CN105108339B - Additive manufacturing method based on titanium and titanium alloy wires - Google Patents

Additive manufacturing method based on titanium and titanium alloy wires Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105108339B
CN105108339B CN201510541630.4A CN201510541630A CN105108339B CN 105108339 B CN105108339 B CN 105108339B CN 201510541630 A CN201510541630 A CN 201510541630A CN 105108339 B CN105108339 B CN 105108339B
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titanium alloy
titanium
alloy
silk
temperature
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CN201510541630.4A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105108339A (en
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刘立辉
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沈阳海纳鑫科技有限公司
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K37/00Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22BPRODUCTION AND REFINING OF METALS; PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
    • C22B9/00General processes of refining or remelting of metals; Apparatus for electroslag or arc remelting of metals
    • C22B9/16Remelting metals
    • C22B9/20Arc remelting
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C14/00Alloys based on titanium
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K2103/00Materials to be soldered, welded or cut
    • B23K2103/08Non-ferrous metals or alloys
    • B23K2103/14Titanium or alloys thereof

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of metal forming and manufacturing, and particularly relates to an additive manufacturing method based on titanium and titanium alloy wires. The method sequentially comprises three key process technologies, namely the high-quality titanium and titanium alloy wire preparation technology, the additive manufacturing deposition technology with wires as raw materials and laser light as a heating source, and the structure control and heat treatment technology in the titanium alloy manufacturing process. No titanium powder material is needed, and the problems are thoroughly solved. By means of additive manufacturing technology with titanium and titanium alloy wires as the raw materials, manufacturing of titanium alloy components with requirements for high quality and high reliability in the aerospace field is greatly promoted.

Description

A kind of increasing material manufacturing method based on titanium or titanium alloy metal wire material

Technical field

The invention belongs to metal forming and manufacturing technology field, and in particular to a kind of based on titanium or titanium alloy metal wire material Increasing material manufacturing method.

Background technology

The near-net-shape technology of metal is generally comprised:Casting(Hot investment casting), isothermal forging, powder metallurgically manufacturing method, Belong to and subtract material manufacture, in recent years fast-developing is metal increases material manufacturing technology(Metal 3D printing)It is the heat of near-net-shape technology Door research field;Titanium or titanium alloy increases material manufacturing technology is even more the emphasis of research both at home and abroad, domestic with BJ University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Universities and colleges and scientific research institutions based on Northwestern Polytechnical University achieve very big achievement in this field, there is some titanium alloy members It has been successfully applied on the aircraft and rocket of emphasis model;But, the raw material of near-net-shape increasing material manufacturing both at home and abroad All it is the powder of titanium alloy, is had the disadvantage that as raw material with titanium or titanium alloy powder:1. titanium alloy powder production is difficult.Titanium And titanium alloy is divided into α by tissue, nearly α, alpha+beta, nearly β, beta titanium alloy, domestic α type titaniums-pure titanium powder now has been able to stablize Production is outer, and other model titanium alloy powders still can not be stablized due to the restriction for producing titanium alloy powder technical matters and equipment level Production;Due to the titanium alloy powder component requirements for increasing material manufacturing strictly, granularity and shape have decisive shadow to manufacturing process Ring, titanium alloy member is used in the key areas such as Aero-Space mostly, mechanical property requirements are high, need stable and ultralow interstitial impurity The titanium alloy powder of constituent content, and titanium alloy powder chemism is high, specific surface area is big, and production technology is difficult to break through;2. it is former Material source is limited:The country is mainly used in TC4 (Ti-6Al-4V, the type alpha+beta) titanium alloy powder that increasing material manufacturing uses and also needs to Import, expensive, high cost.Especially for high temperature resistant titanium alloy and high intensity and high ductility on Aero-Space electromotor The structural titanium alloy powder of property, belongs to extremely sensitive material, almost without import probability.This is also that China does not have large-area applications The reason for increasing material manufacturing titanium alloy member;Although pure some units of the titanium powder country of α types can be with steady production, its primary articles It is mainly used in civilian corrosion-resistant field, and other near-net-shape technology ratios, price is apparently without advantage.3. powder using efficiency is asked Topic.During with titanium or titanium alloy powder increasing material manufacturing, some powder is inevitably wanted to lose, it is impossible to sharp again With causing cost further to increase.

The content of the invention

For above-mentioned problem, the present invention provides a kind of increasing material manufacturing side based on titanium or titanium alloy metal wire material Method.

The increasing material manufacturing method based on titanium or titanium alloy metal wire material of the present invention, is characterized by including three critical workflows Process, is first high-quality titanium and titanium alloy silk material preparation technology, is secondly to make raw material with silk material, and laser makees heating source Increasing material manufacturing deposition techniques, are finally the organizational controls in titanium alloy member manufacture process and Technology for Heating Processing.

High-quality titanium alloy wire is to manufacture the basis that high-quality increases material titanium alloy member, and raw material and titanium alloy ingot is molten Casting is the core process for producing titanium alloy wire;Its production craft step is:1. need to select and surpass 0 grade of titanium sponge and extra low impurity content Intermediate alloy and simple metal;2. according to the specific requirement dispensing of each titanium alloy trade mark, with hydraulic extrusion press melting is pressed into Consutrodes block;3. with plasma welding machine, under vacuum conditions group is welded into consumable electrode;4. closed according to the titanium alloy trade mark The difference of gold content, using different method of smelting:Alloy content < 10%, using vacuum consumable electrode arc furnace twice titanium is smelted into Ingot;The titanium alloy of 10% < alloy contents < 20%, using three vacuum consumable electrode arc furnaces titanium ingot is smelted into;Alloy content > 20% High alloy content titanium alloy, to prevent segregation, need to be using+vacuum consumable scull of vacuum consumable electrode arc furnace twice The method of smelting of stove is smelted into titanium ingot, the titanium alloy ingot being smelted in addition to the alloy requirement for meeting its main constituent, its impurity component Requirement must control in O < 0.08%, N < 0.002%, H < 0.001%, C < 0.002% have the refinement of addition≤0.005% brilliant The element of grain;

The titanium alloy ingot being smelted into carries out hot forging by the requirement of its trade mark, and hot rolling disk circle, reconditioning is cold drawn, and vacuum is moved back The soft state parcel of titanium alloy that a series of normal procedures of fire are processed into φ 2mm;According to the size and essence of the titanium alloy parts of manufacture Degree is different, needs the titanium alloy wire for producing 0.01mm < φ < 1.0mm to meet technological requirement.Need on Roller die stretching machine, It is processed further as raw material with φ 2mm parcels;Continuous heating equipment Wen Lawei techniques on wire rolling mill are protected with homemade argon Main points, temperature control is different according to the transformation temperature difference of its titanium alloy, 600 DEG C --- and 950 DEG C;Finished silk wants unstress state Silk, the smooth contamination-free in surface is wound on the reel of automatic wire feeder.

Select to be because that its burn-off rate is fast as thermal source using laser, stable, hot compress shaping heat affected area is little, titanium alloy portion Part deformation is little;Laser cladding forming machine be by can automatic feeding lasing light emitter based on, and table stroke size be 200mm × 200mm×300mm;Or use electron beam, plasma, electric arc that the increasing material manufacturing shaping with silk material as raw material is carried out as thermal source.

It is by the technical matters process that raw material laser cladding shapes of silk material:1. titanium alloy member drawing to be manufactured is entered Digitized process section, programming;2. it is special according to the structure of the trade mark of titanium alloy, tissue characteristic, thermodynamic data and the part Point sets up solidification temperature number of fields word model, from rational titanium silk specification and deposition rate;3. the voltage of laser machine, electric current are chosen And optical parametric;4. the flow pressure of laser cladding position protective gas is set up;5. the titanium alloy metal parts bag of shaping is set up The flow and pressure of the protective gas of sheath;6. hot compress shaping is started.

For the nearly shaping increasing material manufacturing of titanium alloy, either raw material is metal dust or silk material, titanium alloy zero To its room temperature mechanical performance and high-temperature behavior, fatigue behaviour, fracture toughness, impact flexibility has decisive for the control of component organization Affect, deformation of the stress distribution and residual stress formed in forming process to titanium alloy member, cracking has a major impact;This It is that increasing material manufacturing produces the problem that high-quality part must be solved;Solution is:1. the low gap of titanium alloy wire is strictly controlled The content of impurity element O, N, H, C;2. the element of micro crystal grain thinning is dosed, control crystal grain is grown up;3. according to titanium alloy board Number transformation temperature, solidification and cooling procedure in, adjust gas shield temperature, air pressure, flow so as to solid solution temperature model Interior guarantee rate of cooling is enclosed, especially for tissue alpha+beta, nearly β and beta titanium alloy part are even more very necessary;4. deposition is controlled Speed, different positions, the speed that heat is distributed is different, and deposition rate also will have any different;5. it is solidifying according to different titanium alloy members Gu the models for temperature field and wall thickness dimension of process, determine the tandem of welded part so as to which stress distribution evenly, is reduced residual The aggregation of residue stress.

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:The present invention completely dispenses with titanium valve powder material, thoroughly solves the problems referred to above;With titanium and Titanium alloy wire materials as raw material increasing material manufacturing, for the aerospace field titanium alloy member of high-quality high reliability request Manufacture has than larger facilitation, and inserting thing and other civilian titanium alloy products to the single and mini-batch production human body of complex object also has Higher using value.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the high-quality titanium and titanium alloy silk material preparation technology FB(flow block) of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is the organizational controls in the titanium alloy member manufacture process of the present invention and Technology for Heating Processing FB(flow block);

Specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings the present invention will be further described.

The increasing material manufacturing method based on titanium or titanium alloy metal wire material of the present invention, including three critical workflow technique sides Method, is first high-quality titanium and titanium alloy silk material preparation technology, is secondly to make raw material with silk material, and laser makees the increasing material system of heating source Deposition techniques are made, is finally the organizational controls in titanium alloy member manufacture process and Technology for Heating Processing.

High-quality titanium alloy wire is to manufacture the basis that high-quality increases material titanium alloy member, and raw material and titanium alloy ingot is molten Casting is the core process for producing titanium alloy wire;Its production craft step is:1. need to select and surpass 0 grade of titanium sponge and extra low impurity content Intermediate alloy and simple metal;2. according to the specific requirement dispensing of each titanium alloy trade mark, with hydraulic extrusion press melting is pressed into Consutrodes block;3. with plasma welding machine, under vacuum conditions group is welded into consumable electrode;4. closed according to the titanium alloy trade mark The difference of gold content, using different method of smelting:Alloy content < 10%, using vacuum consumable electrode arc furnace twice titanium is smelted into Ingot;The titanium alloy of 10% < alloy contents < 20%, using three vacuum consumable electrode arc furnaces titanium ingot is smelted into;Alloy content > 20% High alloy content titanium alloy, to prevent segregation, need to be using+vacuum consumable scull of vacuum consumable electrode arc furnace twice The method of smelting of stove is smelted into titanium ingot, the titanium alloy ingot being smelted in addition to the alloy requirement for meeting its main constituent, its impurity component Requirement must control in O < 0.08%, N < 0.002%, H < 0.001%, C < 0.002%, the present invention have addition≤0.005% The element of crystal grain thinning;

The titanium alloy ingot being smelted into carries out hot forging by the requirement of its trade mark, and hot rolling disk circle, reconditioning is cold drawn, and vacuum is moved back The soft state parcel of titanium alloy that a series of normal procedures of fire are processed into φ 2mm;The present invention is big according to the titanium alloy parts of manufacture It is little different with precision, need the titanium alloy wire for producing 0.01mm < φ < 1.0mm to meet technological requirement.Need to be in Roller die stretching On machine, it is processed further as raw material with φ 2mm parcels;Continuous heating equipment Wen Lawei on wire rolling mill is protected with homemade argon Technology point, temperature control is different according to the transformation temperature difference of its titanium alloy, 600 DEG C --- and 950 DEG C.Finished silk is unstressed State silk, the smooth contamination-free in surface, is wound on the reel of automatic wire feeder.

Select to be because that its burn-off rate is fast as thermal source using laser, stable, hot compress shaping heat affected area is little, titanium alloy portion Part deforms little these advantages;Certainly, or use electron beam, plasma, electric arc that the increasing material system with silk material as raw material is carried out as thermal source Shape is caused, respectively there is its pluses and minuses;Only make thermal source Technology with laser to illustrate;Beyond the laser cladding forming machine for using is Based on the lasing light emitter of the energy automatic feeding of purchase, change system into, table stroke size is 200mm × 200mm × 300mm, is controlled System and Slice Software are independent research.

It is by the technical matters process that raw material laser cladding shapes of silk material:1. titanium alloy member drawing to be manufactured is entered Digitized process section, programming;2. it is special according to the structure of the trade mark of titanium alloy, tissue characteristic, thermodynamic data and the part Point sets up solidification temperature number of fields word model, from rational titanium silk specification and deposition rate;3. the voltage of laser machine, electric current are chosen And optical parametric;4. the flow pressure of laser cladding position protective gas is set up;5. the titanium alloy metal parts bag of shaping is set up The flow and pressure of the protective gas of sheath;6. hot compress shaping is started.

For the nearly shaping increasing material manufacturing of titanium alloy, either raw material is metal dust or silk material, titanium alloy zero To its room temperature mechanical performance and high-temperature behavior, fatigue behaviour, fracture toughness, impact flexibility has decisive for the control of component organization Affect, deformation of the stress distribution and residual stress formed in forming process to titanium alloy member, cracking has a major impact;This It is that increasing material manufacturing produces the problem that high-quality part must be solved;Solution is:1. the low gap of titanium alloy wire is strictly controlled The content of impurity element O, N, H, C;2. the element of micro crystal grain thinning is dosed, control crystal grain is grown up;3. according to titanium alloy board Number transformation temperature, solidification and cooling procedure in, adjust gas shield temperature, air pressure, flow so as to solid solution temperature model Interior guarantee rate of cooling is enclosed, especially for tissue alpha+beta, nearly β and beta titanium alloy part are even more very necessary;4. deposition is controlled Speed, different positions, the speed that heat is distributed is different, and deposition rate also will have any different;5. it is solidifying according to different titanium alloy members Gu the models for temperature field and wall thickness dimension of process, determine the tandem of welded part so as to which stress distribution evenly, is reduced residual The aggregation of residue stress.

Golf first club wooden head is titanium alloy, due to covering on bulb, going to the bottom and the scope of attack, mechanical performance and molding Property require it is different;Therefore the titanium alloy trade mark is different, and scope of attack material is very big due to suffered impulsive force, needs the impact flexibility of material Higher with hardness requirement, five-star bulb scope of attack material is beta titanium alloy;Upper lid is alpha and beta type titan alloy, is gone to the bottom as near Alpha titanium alloy;Traditional manufacture method cannot be manufactured, and can only be produced with " 3D printing " increasing material manufacturing method, and each several part is different The titanium alloy wire materials laser cladding shaping of the trade mark.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of increasing material manufacturing method based on titanium or titanium alloy metal wire material, it is characterised in that including three critical workflow techniques Method, is first high-quality titanium and titanium alloy silk material preparation technology, is secondly to make raw material with silk material, and laser makees the increasing material of heating source Manufacture deposition techniques, are finally the organizational controls in titanium alloy member manufacture process and Technology for Heating Processing;
High-quality titanium alloy wire is to manufacture the basis that high-quality increases material titanium alloy member, and the founding of raw material and titanium alloy ingot is The core process of production titanium alloy wire;Its production craft step is:1. need to select and surpass in 0 grade of titanium sponge and extra low impurity content Between alloy and simple metal;2. according to the specific requirement dispensing of each titanium alloy trade mark, with hydraulic extrusion press melting is pressed into Consutrodes block;3. with plasma welding machine, under vacuum conditions group is welded into consumable electrode;4. contained according to titanium alloy trade mark alloy The difference of amount, using different method of smelting:Alloy content < 10%, using vacuum consumable electrode arc furnace twice titanium ingot is smelted into; The titanium alloy of 10% < alloy contents < 20%, using three vacuum consumable electrode arc furnaces titanium ingot is smelted into;The height of alloy content > 20% Alloy content titanium alloy, to prevent segregation, need to be using+vacuum consumable skull crucible of vacuum consumable electrode arc furnace twice Method of smelting is smelted into titanium alloy ingot, the titanium alloy ingot being smelted in addition to the alloy requirement for meeting its main constituent, its impurity component Requirement must control in O < 0.08%, N < 0.002%, H < 0.001%, C < 0.002% have the refinement of addition≤0.005% brilliant The element of grain;
The titanium alloy ingot being smelted into carries out hot forging by the requirement of its trade mark, and hot rolling disk circle, reconditioning is cold drawn, vacuum annealing one Serial normal procedure is processed into the soft state parcel of titanium alloy of φ 2mm;According to manufacture titanium alloy parts size and precision not Together, the titanium alloy wire for producing 0.01mm < φ < 1.0mm is needed to meet technological requirement;Need to be on Roller die stretching machine, with φ 2mm parcels are processed further for raw material;Continuous heating equipment Wen Lawei technology points on wire rolling mill are protected with homemade argon, Temperature control is different according to the transformation temperature difference of its titanium alloy, 600 DEG C -950 DEG C;Finished silk wants unstress state silk, surface Smooth contamination-free, is wound on the reel of automatic wire feeder;
Select to be because that its burn-off rate is fast as thermal source using laser, stable, deposition shaping heat affected area is little, and titanium alloy member becomes Shape is little;Laser cladding forming machine be by can automatic feeding lasing light emitter based on, and table stroke size be 200mm × 200mm×300mm;
It is by the technical matters process that raw material laser cladding shapes of silk material:1. titanium alloy member drawing to be manufactured is entered line number Wordization process section, programming;2. built according to the construction featuress of the trade mark of titanium alloy, tissue characteristic, thermodynamic data and the part Vertical solidification temperature number of fields word model, from rational titanium silk specification and deposition rate;3. the voltage of laser machine, electric current and light are chosen Learn parameter;4. the flow pressure of laser cladding position protective gas is set up;5. the titanium alloy metal parts protective case of shaping is set up Protective gas flow and pressure;6. deposition shaping is started;
For the near-net-shape increasing material manufacturing of titanium alloy, either raw material is metal dust or silk material, titanium alloy zero To its room temperature mechanical performance and high-temperature behavior, fatigue behaviour, fracture toughness, impact flexibility has decisive shadow for the control of part tissue Ring, deformation of the stress distribution and residual stress formed in forming process to titanium alloy member, cracking has a major impact;This is also The problem that increasing material manufacturing production high-quality part must be solved;Solution is:1. the low gap for strictly controlling titanium alloy wire is miscellaneous The content of prime element O, N, H, C;2. the element of micro crystal grain thinning is dosed, control crystal grain is grown up;3. according to the titanium alloy trade mark Transformation temperature, solidification and cooling procedure in, adjust gas shield temperature, air pressure, flow so as to solid solution temperature scope Interior guarantee rate of cooling, especially for tissue alpha+beta, nearly β and beta titanium alloy part are even more very necessary;4. deposition speed is controlled Degree, different positions, the speed that heat is distributed is different, and deposition rate also will have any different;5. solidified according to different titanium alloy members The models for temperature field and wall thickness dimension of process, determines the tandem of welded part so as to which stress distribution evenly, reduces remaining The aggregation of stress.
CN201510541630.4A 2015-08-31 2015-08-31 Additive manufacturing method based on titanium and titanium alloy wires CN105108339B (en)

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CN108384938B (en) * 2017-01-06 2020-01-07 中国航空制造技术研究院 Method and device for shape-following constraint rolling refinement of crystal grains in additive manufacturing
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