Z axis in moving movement system 16, make LDMS 4 and workpiece to be processed 7 Surface between distance reach measurement size accuracy rating in, then start kinematic system 16 to workpiece 7 carry out two-dimensional plane or Three-dimension curved surface carries out point-by-point (laser beam is spot beam) or by-line (laser beam is linear beam) scanning survey, by the flat of acquisition Face three-dimensional data (x of every, y and z coordinate) or three-dimension curved surface data (x of every, y, z coordinate value and the A axles anglec of rotation and C axles swing angle) input computer control system 6, carry out the physical dimension of workpiece 7 to be added and rebuild, obtain actual workpiece 7 to be added Physical dimension and feature, workpiece to be processed 7 is eliminated because deformation caused by early stage working process flow or secular distortion are drawn Play the error between theoretical digital-to-analogue;Laser-processing system 3 is moved to by the top of workpiece to be processed 7 by kinematic system 16, opened Dynamic laser-processing system 3, processing laser beam 10 is sent, carrying out bidimensional to workpiece 7 according to the physical dimension that workpiece 7 to be added is rebuild puts down Face or three-dimension curved surface working process (as shown in Figure 8);Laser Processing terminates, and closes laser-processing system 3, passes through kinematic system 16 LDMS 4 is moved on to the machined top of workpiece 7 again, first starts LDMS 4, sends measurement laser beam 9 It is (as shown in Figure 7), point-by-point to workpiece planarization working position progress two-dimensional plane or the progress of three-dimension curved surface position that (laser beam is point-like Light beam) or by-line (laser beam is linear beam) Scanning Detction, by the plane three-dimensional data (x of every, y and z coordinate) of acquisition Or three-dimension curved surface data (x of every, y, z coordinate and the A axles anglec of rotation and C axles swing angle) input computer control system 6, the physical dimension for being processed region is rebuild, and obtains physical dimension (working width, length, depth and the height of Laser Processing Degree), precision (processing dimension error and site error) and quality (roughness, edge finish, perpendicularity and heat affected area) with And it is heated caused by deformation data, judge whether processing dimension, precision and quality meet to require, be such as unsatisfactory for, can again by Laser-processing system 3, which is moved to above workpiece 7, carries out laser amendment processing, after laser amendment process finishing, again by Laser Measuring The top of workpiece 7 is moved to away from system 4 to be detected, untill meeting to require.So as to realize laser on-line measurement processing detection It is integrated function.

Example:

Example 1:

Ultra-Violet Laser is used for using one of apparatus of the present invention method and carries out grinding in quartz-ceramics device surface, it is desirable to Laser grinding surface smoothness is that ± 0.01mm and Grinding Roughness are less than 0.01mm.Laser grinding processes quartz-ceramics device table In front, first start LDMS 4, send measurement laser beam 9 (laser beam is Line beam), mobile Z axis mobile system, make Distance reaches in measurement size accuracy rating between LDMS 4 and processing quartz-ceramics device surface to be ground, then Start four axle workbench 5 and two-dimensional plane (the progress xy two-dimensional plane shiftings of workbench 5 are carried out to quartz-ceramics device surface physical dimension It is dynamic), by-line scanning survey, by the plane three-dimensional data (x of every, y and z coordinate) of acquisition, computer control system 6 is inputted, Physical dimension reconstruction is carried out to quartz-ceramics device surface to be processed, obtains the dimensioning of actual quartz-ceramics device surface to be added Very little and feature;Then quartz-ceramics device to be processed is moved into the lower section of laser-processing system 3 by four axle workbench 5, starts and swash The axle workbench 5 of light system of processing 3 and four, processing laser beam 10 is sent, according to the geometry of workpiece quartz-ceramics device surface to be added Size carries out two-dimensional plane laser grinding processing;After Laser Processing terminates, laser-processing system 3 is closed, by grinding Quartz-ceramics device moves on to the lower section of LDMS 4 again, starts LDMS 4, sends measurement laser beam 9, passes through Four axle workbench 5 carry out by-line (laser beam is linear beam) Scanning Detction to quartz-ceramics device surface, by the plane of acquisition Three-dimensional data (x of every, y and z coordinate), computer control system 6 is inputted, the physical dimension for being processed region is rebuild, and is obtained The surface smoothness of laser grinding processing is obtained still greater than ± 0.01mm, quartz-ceramics device is moved to laser-processing system again 3 lower sections carry out laser amendment grinding, and after laser amendment grinding terminates, quartz-ceramics device is moved into laser again The lower section of range-measurement system 4 is detected, until after in triplicate, English ware face component flatness reaches ± 0.0085mm and grinding Roughness is 0.008mm.Requirement is met, so as to realize that laser on-line measurement processing detection is integrated function.

Example 2:

Processing is performed etching in composite and flexible curved surface aluminium film surface for optical-fiber laser using two methods of apparatus of the present invention, The circle ring array pattern that internal diameter is 3mm, external diameter is 5mm it is required that laser etches in aluminium film, etching annulus trueness error is less than ± 0.02mm, the circle center distance trueness error between annulus are less than ± 0.02mm, are 0.04mm to aluminium film thickness, laser ablation part Aluminium film need to remove completely, but to carrier damage be less than 0.02mm.Before laser ablation processing composite and flexible curved surface aluminium film surface, first Start LDMS 4, send and measure laser beam 9 (laser beam is a point light beam), the Z axis in moving movement system 13, make Distance reaches in measurement size accuracy rating between LDMS 4 and processing composite and flexible curved surface aluminium film surface to be etched, Start two axle workbench 15 and Z axis in moving movement system 13 and 360 ° of rotary shaft A and ± 90 ° of swinging axle C to compound soft Property curved surface aluminium film surface physical dimension carry out three-dimension curved surface point by point scanning measurement, by three-dimension curved surface data (x of every, y, z coordinate Value and the A axles anglec of rotation and C axles swing angle) input computer control system 6, treat lithography composite and flexible curved surface aluminium Film surface carries out physical dimension reconstruction, obtains physical dimension and the spy of actual processing composite and flexible curved surface aluminium film surface to be etched Sign;Processing composite and flexible curved surface aluminium film to be etched is moved into the lower section of laser-processing system 3 by two axle workbench 15, starts laser System of processing 3, the axle workbench 15 of kinematic system 13 and two, processing laser beam 10 is sent, it is bent according to processing composite and flexible to be etched The physical dimension that face aluminium film surface is rebuild carries out three-dimension curved surface lithography processing;Laser ablation process finishing, close laser and add Work system 3, machined composite and flexible curved surface aluminium film is moved on into the lower section of LDMS 4 again, starts LDMS 4, Measurement laser beam 9 is sent, point by point scanning inspection is carried out to processing three-dimensional curved surface position by the axle workbench 15 of kinematic system 13 and two Survey, by the plane three-dimensional data (x of every, y and z coordinate) or three-dimension curved surface data (x of every, y, z coordinate and A axles of acquisition The anglec of rotation and C axles swing angle) input computer control system 6, the physical dimension reconstruction in region is processed, is swashed Photoengraving annulus trueness error is less than ± 0.02mm, and it is ± 0.02mm that the circle center distance trueness error between annulus, which is less than, but is had A little aluminium film material etch depth are less than 0.04mm, fail to remove completely, are unsatisfactory for requiring.Composite and flexible curved surface aluminium film is moved again Move the lower section of laser-processing system 3 and carry out laser amendment lithography, again will be flexible bent after laser amendment lithography terminates Face aluminium film is moved to the lower section of LDMS 4 and detected, and curved surface aluminium film etching depth reaches 0.048mm, removes aluminium completely Membrane material, 0.01mm is less than to carrier damage, meets to require.So as to realize that laser on-line measurement processing detection is integrated function.

Example 3:

It is used for optical-fiber laser using three methods of apparatus of the present invention and carries out laser on large-scale combined rigidity curved surface copper film surface Lithography, it is desirable to laser etched on copper film in a width of 3mm, outer a width of 5mm back-shaped array pattern, etching a period of time figure essence Degree error is less than ± 0.02mm, and a period of time centre distance trueness error is less than ± 0.02mm, is 0.012mm to leading to film thickness, laser The copper film of etched portions need to remove completely, but be less than 0.03mm to carrier damage.Laser ablation processes large-scale combined rigidity curved surface Before copper film surface, first start LDMS 4, send measurement laser beam 9 (laser beam is Line beam), moving movement system Z axis in 16, distance between LDMS 4 and processing composite and flexible curved surface aluminium film surface to be etched is set to reach measurement size In accuracy rating, the XYZ axles and 360 ° of rotary shaft A and ± 90 ° of swinging axle C in startup kinematic system 16 are to large-scale combined rigidity Curved surface copper film surface geometry size carries out three-dimension curved surface by-line scanning survey, by three-dimension curved surface data (x of every, y, z coordinate value With the A axles anglec of rotation and C axles swing angle) input computer control system 6, treat the large-scale combined rigidity curved surface of lithography Copper film surface carries out physical dimension reconstruction, obtains the physical dimension on the actual large-scale combined rigidity curved surface copper film surface of processing to be etched And feature;Laser-processing system 3 is moved to above the large-scale combined rigidity curved surface copper film of processing to be etched, starts laser-processing system 3 and kinematic system 13, processing laser beam 10 is sent, according to the several of the large-scale combined rigidity curved surface copper film resurfacing of processing to be etched What size carries out three-dimension curved surface lithography processing;Laser ablation process finishing, laser-processing system 3 is closed, by laser ranging System 4 moves on to above machined large-scale combined rigidity curved surface copper film again, starts LDMS 4, sends measurement laser beam 9, by-line Scanning Detction is carried out to lithography three-dimension curved surface position by kinematic system 13, by the plane three-dimensional data of acquisition (x of every, y and z coordinate) or three-dimension curved surface data (x of every, y, z coordinate and the A axles anglec of rotation and C axles swing angle) Computer control system 6 is inputted, the physical dimension for performing etching machining area is rebuild, and is obtained laser ablation a period of time pattern accuracy and is missed Difference is less than ± 0.02mm, and it is ± 0.02mm that a period of time centre distance trueness error, which is less than, but some copper film material etching depths are less than 0.012mm, fail to remove completely, be unsatisfactory for requiring.Laser-processing system 3 is re-moved into large-scale combined rigidity curved surface copper film Top carries out laser amendment lithography, after laser amendment lithography terminates, is again moved to LDMS 4 large-scale Detected above combined rigidity curved surface copper film, curved surface copper film etching depth reaches 0.015mm, removes copper film material completely, right Carrier damage is less than 0.01mm, meets to require.So as to realize that laser on-line measurement processing detection is integrated function.

Described above is presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, but the present invention should not be limited to the embodiment and accompanying drawing institute Disclosure.So every do not depart from the lower equivalent or modification completed of spirit disclosed in this invention, guarantor of the present invention is both fallen within The scope of shield.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of laser on-line measurement machining and testing method, this method includes online process and on-line checking process;
The on-line machining process includes step (a1) to (a4):
(a1) on-line measurement is carried out to workpiece before processing, obtained including the spatial value and normal angle of every on workpiece Measurement data, recycle Butterworth wave digital lowpass filter to the measurement data carry out noise reduction process, obtain initially plus Number evidence;
(a2) abnormity point in initial manufacture data is eliminated, and carries out data compaction;
(a3) surface fitting is carried out using cubic NURBS curve, the patch of acquisition is final by transition, mixing, connection formation Surface model three-dimensional geometry reconstruct, the space geometry size of workpiece or the physical dimension of Laser Processing before finally being processed Size and normal angle;
(a4) the Laser Processing data obtained using step (a3) are processed, and workpiece to be processed theoretical value is directly used to eliminate Mould is processed caused error;
The on-line checking process includes step (b1) to (b4):
(b1) on-line measurement is carried out to workpiece after processing using mechanism used in step (a1), acquisition includes on workpiece at every Measurement data including spatial value and normal angle,
(b2) recycle Butterworth wave digital lowpass filter to carry out noise reduction process to the measurement data, obtain initial detecting number According to;
(b3) profile filtering is carried out to initial detecting data using Gaussian filter, and be calculated using difference recursive algorithm The surface roughness of workpieces processing;In addition, the surface profile of workpiece after processing is also drawn out using initial detecting data, to determine The position of etched shape, further according to the position of the etched shape of determination, the data of its both sides are entered respectively using least square method Row fitting a straight line, the depth and width of etched shape are then calculated;
(b4) surface roughness is detected, whether the depth and width of etched shape reach necessary requirement, if it is, knot Beam, processing is otherwise modified again.
2. laser on-line measurement machining and testing method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that in the step (a2), The abnormity point in data is eliminated using curve inspection technique, data compaction is carried out using action-preset angle configuration.
3. laser on-line measurement machining and testing method according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that rotated using coordinate The depth and width for the etched shape that method is obtained to step (b3) carry out profile leveling processing, to eliminate deviation, then enter again Enter step (b4).
4. detection means is processed in a kind of laser on-line measurement, including be sequentially located in same light path processing laser, light path system System and laser Machining head;Characterized in that, the device also include LDMS, computer control system, moving assembly and Workbench;
LDMS is used to obtain the forward and backward measurement data of work pieces process, includes the spatial value and method of workpiece every Line angle degree, and it is supplied to computer control system;LDMS is rigidly connected and consolidated by connector with laser Machining head It is scheduled on moving assembly, workbench is located at below laser Machining head, for installing the workpiece;The LDMS, swash Light processing head and workpiece can carry out three-dimensional space motion with moving assembly and workbench;
Computer control system is used to carry out noise reduction, filtering process to the foreprocess gauge data of reception, eliminates abnormity point and enters Row data compaction, then surface fitting is carried out using cubic NURBS curve, the patch of acquisition is formed by transition, mixing, connection The three-dimensional geometry reconstruct of final surface model, the space geometry size of workpiece or the geometry of Laser Processing before finally being processed Size and normal angle, control processing laser, moving assembly and workbench are processed according to obtained data, to carry High manufacturing accuracy;
Measurement data carries out profile filtering after computer control system is additionally operable to the processing to reception, and uses difference recursive algorithm The surface roughness of workpiece after processing is calculated;In addition, also using measurement data after obtained processing draw out processing after work The surface profile of part, to determine the position of etched shape, further according to the position of the etched shape of determination, using least square method point The other data to its both sides carry out fitting a straight line, and the depth and width of etched shape are then calculated;Finally detect workpiece Whether surface roughness, the depth and width of etched shape are met the requirements, and undesirable workpiece is processed again.
5. detection means is processed in laser on-line measurement according to claim 4, it is characterised in that the LDMS By sending a little or the measurement laser of line laser beam, light collimation convergent lens light path, condenser lens and light collector form;
The light collimation convergent lens light path includes collimating mirror and convergent lens, and the light beam for measurement laser to be sent is first Focused on, then projected on workpiece to be processed by convergent lens again after light collimation;
Condenser lens is used for the reflected light for receiving workpiece, reduces its spot diameter or width of light beam;
During work, by measurement laser to workpiece launches a spot or line laser beam before processing or after processing, and it is accurate by light Straight convergent lens light path focuses on workpiece surface, and laser beam is reflexed to condenser lens by workpiece surface, and focal imaging is received in light Hot spot is formed on storage, light signal is changed into by electric signal by light collector, after treatment exported measurement result To computer control system.
6. the laser on-line measurement processing detection means according to claim 4 or 5, it is characterised in that the moving assembly For Z axis travel mechanism, the workbench is four axle workbench.
7. the laser on-line measurement processing detection means according to claim 4 or 5, it is characterised in that the moving assembly For the kinematic system being made up of Z axis and 360 ° of rotary shaft A and ± 90 ° of swinging axle C, the workbench is the axle workbench of xy two.
8. the laser on-line measurement processing detection means according to claim 4 or 5, it is characterised in that the moving assembly For the kinematic system being made up of the axles of XYZ tri- and 360 ° of rotary shaft A and ± 90 ° of swinging axle C.
CN201510283921.8A 2015-05-27 2015-05-27 A kind of laser on-line measurement machining and testing method and its device CN105136027B (en)

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