CN105098782A - Intelligent micro-grid switching and protection device and system - Google Patents

Intelligent micro-grid switching and protection device and system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105098782A
CN105098782A CN201410840473.2A CN201410840473A CN105098782A CN 105098782 A CN105098782 A CN 105098782A CN 201410840473 A CN201410840473 A CN 201410840473A CN 105098782 A CN105098782 A CN 105098782A
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China
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micro
switch
capacitance sensor
module
grid
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CN201410840473.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
李霄
周实
叶笑冬
叶辰之
王云
李福生
曹碧颖
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上海电气集团股份有限公司
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Priority to CN201410840473.2A priority Critical patent/CN105098782A/en
Publication of CN105098782A publication Critical patent/CN105098782A/en

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Abstract

The invention discloses an intelligent micro-grid switching and protection device and a system. The intelligent micro-grid switching and protection device comprises a switch unit and an intelligent control unit. The switch unit comprises a high-speed repulsion switch and a solid state switch module which are connected in parallel and used for controlling connection/disconnection between a public power grid and a micro-grid. The intelligent control unit comprises an information acquisition and processing module, a fault identification module, a central control unit and a driving and protection module. The information acquisition and processing module is used for obtaining sampling signals. The fault identification module judges whether a circuit fault occurs according to the sampling signals. The central control unit carries out processing on the judgment result of the fault identification module, precisely controls the action time sequence of all assemblies of switches according to different conditions and realizes microsecond-level coordination control of the switch assemblies. Finally the connection/disconnection operation of the high-speed repulsion switch and the solid state switch module is realized by the driving the protection module. The rapid off-network operation is realized when a power grid failure occurs, unplanned seamless switching of the micro-grid is realized, and the electric power quality of the micro-grid is ensured; in addition, after the power grid failure, the grid connection time is accurately judged, grid connection is rapidly and stably realized without impacts.

Description

A kind of intelligent micro-capacitance sensor switches and protective device and system

Technical field

The present invention relates to Electric Power Network Planning field, specifically, relate to a kind of intelligent micro-capacitance sensor and switch and protective device and system.

Background technology

Micro-capacitance sensor is a distribution subsystem being connected to distributed power source, isolatedly after major network departs from normally can run, maintains the power supply of the important power consumption equipment of all or part.Micro-capacitance sensor and bulk power grid are organic wholes, can connect flexibly or disconnect, both can with bulk power grid networking operation, also initiatively can depart from isolated operation with bulk power grid when needs or electric network fault.

Chinese patent (application number: 201210569974.2) disclose and be a kind ofly applied to the static switch and control method that micro-capacitance sensor is connected with public electric wire net, this disclosure of the invention is a kind of is applied to the static switch and control method that micro-capacitance sensor is connected with public electric wire net, comprises a main circuit and a controller; Main circuit is arranged between public electric wire net and micro-capacitance sensor; Turning on and off of main circuit is controlled by controller; And realize the grid-connected of micro-capacitance sensor and from net with turning on and off of main circuit; Controller carries out sampling to the voltage of public electric wire net side and micro-capacitance sensor side, frequency and phase place and the electric current that flows through bypass circuit and obtains sampled signal, opens or turns off realize micro-capacitance sensor from net or grid-connected by calculating decision instruction main circuit.This invention achieves the smoothly grid-connected of micro-capacitance sensor and off-grid Automatic Control, and monitor and forecast can be carried out by controller to micro battery inverter in micro-capacitance sensor, realize the energy management of micro-capacitance sensor or assist upper layer device to realize the energy management of micro-capacitance sensor, inventive principle as depicted in figs. 1 and 2.

Patent (application number: 201310423544.4) disclose a kind of distributed photovoltaic intelligent grid connection box, this invention relates to a kind of distributed photovoltaic intelligent grid connection box, comprise for driving the operating mechanism of on/off switch and can the current information of received current checkout gear, this current information is processed and logic analysis export the central control unit that control command controls described operating mechanism divide-shut brake after judging current failure, the mode that described central control unit adopts routine sampling and intensive sampling to combine carries out sampling and analyzing judgement, described operating mechanism is by repulsion coil, anti-magnetized coil, tripping spring and switching winding carry out the action of driving separating brake, from soft, hardware two aspect achieves quick acting, quick protection exit, the object of quick excision fault, effectively can ensure the reliability of micro-capacitance sensor under grid-connected or isolated power grid state and the smooth transition between grid-connected/lonely net pattern, equipment cost is significantly reduced under the prerequisite meeting the requirement of micro-capacitance sensor Special use, inventive principle as shown in Figure 3.

Prior art adopts following four kinds of schemes as micro-capacitance sensor interface switch usually:

1, adopt conventional contact or circuit breaker as micro-capacitance sensor interface switch, conventional contact or circuit breaker can realizing a plan property also/switch from net, but because its breaking speed is comparatively slow, usually at 30ms ~ 100ms, the requirement of the quick off-grid of electric network fault and seamless switching cannot be met.

2, the static switch based on power semiconductor is adopted to connect regular circuit breakers as micro-capacitance sensor interface switch; the fast conducting turn-off characteristic of power semiconductor is easy to meet micro-capacitance sensor interface switch and closes soon and the requirement divided soon, and circuit breaker realizes electrical isolation and relay protection function.But the power device in static switch exists the high problem of conduction voltage drop, loss is large, and heating is serious.

3, as described in above-mentioned patent one; adopt static switch by-pass switch in parallel as switch main circuit; utilize by-pass switch in parallel as main actuating switch; overcome the problem that the loss of static switch power semiconductor is large; but by-pass switch uses regular circuit breakers; breaking speed can be subject to the restriction of by-pass switch equally, only can realizing a plan property also/from net switch, do not possess the function of error protection.

4, as described in above-mentioned patent two, the fast incision based on permanent-magnet manipulating mechanism and repulsive force mechanism is adopted to close as micro-capacitance sensor interface switch, it is low that this fast incision pass has conduction loss, breaking speed is advantage faster, full break-time can reach≤15ms, but permanent-magnet manipulating mechanism closes sum velocity comparatively slowly, and its breaking speed still cannot meet the requirement of microgrid seamless switching and short trouble disjunction current limliting, and disjunction arcing can cause the damage of contact under short circuit condition, the short circuit breaking life-span is lower.

Summary of the invention

The invention provides a kind of intelligent micro-capacitance sensor to switch and protective device, wherein, comprising:

Be arranged on the switch element between public electric wire net and micro-capacitance sensor and intelligent control unit;

Switch element comprises high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch in parallel and solid state switching module, and what control public electric wire net and micro-capacitance sensor by high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch and/or solid state switching module closes/disjunction;

Intelligent control unit, comprises information gathering and processing module, fault distinguishing module, central control unit and drive and protection module,

Information gathering and processing module are for obtaining sampled signal; fault distinguishing module judges whether to occur fault according to sampled signal; the differentiation of fault comprises: the differentiation of short circuit earlier detection, islanding detect differentiation, power quality event differentiation etc.; central control unit processes for the judged result of fault distinguishing module, and realizes the switching manipulation of high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch and solid state switching module by drive and protection module.

Above-mentioned intelligent micro-capacitance sensor switches and protective device, and wherein, high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch comprises electromagnetic repulsion force mechanism, switching-on mechanism, buffer unit and vacuum contact mechanism.

Above-mentioned intelligent micro-capacitance sensor switches and protective device, and wherein, solid state switching module comprises solid-state switch main circuit and the buffer circuit be connected in parallel and energy absorption circuit.

Above-mentioned intelligent micro-capacitance sensor switches and protective device, and wherein, solid-state switch main circuit selects bridge architecture circuit, inverse parallel structural circuit or the cascaded structure circuit with device for power switching.

Above-mentioned intelligent micro-capacitance sensor switches and protective device, and wherein, described device for power switching is one or more combinations in SCR, GTO, IGBT, IGCT.

Above-mentioned intelligent micro-capacitance sensor switches and protective device, and wherein, buffer circuit is the RC buffer circuit or the RCD buffer circuit that comprise the composition such as resistance, electric capacity.

Above-mentioned intelligent micro-capacitance sensor switches and protective device, and wherein, energy absorption circuit is metal oxide arrester MOV or has positive temperature coefficient superconductor PTC.

Above-mentioned intelligent micro-capacitance sensor switches and protective device; wherein; described intelligent control unit also comprises an information interaction module; for the fault of the circuit parameter in electrical network, power flow and generation is fed back to a master system, host computer is assisted to realize energy monitoring to micro-grid system and management.

The system with protective device is switched based on above-mentioned intelligent micro-capacitance sensor, wherein,

Described solid-state switch main circuit adopts the bridge architecture comprising an IGBT and four diode composition, and described buffer circuit is the RCD buffer circuit comprising resistance, electric capacity and diode composition;

When system is in normal condition, main circuit current flows through electromagnetic switch, and its conduction voltage drop is low, to reduce the conduction loss under normal operating conditions; When public electric wire net or micro-capacitance sensor are short-circuited fault, electromagnetic switch disjunction, and by the short circuit current change of current to solid state switching module;

When energy flows to micro-capacitance sensor side by grid side, electric current flows through wherein two diodes (D1, D3) and the IGBT of bridge architecture; When energy by micro-capacitance sensor effluent to grid side time, electric current flows through two other diode (D2, D4) and IGBT of bridge architecture;

When IGBT turns off, electric current will, by diode (Ds) to electric capacity (Cs) charging, to limit the climbing of IGBT both end voltage, prevent from puncturing IGBT.

Above-mentioned system, wherein, in described buffer circuit,

Described resistance (Rs) is in parallel with described diode (Ds), and this resistance (Rs) is connected with described electric capacity (Cs).

Beneficial effect of the present invention is embodied in the following aspects:

1, the switch element of apparatus of the present invention can ensure good static on state characteristic simultaneously and dynamically close breaking characteristics.Close time <1ms, break-time <3ms, and under the prerequisite of dividing soon soon closing, realize low conduction loss.

2, when bulk power grid breaks down, as Voltage Drop fault, based on Fault Identification and breaking capacity fast, quick off-grid, can realize the seamless switching of bulk power grid failure condition.

3, micro-capacitance sensor side be short-circuited fault time, realize short circuit breaking current-limiting protection based on supper-fast short circuit current earlier detection method, and thick-less vane, can not cause damage to switch contact, useful life improves.

Accompanying drawing explanation

By reading the detailed description done non-limiting example with reference to the following drawings, the present invention and feature, profile and advantage will become more obvious.Mark identical in whole accompanying drawing indicates identical part.Deliberately proportionally do not draw accompanying drawing, focus on purport of the present invention is shown.

Fig. 1 is applied to the static switch schematic diagram that micro-capacitance sensor is connected with public electric wire net in prior art;

Fig. 2 is a kind of static switch main circuit schematic diagram being applied to micro-capacitance sensor and being connected with public electric wire net in prior art;

Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram of a kind of distributed photovoltaic intelligent grid connection box in prior art;

Fig. 4 is that circuit of the present invention is closing the circuit waveform figure in breaking course;

Fig. 5 is the present invention main circuit structure figure in one embodiment.

Embodiment

In the following description, a large amount of concrete details is given to provide more thorough understanding of the invention.But, it is obvious to the skilled person that the present invention can be implemented without the need to these details one or more.In other example, in order to avoid obscuring with the present invention, technical characteristics more well known in the art are not described.

In order to thoroughly understand the present invention, detailed step and detailed structure will be proposed in following description, to explain technical scheme of the present invention.Preferred embodiment of the present invention is described in detail as follows, but except these are described in detail, the present invention can also have other execution modes.

The invention provides a kind of intelligent micro-capacitance sensor to switch and protective device, comprise: be arranged on the static switch unit (StaticSwitch also can be described as static switch) between public electric wire net and micro-capacitance sensor and intelligent control unit (ControlUnit);

Switch element comprises high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch (High-speedRepulsionSwitch) in parallel and solid state switching module (SolidStateSwitchModule), and what control public electric wire net and micro-capacitance sensor by electromagnetic switch and/or solid state switching module closes/disjunction;

Intelligent control unit, comprises information gathering and processing module, fault distinguishing module, central control unit (or claiming divide-shut brake control module) and drive and protection module.Wherein, information gathering and processing module for the electric current that detects the voltage of public electric wire net side and micro-capacitance sensor side, frequency and phase place and flow through bypass circuit to obtain sampled signal; fault distinguishing module judges whether to occur fault according to sampled signal; central control unit processes for the judged result of fault distinguishing module, and realizes the switching manipulation of electromagnetic switch and solid state switching module by drive and protection module.

The present invention one optional but not as restriction execution mode in, above-mentioned high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch comprises electromagnetic repulsion force mechanism, switching-on mechanism, buffer gear and high speed contact mechanism.

Optional in the present invention one but in execution mode not as restriction, above-mentioned solid state switching module comprises solid-state switch main circuit and the buffer circuit be connected in parallel and energy absorption circuit.

The present invention one optional but not as restriction execution mode in, solid-state switch main circuit is selected has device for power switching bridge architecture circuit, inverse parallel structural circuit or cascaded structure circuit.Optional device for power switching is one or more combinations in SCR (silicon controlled rectifier), GTO (gate level turn-off thyristor), IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor), IGCT (integral gate change transistor).

The present invention one optional but not as restriction execution mode in, buffer circuit be comprise resistance, electric capacity etc. composition RC buffer circuit or RCD buffer circuit.

The present invention one optional but not as restriction execution mode in, energy absorption circuit is metal oxide arrester MOV or has positive temperature coefficient superconductor PTC.

The present invention one optional but not as restriction execution mode in, above-mentioned intelligent control unit also comprises an information interaction module, the operating state of monitoring system that can be real-time, the fault of the circuit parameter in electrical network, power flow and generation is fed back to master system, assists host computer to realize energy monitoring to micro-grid system and management function.

Because high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch has fast point, closes slowly, the feature that conduction loss is low, and solid-state switch has conducting, turn-off speed is fast, the feature that on-state voltage drop is high, in conjunction with deciliter characteristic of two kinds of switches and the application demand of micro-capacitance sensor, switch element close with disjunction principle as shown in Figure 5, i in figure sSfor flowing through the electric current of whole switch element, i hSRSfor flowing through the electric current of high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch, i sSSMfor flowing through the electric current of solid state switching module, uA, uB are switch element both end voltage.

When intelligent control unit detects that system is in non-faulting state, the same amplitude of voltage of bulk power grid side and micro-capacitance sensor side, same frequency, same-phase, now micro-capacitance sensor meets grid-connected requirement, and send reclosing command at t0 moment intelligent control unit, solid-state switch is conducting first; The t1 moment, the adhesive of high speed repulsion switch, repulsion switch and the solid-state switch change of current; In the t2 moment, the change of current completes, and high speed repulsion switch stablizes conducting, and solid-state switch disconnects.In this course, repulsion switch no-voltage is open-minded, and the time that closes depends primarily on the ON time of solid-state switch.

In t2 ~ t3 moment, static switch is in stable conducting state, and now high speed repulsion switch is as main actuating switch, and solid-state switch turns off, and on-state loss depends on high speed repulsion switch, and conduction loss is little.

Then the fragmentation procedure of static switch is analyzed: t3 moment, system jam; In the t4 moment, fault distinguishing completes, and control unit sends shutoff instruction; In the t5 moment, high speed repulsion switch contact produces gap arcing, and arc voltage is greater than solid-state switch conducting voltage, and repulsion switch electric current nature commutation is to solid-state switch; In the t6 moment, the change of current completes, and repulsion switch electric current is to zero.In this system, repulsion switch arcing voltage is very low, therefore without the need to arc extinguishing.And the switch-segment time determines primarily of the disjunction time delay of high speed repulsion switch and solid-state switch turn off delay time.

Below in conjunction with Fig. 5, the present invention is further elaborated, circuit application shown in Fig. 5 is in three-phase four-wire system, solid-state switch main circuit Bian is the bridge architecture that mouth is connected with comprising an IGBT with four diodes, the buffer circuit Bian RCD buffer circuit comprising resistance Rs, electric capacity Cs and diode Ds composition, energy absorption circuit is metal oxide arrester MOV.When system is in normal condition, main circuit current flows through high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch, and its conduction voltage drop is low, can reduce the conduction loss under normal operating conditions.When public electric wire net side or microgrid side are short-circuited fault and after short circuit current exceedes set point, the quick disjunction of high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch, short circuit current nature commutation is on solid-state switch.

When energy flows to microgrid side by grid side, electric current flows through D1, IGBT and D3; When energy by microgrid effluent to grid side time, electric current flows through D2, IGBT and D4.Turn off IGBT, electric current will be charged to electric capacity Cs by diode Ds, because capacitance voltage can not suddenly change, so limit the climbing of IGBT both end voltage, prevent from puncturing IGBT, promote the stability of circuit.After this, energy is consumed by energy absorption circuit (MOV).

Because the turn-off speed of device for power switching is very fast, therefore can realizes micro-capacitance sensor unplanned property seamless switching, ensure the quality of power supply of micro-capacitance sensor.When after fault recovery, detect the amplitude of voltage, frequency and phase place, when meeting grid-connected conditions, it is grid-connected that closed high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch realizes fast and stable.

In sum; the invention discloses a kind of intelligent micro-capacitance sensor to switch and protective device; it is the carrier realizing micro-capacitance sensor seamless switching and instant protection; also be the intelligent interface connecting micro-capacitance sensor and bulk power grid; it is the nucleus equipment of micro-capacitance sensor; in addition it also can coordinate separately with distributed energy, realizes the grid-connected function of distributed energy.Can when electric network fault quick off-grid, realize micro-capacitance sensor unplanned property seamless switching, ensure the quality of power supply of micro-capacitance sensor; After fault recovery, accurately judge that the grid-connected moment realizes fast and stable grid-connected, without impacting; Communicate in real time with host computer simultaneously, reponse system running status.

This intelligent micro-capacitance sensor disclosed by the invention switches accurately can to judge micro-capacitance sensor seamless switching opportunity with protective device, carry out also/from net quick seamless handoff; When bulk power grid breaks down, can realize fast failure identification, quick acting departs from electrical network as required, ensures the power supply quality of the important power consumption equipment of micro-capacitance sensor; When micro-capacitance sensor short circuit occurred inside fault, realize quick disjunction current limliting and the early stage electrical isolation to trouble unit based on short circuit current earlier detection, prevent fault from spreading, avoid the impact on bulk power grid relaying protection; And monitor electrical network/micro-capacitance sensor information and state in real time as the interface between micro-capacitance sensor and bulk power grid, assist micro-capacitance sensor controller to realize energy management.In order to realize seamless switching and fast protection, micro-capacitance sensor interface switch is except intelligent requirements, and to close and breaking speed and fault identify fast and propose very high request, this is that ordinary tap equipment is as implacable in contactor/circuit breaker.

Above preferred embodiment of the present invention is described.It is to be appreciated that the present invention is not limited to above-mentioned particular implementation, the equipment wherein do not described in detail to the greatest extent and structure are construed as to be implemented with the common mode in this area; Any those of ordinary skill in the art, do not departing under technical solution of the present invention ambit, the Method and Technology content of above-mentioned announcement all can be utilized to make many possible variations and modification to technical solution of the present invention, or being revised as the Equivalent embodiments of equivalent variations, this does not affect flesh and blood of the present invention.Therefore, every content not departing from technical solution of the present invention, according to technical spirit of the present invention to any simple modification made for any of the above embodiments, equivalent variations and modification, all still belongs in the scope of technical solution of the present invention protection.

Claims (10)

1. intelligent micro-capacitance sensor switches and a protective device, it is characterized in that, comprising:
Be arranged on the switch element between public electric wire net and micro-capacitance sensor and intelligent control unit;
Switch element comprises high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch in parallel and solid state switching module, and what control public electric wire net and micro-capacitance sensor by electromagnetic switch and/or solid state switching module closes/disjunction;
Intelligent control unit, comprises information gathering and processing module, fault distinguishing module, central control unit and drive and protection module,
Information gathering and processing module are for obtaining sampled signal; fault distinguishing module judges whether to occur fault according to sampled signal; the differentiation of fault comprises: the differentiation of short circuit earlier detection, islanding detect differentiation, power quality event differentiation etc.; central control unit processes for the judged result of fault distinguishing module, and realizes the switching manipulation of high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch and solid state switching module by drive and protection module.
2. intelligent micro-capacitance sensor as claimed in claim 1 switches and protective device, and it is characterized in that, high speed electromagnetic repulsion switch comprises electromagnetic repulsion force mechanism, switching-on mechanism, buffer gear and high speed contact mechanism.
3. intelligent micro-capacitance sensor as claimed in claim 1 switches and protective device, it is characterized in that, solid state switching module comprises solid-state switch main circuit and the buffer circuit be connected in parallel and energy absorption circuit.
4. intelligent micro-capacitance sensor as claimed in claim 3 switches and protective device, and it is characterized in that, solid-state switch main circuit selects bridge architecture circuit, inverse parallel structural circuit or the cascaded structure circuit with device for power switching.
5. intelligent micro-capacitance sensor as claimed in claim 4 switches and protective device, it is characterized in that, described device for power switching is one or more combinations in SCR, GTO, IGBT, IGCT.
6. intelligent micro-capacitance sensor as claimed in claim 3 switches and protective device, it is characterized in that, buffer circuit is the RC buffer circuit or the RCD buffer circuit that comprise the composition such as resistance, electric capacity.
7. intelligent micro-capacitance sensor as claimed in claim 3 switches and protective device, and it is characterized in that, energy absorption circuit is metal oxide arrester MOV or has positive temperature coefficient superconductor PTC.
8. intelligent micro-capacitance sensor as claimed in claim 1 switches and protective device; it is characterized in that; described intelligent control unit also comprises an information interaction module; for the fault of the circuit parameter in electrical network, power flow and generation is fed back to a master system, host computer is assisted to realize energy monitoring to micro-grid system and management.
9. switch the system with protective device based on micro-capacitance sensor intelligent described in claim 1-8 any one, it is characterized in that,
Described solid-state switch main circuit adopts the bridge architecture comprising an IGBT and four diode composition, and described buffer circuit is the RCD buffer circuit comprising resistance, electric capacity and diode composition;
When system is in normal condition, main circuit current flows through electromagnetic switch, and its conduction voltage drop is low, can reduce the conduction loss under normal operating conditions; When public electric wire net or micro-capacitance sensor break down, electromagnetic switch disjunction, and by the short circuit current change of current to solid state switching module;
When energy flows to micro-capacitance sensor side by grid side, electric current flows through wherein two diodes (D1, D3) and the IGBT of bridge architecture; When energy by micro-capacitance sensor effluent to grid side time, electric current flows through two other diode (D2, D4) and IGBT of bridge architecture;
When IGBT turns off, electric current will, by diode (Ds) to electric capacity (Cs) charging, to limit the climbing of IGBT both end voltage, prevent from puncturing IGBT.
10. system as claimed in claim 9, is characterized in that, in described buffer circuit,
Described resistance (Rs) is in parallel with described diode (Ds), and this resistance (Rs) is connected with described electric capacity (Cs).
CN201410840473.2A 2014-12-24 2014-12-24 Intelligent micro-grid switching and protection device and system CN105098782A (en)

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Application publication date: 20151125