CN105091858A  Twodimension inclination angle noncontact measurement method and system based on absolute distance measurement  Google Patents
Twodimension inclination angle noncontact measurement method and system based on absolute distance measurement Download PDFInfo
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 CN105091858A CN105091858A CN201510463751.1A CN201510463751A CN105091858A CN 105091858 A CN105091858 A CN 105091858A CN 201510463751 A CN201510463751 A CN 201510463751A CN 105091858 A CN105091858 A CN 105091858A
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 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01C—MEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
 G01C9/00—Measuring inclination, e.g. by clinometers, by levels
Abstract
The invention provides a method and system through which the twodimension inclination angle noncontact measurement can be achieved. The method comprises the steps of adopting multiple noncontact displacement sensors which have the absolute distance measurement function, meanwhile, measuring a measurement plane on a measurement object, conducting data processing on displacement values of all the displacement sensors, and finally obtaining the twodimension inclination angle measurement result directly. Compared with an existing inclination angle sensor or an inclinometer, by means of the method and system, a twodimension inclination angle can be measured, a onedimension inclination angle can also be measured, and the motion characteristics of the measurement object is not affected at all. The method has no extremely high requirements for the sensor installation, and when the axis of the measurement system is not in parallel with the rotation axis of the measurement object, the onedimension or the twodimension measurement can also be achieved. In addition, the measurement result obtained through the method has nothing to do with the eccentric distance of the rotation axis of the measurement object, therefore the eccentric distance does not need to be measured, and the practical application is facilitated.
Description
Technical field
What the present invention relates to is a kind of method and system of geometric measurement technical field, specifically a kind of twodimentional inclination angle noncontact measurement method based on Models of Absolute Distance Measurement Based and system.
Background technology
Inclination angle refers to the angle of a plane relative to reference plane (being generally worth surface level).The instrument measuring inclination angle is called inclinator or level meter.Inclination angle is one of the common measure the item in geometric sense field.At present, in national economy various fields, there is various measurement of dip angle demand.Conventional inclination angle measurement method, mainly measures body with magnetoresistive transducer and realizes measurement of dip angle relative to the orientation of terrestrial magnetic field.The advantage of this method is simple to operate, easy to use, can measure one dimension or twodimentional inclination angle.
But this method exists some obvious problems and shortcomings, particularly traditional obliquity sensor/inclinator must be arranged on the workplace of measured target, and rotates with measured target, and metering system belongs to contact type measurement.Its problem brought is: obliquity sensor is placed on measured target and will likely has an impact to the exercise performance of measured target by (1).Particularly when measured target volume is less, lighter in weight when, this impact can be particularly serious, cannot realize measuring even at all.(2) installed by obliquity sensor and on measured target, certainly will require that thread mill drilling is for fixed angle sensor on measured target body, this will destroy primary characteristic and the damage of measured target.(3) traditional obliquity sensor generally adopts cable that measurement result is transferred to host computer, and inevitably will produce cable traction phenomena in measured target rotation process, obviously unreasonable.(4) traditional obliquity sensor/inclinator can only measure the inclination angle of two orthogonal directionss, if during the phenomenons such as the axis of rotation that there is obliquity sensor slotted line and the measured target caused due to reasons such as installations is not parallel, inevitable real estate merchant's measuring error, and measured target inclination angle is larger, this error is also larger.These problems abovementioned are also the common faults of the obliquity sensor/inclinator of the overwhelming majority at present.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to the contact measurement problem for existing obliquity sensor/inclinator, propose a kind of method and system that can realize twodimentional inclination angle noncpntact measurement.The method adopts several noncontact displacement sensors with Models of Absolute Distance Measurement Based function, and the measurement plane be simultaneously opposite on measured target is measured, and by processing the output data of each displacement transducer, finally obtains twodimentional tilt angle measurement.This method can directly utilize the contactless highprecision at the Planar realization two dimension inclination angle on measured target to measure, and does not affect the kinetic characteristic of measured target.This method both can measure twodimentional inclination angle, also can measure one dimension inclination angle.And the installation of this method to sensor does not have excessive demand, when the axis of measuring system and measured target axis of rotation not parallel time also can realize one dimension/twodimentional measurement of dip angle.In addition, the eccentric throw of the measurement result of the method and measurement plane and measured target axis of rotation has nothing to do, and therefore without the need to measuring this eccentric throw, facilitates practical application.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
Twodimentional inclination angle of the present invention noncontact measurement system mainly comprises: some displacement transducers, a measurement plane, measurement support, a control system and a cable.Measurement plane is the some planes on measured target, can be parallel with the workplace of measured target, also can be not parallel.Displacement transducer is placed in be measured on support, and the slotted line of each sensor is parallel to each other, and all slotted lines all aim at measurement plane, the output of each sensor by cable transfer to control system.Near control system is generally placed in.When measured target is in arbitrary spatial attitude position, under the unified control of control system, all displacement transducers synchronously obtain the distance value between measurement plane, and carry out data processing, by calculating the twodimentional inclination value of measurement plane and measured target through cable feeding control system.
Displacement transducer of the present invention is the noncontact displacement sensor with Models of Absolute Distance Measurement Based function, such as laser displacement sensor, laser range sensor, eddy current displacement sensor, capacitance displacement sensor etc.The selection of concrete displacement transducer, depends on the spacing between measurement of dip angle scope and sensor.The occasion comparatively large for inclination angle scope, transducer spacing is larger, should adopt the absolute displacement transducer that measurement range is larger, such as laser displacement sensor, laser range sensor etc.The occasion less for inclination angle scope, transducer spacing is less, should adopt the absolute displacement transducer that measurement range is less, such as eddy current displacement sensor, capacitance displacement sensor etc.
The minimum number of displacement transducer of the present invention is 3.All displacement transducers should be arranged at grade, but can not arrange on the same line.And number of sensors is different, the layout of sensor is also thereupon different: if the quantity of displacement transducer is odd number, then displacement transducer should be evenly arranged in around measuring center point.If the quantity of displacement transducer is even number, then displacement transducer should be arranged on two mutually orthogonal straight lines, these two straight lines can with the centre of gyration line parallel or vertical of measured target, also can keep certain angle, but do not affect measurement result, this is also special character of the present invention.
The Main Function of measurement support of the present invention, is support each sensor, makes it the direction that keeps determining and position.The special character of measurement support of the present invention is, measures support itself and has positioning function, can ensure that the spacing between each displacement transducer is in ideal position, can exempt calibration process for general precision.
The effect of measurement plane of the present invention, is to provide the measured zone space of enough sizes and precision, ensures the Measurement accuracy at inclination angle.The region shape of measurement plane of the present invention should be square.Measurement plane of the present invention can be parallel with the workplace of measured target, also can be not parallel, is not particularly limited.
The size of measurement plane of the present invention depends on the eccentric throw of change of pitch angle scope, transducer spacing and measurement plane and measured target axis of rotation, change of pitch angle scope is larger, transducer spacing is larger, the eccentric throw of measurement plane and measured target axis of rotation is larger, and the size of required measurement plane is also larger.For the occasion of limited space value, the measurement plane of largesize can not be adopted,
According to the difference of the displacement transducer adopted, the present invention needs to select the measurement plane with different surfaces characteristic.According to different measurement of dip angle accuracy requirements, measurement plane of the present invention needs to have different planarity requirements.
For some special occasions, due to space limit the measurement plane that cannot use largesize.For this situation, the present invention adopts multiple displacement transducer and small size measurement plane, realizes the measurement of dip angle compared with widemeasuring range by areal survey and automatic switchover technology.
If measured target does not have the measurement plane meeting abovementioned requirements, it is dull and stereotyped that twodimentional inclination angle of the present invention noncontact measurement system also can adopt light material to make a foursquare measurement, and be installed on measured target.Now, measure flat board and should adopt less thickness, thus ensure substantially not affect the kinetic characteristic of measured target.For example reduces to measure dull and stereotyped distortion, some reinforcements can be installed additional measuring the dull and stereotyped back side, and in tower structure layout, to provide maximum rigid support.
The present invention proposes the data processing method being used for abovementioned twodimentional inclination angle noncontact measurement system.When the displacement transducer quantity adopted is different, corresponding data processing method is also different.
For the situation adopting odd number displacement sensor two dimension inclination angle, data processing method of the present invention is: utilize the shift value of each displacement transducer to obtain the 3 d space coordinate of measurement point corresponding on measurement plane with this planimetric position, sensor place, then the threedimensional coordinate of all measurement points on measurement plane is utilized to calculate the plane equation of measurement plane place measurement plane, then calculate the angle of this measurement plane and reference plane, be the twodimentional inclination value of measured target.This method can be called " plane equation method ".
For the situation adopting even number displacement sensor two dimension inclination angle, data processing method of the present invention is: the shift value utilizing each displacement transducer on two orthogonal slotted lines respectively, calculates separately the one dimension inclination angle initial value of this rectilinear direction.Then utilize the difference of the displacement transducer shift value of another slotted line to revise abovementioned inclination angle initial value, thus twodimentional tilt angle measurement accurately can be obtained.This method can be called " orthogonal correction method ".
Accompanying drawing explanation
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is further described.
Fig. 1 is twodimentional inclination angle of the present invention noncontact measurement system composition schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is three sensor two dimension inclination measuring system theory of constitution schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is foursensor of the present invention two dimension inclination measuring system theory of constitution schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 is the measurement slab construction schematic diagram with reinforcement of the present invention;
In figure, 1 is displacement transducer, and 2 for measuring support, and 3 is control system, and 4 is measurement plane, and 5 is measured target, and 6 is transmission cable, and 7 is dull and stereotyped for measuring, and 8 is reinforcement.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, embodiments of the invention are elaborated: the present embodiment is implemented under premised on technical solution of the present invention, give detailed embodiment and concrete operating process, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to following embodiment.
The composition of inclination angle of the present invention noncontact measurement system as shown in Figure 1.Measuring system mainly comprises: some displacement transducers 1, measurement plane 4, measurement support 2, control system 3, transmission cable 6, is measured dull and stereotyped.Measurement plane 4 is positioned at certain plane on measured target 5, can be parallel with the workplace of measured target 5, also can be not parallel with the workplace of measured target 5.Displacement transducer 1 is placed in be measured on support 2, and the slotted line between each displacement transducer 1 is parallel to each other, and all slotted lines all aim at measurement plane 4, and the output of each displacement transducer 1 is transported to control system 3 by cable 6.Control system is generally placed in suitably.When measured target 5 is in arbitrary spatial attitude position, under the unified control of control system 3, all displacement transducers 1 synchronously obtain the distance value between measurement plane, and send into control system 3 and carry out data processing, by calculating the measurement plane 4 i.e. twodimentional inclination value of measured target 5.
Displacement transducer 1 of the present invention is the noncontact displacement sensor with Models of Absolute Distance Measurement Based function, such as laser displacement sensor, laser range sensor, eddy current displacement sensor, capacitance displacement sensor etc.The selection of concrete displacement transducer 1, depends on the spacing between measurement of dip angle scope and sensor.The occasion comparatively large for inclination angle scope, transducer spacing is larger, should adopt the absolute displacement transducer that measurement range is larger, such as laser displacement sensor, laser range sensor etc., it is even larger to hundreds of mm that its range of displacement measurement can reach tens mm.The occasion less for inclination angle scope, transducer spacing is less, should adopt the absolute displacement transducer that measurement range is less, such as eddy current displacement sensor, capacitance displacement sensor etc., and its range of displacement measurement can reach a few mm to tens mm.
The minimum number of displacement transducer 1 of the present invention is 3.All displacement transducers should be arranged at grade, but can not arrange on the same line.And number of sensors is different, the layout of sensor is also thereupon different:
If the quantity of displacement transducer 1 is odd number, then displacement transducer 1 should be evenly arranged in around measuring center point.Fig. 2 is the system composition schematic diagram that twodimentional inclination angle measured by employing 3 displacement transducers 1.3 displacement transducers Sensor1, Sensor2 and Sensor3 are on same plane MPlane, and are evenly arranged in around measuring center point O, and the distance of distance center point O is R.
If the quantity of displacement transducer 1 is even number, then displacement transducer should be arranged in two mutually orthogonal rectilinear directions, these two straight lines respectively with the centre of gyration line parallel of measured target 5 with vertical.Fig. 3 is the system composition schematic diagram that twodimentional inclination angle measured by employing 4 displacement transducers 1.4 displacement transducers Sensor1, Sensor2, Sensor3 and Sensor4 are on same plane MPlane, and are evenly arranged on two straight line x and y, and the interval of two groups of displacement transducers is 2L.
The Main Function of measurement support 2 of the present invention, is support each displacement transducer 1, makes it the direction that keeps determining and position.The special character of measurement support 2 of the present invention is, measures support 2 and itself has positioning function, can ensure that the spacing between each displacement transducer 1 is in ideal position, can exempt calibration process for general precision.
The effect of measurement plane 4 of the present invention, is to provide the measurement space of enough sizes and precision, ensures the Measurement accuracy at inclination angle.The shape of measurement plane 4 of the present invention should be square.Measurement plane 4 place of the present invention plane can be parallel with the workplace of measured target 5, also can be not parallel, is not particularly limited.
The size of measurement plane 4 of the present invention, depends primarily on the eccentric distance e of change of pitch angle range Theta, transducer spacing L and measurement plane 4 and measured target 5 axis of rotation.For the amount one dimension of Measured by Twin Displacement Transducer shown in Fig. 2 inclination angle, the fullsize of required measurement plane 4 is:
Dmax=(L+2esinθ)/cosθ
Obviously, change of pitch angle range Theta is larger, transducer spacing L is larger, measurement plane 4 is larger with the eccentric distance e of measured target 5 axis of rotation, and the size of required measurement plane 4 is also larger.
The present invention is different according to the kind of the displacement transducer 1 adopted, and needs to select the measurement plane 4 with different surfaces characteristic.Such as, for laser displacement sensor, need to adopt the measurement plane 4 with diffuse reflection surface characteristic.
Measurement plane 4 of the present invention needs to have certain flatness accuracy requirement.According to different measurement of dip angle accuracy requirements, measurement plane 4 needs to have different planarity requirements.Measurement of dip angle accuracy requirement is higher, also higher to the planarity requirements of measurement plane 4.Suppose that measurement of dip angle precision is for ± Δ θ, two sensors be spaced apart L, then the planarity requirements of measurement plane should be:
Δ=±LtanΔθ
If measured target 5 does not have the measurement plane 4 meeting abovementioned requirements, twodimentional inclination angle of the present invention noncontact measurement system also can make separately one and measure dull and stereotyped 7, and is installed on measured target 5.For example ensures substantially not affect the kinetic characteristic of measured target 5, measurement of the present invention dull and stereotyped 7 adopts light material, the such as material such as aluminium alloy, organic glass.Flat board 7 of measuring of the present invention adopts less thickness, is the distortion that example reduces to measure dull and stereotyped 7, can install some reinforcements 8 additional at the back side of measurement dull and stereotyped 7.As shown in Figure 4, for square measurement plane 4, can be provided with 6 reinforcements overleaf, wherein 4 adjust reinforcements to surround square, other 2 long reinforcements be crossed geometry, thus formation frame supporting structure.
The present invention proposes the data processing method being used for abovementioned twodimentional inclination angle noncontact measurement system.When the quantity of the displacement transducer 1 adopted is different, corresponding data processing method is also different.
For the situation adopting odd number displacement sensor two dimension inclination angle, data processing method of the present invention is: utilize the shift value of each displacement transducer 1 to obtain the 3 d space coordinate of measurement point corresponding on measurement plane 4 with this planimetric position, sensor place, then the threedimensional coordinate of all measurement points on measurement plane 4 is utilized to calculate the plane equation of measurement plane 4 place measurement plane, then calculate the angle of this measurement plane and reference plane, be the twodimentional inclination value of measured target 5.This method can be called " plane equation method ".
For 3 sensor two dimension inclination measuring systems shown in Fig. 2,3 displacement transducers Sensor1, Sensor2 and Sensor3 are on same plane MPlane, the displacement of 3 displacement transducers Sensor1, Sensor2 and Sensor3 is respectively s1, s2 and s3, and be evenly arranged in around measuring center point O, the distance of distance center point O is R.The volume coordinate of 3 then corresponding with 3 displacement transducers on measurement plane 4 measurement points is respectively:
P1 (x1, y1, z1) point: (0.866R ,0.5R, S1)
P2 (x2, y2, z2) point: (0,0.5R, S2)
P3 (x3, y3, z3) point: (0.866R ,0.5R, S3)
The plane equation can setting up measurement plane 4 place measurement plane is thus:
ax+by+cz=d
In formula:
a=(y2y1)(z3z1)(y3y1)(z2z1)
b=(z2z1)(x3x1)(z3z1)(x2x1)
c=(x2x1)(y3y1)(x3x1)(y2y1)
d=ax1+by1+cz1
Can be in the hope of the twodimentional inclination value of measurement plane thus:
θx=arctan(c/a)
θy=arctan(c/b)
For the situation adopting even number displacement transducer 1 to measure twodimentional inclination angle, data processing method of the present invention is: the shift value utilizing each displacement transducer 1 on two orthogonal slotted lines respectively, calculates separately the one dimension inclination angle initial value of this rectilinear direction.Then utilize the shift value of the displacement transducer 1 of another slotted line to revise these two one dimension inclination angle initial values, thus twodimentional tilt angle measurement accurately can be obtained.This method can be called " orthogonal correction method ".
For 4 sensor two dimension inclination measuring systems shown in Fig. 3,4 displacement transducers Sensor1, Sensor2, Sensor3 and Sensor4 are on same plane MPlane, but be arranged on two orthogonal slotted line x and y, the shift value of 4 displacement transducers is respectively s1, s2, s3 and s4, on every bar slotted line, two displacement transducer spacing are 2L, then the inclination angle initial value that can obtain two slotted line directions is respectively:
θx=arctan[(S1S3)/2L]
θy=arctan[(S2S4)/2L]
Then, for abovementioned two one dimension inclination angle initial values, utilize the difference of the shift value of the displacement transducer of another slotted line to revise respectively, finally obtain twodimentional inclination value accurately:
θx=arctan[(S1S3)/SQRT((S2S4)^2+4L^2)]
θy=arctan[(S2S4)/SQRT((S1S3)^2+4L^2)]
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows, compared with existing obliquity sensor/inclinator, the contactless highprecision that method of the present invention can realize twodimentional inclination angle is measured, and does not substantially affect the kinetic characteristic of measured target.This method both can measure twodimentional inclination angle, also can measure one dimension inclination angle.And the installation of this method to sensor does not have excessive demand, when the axis of measuring system and measured target axis of rotation not parallel time also can realize one dimension/twodimentional measurement of dip angle.In addition, the eccentric throw of the measurement result of the method and measurement plane and measured target axis of rotation has nothing to do, and therefore without the need to measuring this eccentric throw, facilitates practical application.
Claims (10)
1. a twodimentional inclination angle noncontact measurement system, is characterized in that: this measuring system is made up of some displacement transducers, measurement plane, measurement support, a control system and a cable.
2. measurement plane is certain plane on measured target, can be parallel with measured target workplace, also can be not parallel.
3. displacement transducer is placed in and measures on support, and the slotted line of each sensor is parallel to each other, and all slotted lines all aim at measurement plane, the output of each displacement transducer by cable transfer to control system.
4. when measured target is in any spatial attitude position, under the unified control of control system, all displacement transducers synchronously obtain the distance value between measurement plane, and send into control system and carry out data processing, by calculating the twodimentional inclination value of measurement plane and measured target.
5. twodimentional inclination angle according to claim 1 noncontact measurement system, is characterized in that: described displacement transducer is the noncontact displacement sensor with Models of Absolute Distance Measurement Based function.
6. displacement transducer according to claim 5, is characterized in that: the minimum number of displacement transducer is 3, and all displacement transducers should be arranged in a plane, but must not be arranged on same straight line.
7. the measurement of dip angle data processing method for abovementioned measuring system, it is characterized in that: for the situation adopting odd number displacement sensor two dimension inclination angle, data processing method of the present invention is: utilize the shift value of each displacement transducer to obtain the 3 d space coordinate of measurement point corresponding on measurement plane with this planimetric position, sensor place, then the threedimensional coordinate of all measurement points on measurement plane is utilized to calculate the plane equation of measurement plane place measurement plane, then the angle of this measurement plane and reference plane is calculated, be the twodimentional inclination value of measured target.
8. data processing method according to claim 7, it is characterized in that: for the situation adopting even number displacement sensor two dimension inclination angle, described data processing method is: the shift value utilizing each displacement transducer on two orthogonal slotted lines respectively, calculates separately the one dimension inclination angle initial value of this rectilinear direction.
9. then utilize the difference of the displacement transducer shift value of another slotted line to revise abovementioned inclination angle initial value, thus twodimentional tilt angle measurement accurately can be obtained.
10. the present invention proposes a kind of flat board of measuring to replace the function of measurement plane, and this measurement flat board adopts light material manufacture, and shape is square, and some reinforcements are settled at back, arrange in tower structure.
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CN106643640A (en) *  20170109  20170510  西安交通大学青岛研究院  Onboard angle correction device and correction method 
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