CN105081957A - Chemical mechanical polishing method for wafer planarization production - Google Patents

Chemical mechanical polishing method for wafer planarization production Download PDF

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CN105081957A
CN105081957A CN 201410203461 CN201410203461A CN105081957A CN 105081957 A CN105081957 A CN 105081957A CN 201410203461 CN201410203461 CN 201410203461 CN 201410203461 A CN201410203461 A CN 201410203461A CN 105081957 A CN105081957 A CN 105081957A
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polishing
platform
wafer
chemical mechanical
amount
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CN 201410203461
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Chinese (zh)
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李杨
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和舰科技(苏州)有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a chemical mechanical polishing method for wafer planarization production. The method comprises the following steps of providing a chemical mechanical polishing machine; putting a wafer to be polished into a loading platform; when the wafer enters into a first polishing platform, using first selection ratio polishing fluid to polish according to scheduled polishing time and polishing amount; when the wafer enters into a second polishing platform, using second selection ratio polishing fluid to polish according to scheduled polishing time and polishing amount, wherein the second selection ratio is larger than the first selection ratio; when the wafer enters into a third polishing platform, using high selection ratio polishing fluid to polish according to scheduled polishing time and polishing amount; washing; conveying the wafer to an unloading platform. Two batches of wafer products are pre-produced, and a corresponding polishing amount is established in an advanced process control system according to the corresponding relation between front amount and rear amount. According to the chemical mechanical polishing method for wafer planarization production provided by the invention, on the premise of ensuring the product quality, the production efficiency of CMP (Chemical Mechanical Polishing) is greatly improved.

Description

一种用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法 A chemical mechanical polishing method of producing a wafer for planarization

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及半导体制造领域,特别涉及一种用于晶圆的浅沟槽隔离区域的平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to semiconductor manufacturing, and more particularly relates to a chemical mechanical polishing method for planarizing a wafer produced by shallow trench isolation region.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 晶圆制造中,随着制程技术的升级、导线与栅极尺寸的缩小,光刻技术对晶圆表面的平坦程度的要求越来越高。 [0002] The wafer manufacturing, as the upgrade process technology, the size of the gate conductor is reduced, the flatness of the photolithography technique requires higher and higher wafer surface. 1995年以后,化学机械研磨(CMP)技术得到了快速发展,大量应用于半导体产业。 Since 1995, chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) technology has been rapid development, widely used in the semiconductor industry. CMP亦称为化学机械抛光,其原理是化学腐蚀作用和机械去除作用相结合的加工技术。 Also known as chemical mechanical polishing CMP, which is the principle chemical corrosion and mechanical removal action combined action processing technology. 化学机械研磨技术综合了化学研磨和机械研磨的优势。 CMP technology combines the advantages of chemical mechanical polishing and grinding. 单纯的化学研磨,表面精度较高,损伤低,完整性好,不容易出现表面/亚表面损伤,但是研磨速率较慢,材料去除效率较低,不能修正表面型面精度,研磨一致性比较差;单纯的机械研磨,研磨一致性好,表面平整度高,研磨效率高,但是容易出现表面层/亚表面层损伤,表面粗糙度值比较低。 Pure chemical polishing, the surface of high precision, low damage, good integrity, surface / subsurface damage does not occur easily, but the polishing rate is slower, less material removal efficiency, accuracy can not be corrected surface profile, relatively poor polishing uniformity ; purely mechanical polishing, polishing consistency, high surface smoothness, high grinding efficiency, but the surface layer / sub-surface damage layer prone to surface roughness is relatively low. 化学机械研磨吸收了两者各自的优点,可以在保证材料去除效率的同时,获得较完美的表面,得到的平整度比单纯使用这两种研磨要高出1-2个数量级,并且可以实现纳米级到原子级的表面粗糙度。 The chemical mechanical polishing absorbed combination of benefits, while ensuring the material removal can be efficiently obtained a more perfect surface flatness than obtained simply using two milled to 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, and can realize nano level to the atomic-scale surface roughness.

[0003] 目前常用的化学机械研磨机,例如8寸厂机型MIRRA3400有3个研磨平台(platen)和4个研磨头(Head),采用的生产方式是研磨平台I和2用于研磨,研磨平台3用于表面清洗(Buffing),这样的研磨方式没有最大限度地提高CMP机台的产出。 [0003] The most commonly used chemical mechanical polishing machine, e.g. 8 inch plant has three models MIRRA3400 grinding table (platen) and four polishing head (Head), used in production is the grinding table I and 2 for polishing, grinding internet 3 for surface cleaning (Buffing), such a grinding method is not to maximize the output of CMP machine.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0004] 针对上述现有技术中存在的问题,本发明的目的是采用3个研磨平台(Platen)用于研磨生产,提高CMP的产能,具体地,本发明提供一种用于晶圆的浅沟槽隔离区域的平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法。 [0004] For the above-described problems of the prior art, an object of the present invention is the use of three grinding table (Platen) for the production of grinding, CMP to improve the productivity, in particular, the present invention provides for a shallow wafer chemical mechanical polishing method planarizing trench isolation region produced.

[0005] 为了实现上述发明目的,本发明采用的技术方案如下: [0005] In order to achieve the above object, the present invention employs the following technical solutions:

[0006] 一种用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法,包括如下步骤: [0006] A chemical mechanical polishing step of flattening the wafer production method, comprising:

[0007] 步骤1:提供一种化学机械研磨机,包括装载平台,第一研磨平台、第二研磨平台、第三研磨平台,卸载平台;每个研磨平台上均设有研磨垫,研磨头; [0007] Step 1: providing a chemical mechanical polishing machine, comprising a loading platform, the first polishing platform, the second polishing platform, the third polishing platform, the unloading platform; has the polishing pad, the polishing each grinding head platform;

[0008] 步骤2:将待研磨的晶圆置入装载平台,启动化学机械研磨机; [0008] Step 2: the wafers to be ground into the loading platform, starts a chemical mechanical polishing machine;

[0009] 步骤3:晶圆进入第一研磨平台,使用第一选择比研磨液根据预定的研磨时间和研磨量进行研磨; [0009] Step 3: wafer enters the first polishing platform polished using a first selection according to a predetermined ratio of the amount of polishing time and polishing the polishing liquid;

[0010] 步骤4:晶圆进入第二研磨平台,使用第一选择比研磨液根据预定的研磨时间和研磨量进行研磨; [0010] Step 4: The wafer enters the second polishing platform polished using a first selection according to a predetermined ratio of the amount of polishing time and polishing the polishing liquid;

[0011] 步骤5:晶圆进入第三研磨平台,使用第二选择比研磨液根据预定的研磨时间和研磨量进行研磨,所述第二选择比大于第一选择比; [0011] Step 5: the third wafer into the polishing surface, a second selection polishing polishing liquid according to a predetermined ratio of the amount of polishing and the polishing time, the second selection ratio is greater than the first selection;

[0012] 步骤6:冲洗; [0012] Step 6: Rinse;

[0013] 步骤7:晶圆转至卸载平台,结束对晶圆化学机械研磨。 [0013] Step 7: Go wafer unloading platform, the end of the chemical mechanical polishing of the wafer.

[0014] 优选地,在上述用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法中,研磨量的建立过程为:通过预先生产两批次的晶圆产品后,根据前量及后量的对应关系在高级制程控制(advance process control)系统中建立起对应的研磨量,其中,研磨量的计算公式为: [0014] Preferably, in the above chemical mechanical polishing for planarizing wafer production process, is the process of establishing the amount of polishing: two batches produced in advance by a wafer product, the corresponding relationship between the amount of a front and a rear volume polishing amount corresponding to the established advanced process control (advance process control) system, wherein the amount of polishing was calculated:

[0015] 研磨量=两批次产品的总研磨量平均值+研磨厚度与目标值之间的差值X厚度修正系数, [0015] The total polishing amount of polishing amount = the average of two batches + X thickness difference between the correction coefficient and the thickness of the polishing target,

[0016] 第一研磨平台与第二研磨平台采用时间控制方式研磨, [0016] The first and second polishing platform polishing platform polished time control,

[0017] 研磨时间的计算公式为: [0017] The polishing time is calculated as:

[0018] 研磨时间=研磨量+化学机械研磨机的研磨率。 [0018] The milling time = + polishing amount of the chemical mechanical polishing polishing machine.

[0019] 优选地,在上述用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法中,第三研磨平台使用固定的时间进行研磨。 [0019] Preferably, in the above method for chemical mechanical planarization polishing production wafer, the third polishing platform polished fixed time.

[0020] 优选地,在上述用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法中,普通选择比研磨液的选择比为0xide:SiN = 3.1〜4:1,高选择比研磨液的选择比为0xide:SiN = 30:1〜35:1ο [0020] Preferably, in the above method for chemical mechanical planarization polishing wafer production, the normal selection ratio of the slurry selectivity 0xide: SiN = 3.1~4: 1, a high selection ratio of the slurry selectivity 0xide: SiN = 30: 1~35: 1ο

[0021] 优选地,在上述用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法中,对研磨垫进行冲洗步骤中,压力设定为:浸润环为2.0磅/平方英寸,内部舱室为常压,上部舱室为真空,外部舱室为常压。 [0021] Preferably, in the above method for chemical mechanical polishing planarization of the wafer produced in the polishing pad rinsing step, the pressure is set to: 2.0 infiltration ring pounds / square inch pressure to the interior chamber, an upper portion of a vacuum chamber, the outer chamber to atmospheric pressure.

[0022] 优选地,在上述用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法中,所述加载平台和卸载平台是同一个平台。 [0022] Preferably, in the above method for chemical mechanical polishing planarization of the wafer produced in the loading platform and the unloading platform are the same platform.

[0023] 本发明提供的用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法,在保证产品质量的前提下,大大提高了化学机械研磨机(CMP)的生产效率。 [0023] The chemical mechanical polishing method of the present invention provides a wafer planarization production, to ensure the quality of products, greatly increasing the production chemical mechanical polishing machine (CMP) efficiency.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0024] 图1为一种使用本发明方法的化学机械研磨机示意图。 [0024] FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a chemical mechanical polishing machine using the method of the present invention.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0025] 为了使本发明的目的、技术方案及优点更加清楚明白,下面结合实施例及附图,对本发明进行进一步详细说明。 [0025] To make the objectives, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent, embodiments in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and the following embodiments, the present invention will be further described in detail. 应当理解,此处所描述的具体实施例仅用以解释本发明,并不用于限定本发明。 It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely used to explain the present invention and are not intended to limit the present invention.

[0026] 化学机械研磨的原理是将晶圆放置在承载体上与一表面承载抛光垫(研磨垫)的旋转工作台之间,同时浸在含有悬浮磨粒、氧化剂、活化剂的酸性或碱性溶液中,晶圆相对于抛光垫(研磨垫)运动,在化学蚀刻与磨削两个材料移除机制交互作用下达成晶圆的平坦化。 [0026] The principle of the chemical mechanical polishing of the wafer is placed on a rotating table between the carrier body a polishing pad (polishing pad) with a surface of the carrier, while immersed in a suspension comprising abrasive grains, an oxidizing agent, an acidic or alkaline activator solution, the wafer relative to the polishing pad (polishing pad) movement, to achieve planarization of the wafer in two chemical etching material removal mechanism of the grinding interaction.

[0027] 通常,化学机械研磨设备主要由几个部分组成,一是负责研磨晶圆表面的研磨平台,另一部分是负责抓住待磨晶圆的握柄(研磨垫调节器)。 [0027] Generally, a chemical mechanical polishing apparatus is mainly composed of several parts, one responsible for the polishing platform polished wafer surface, is responsible for the other part to be ground to seize the handle wafer (polishing pad conditioner). 其中,握柄是利用抽真空的方式,吸附待磨晶圆的背面,然后向下压在铺有一层研磨垫的研磨平台上,进行平坦化过程。 Wherein the grip manner using vacuum adsorption of the wafer back surface to be ground, and then press down on the polishing pad covered with a layer of a polishing platen, a planarization process. 当CMP进行的时候,研磨平台会与握柄顺着同一方向旋转,同时,提供研磨过程中化学反应的研磨液由一条管线输送到系统中,不断滴在研磨垫上,帮助研磨。 When CMP is performed, polishing platforms along the same direction of rotation of the handle, while providing a polishing liquid during polishing by a chemical reaction in a conveying line to the system dropwise continuously the polishing pad, the polishing help.

[0028] 如图1所示,本发明实施例中所使用的化学机械研磨机包括/卸载平台(Load/Unload Stat1n),研磨平台(Polishing Platen),研磨平台间冲洗装置(InterplatenCleaning),研磨液输送装置(Slurry Delivery),结束点检测(End Point Detect1n),盒式输入/输出(Cassette Input/output)。 [0028] As shown, the embodiment of the present invention used in a chemical mechanical polishing machine 1 comprises / unloading platform (Load / Unload Stat1n), the grinding table (Polishing Platen), between the flushing means the grinding table (InterplatenCleaning), a polishing solution conveying means (Slurry delivery), end point detection (end point Detect1n), cassette input / output (cassette input / output). 其中研磨平台包括第一研磨平台、第二研磨平台、第三研磨平台;每个研磨平台上均设有研磨垫(Pad),研磨垫调节器(Pad Wherein the platform comprises a first polishing platform polished, the second polishing platform, the third polishing platen; each polishing platen has a polishing pad (Pad), the polishing pad conditioner (Pad

Condit1ner)、研磨头(Head)。 Condit1ner), a polishing head (Head). 其中,研磨垫米用生产型研磨垫-Rodel IClOOOwindow Wherein the polishing pad pad rice production triturated with -Rodel IClOOOwindow

pad。 pad.

[0029] 在机械研磨过程中,首先将待研磨的晶圆置入装载平台,启动化学机械研磨机; [0029] In the mechanical polishing process, the wafer is first to be ground into the loading platform, starts a chemical mechanical polishing machine;

[0030] 然后,晶圆进入第一研磨平台,使用第一选择比研磨液根据预定的研磨时间和研磨量进行研磨;晶圆进入第二研磨平台,使用第一选择比研磨液根据预定的研磨时间和研磨量进行研磨;晶圆进入第三研磨平台,使用第二研磨液根据预定的研磨时间和研磨量进行研磨;所述第二选择比大于第一选择比; [0030] Then, the wafer enters the first polishing platform polished using a first selection according to a predetermined ratio of the polishing liquid and the polishing amount of polishing time; wafer enters the second polishing platform, using a first selection according to a predetermined ratio of fluid grinding polishing grinding and polishing amount of time; the third wafer into the polishing surface, polishing using a second polishing liquid according to a predetermined amount of grinding and polishing time; the second selection ratio is greater than the first selection;

[0031] 其中,研磨量的建立过程为:通过预先生产两批次的晶圆产品后,根据前量及后量的对应关系在高级制程控制(advance process control)系统中建立起对应的研磨量,其中,研磨量的计算公式为: [0031] wherein, during the grinding amount is established: by previously produced product after two batches of wafers, caused to correspond to the advanced process control (advance process control) system based on the correspondence before and after the amount of the amount of polishing amount wherein the amount of polishing is calculated as:

[0032] 研磨量=两批次产品的总研磨量平均值+研磨厚度与目标值之间的差值X厚度修正系数, [0032] The total polishing amount of polishing amount = the average of two batches + X thickness difference between the correction coefficient and the thickness of the polishing target,

[0033] 研磨时间的计算公式为: [0033] The polishing time is calculated as:

[0034] 第一研磨平台与第二研磨平台采用时间控制方式研磨,研磨时间=研磨量+化学机械研磨机的研磨率。 [0034] The first and second polishing platform polished platform control polishing time, the polishing time = + polishing amount of the chemical mechanical polishing polishing machine. 化学机械研磨机的研磨率是指第一平台和第二平台单位时间的研磨量,因为第一平台和第二平台研磨程式一致,所以,每个平台的研磨时间按总时间平均分配。 CMP polishing rate refers to the amount of grinding machine of the first and second platforms unit time, since the first and second platforms consistent grinding program, so that each platform milling time average distribution of the total time.

[0035] 第三研磨平台使用固定的时间进行研磨。 [0035] The third polishing platform polished fixed time.

[0036] 此外,研磨液(Slurry)的选择为:普通选择比研磨液采用Cabot SS25E研磨液,选择比为0xide:SiN = 3:1〜4:1 ;高选择比研磨液采用Dupont STI2100研磨液,选择比为Oxide: SiN = 30:1 〜35:1。 [0036] Further, the selection polishing liquid (Slurry) is: opt Cabot SS25E ordinary polishing liquid polishing liquid ratio, selectivity is 0xide: SiN = 3: 1~4: 1; opt Dupont STI2100 high polishing liquid polishing liquid ratio , selectivity of Oxide: SiN = 30: 1 ~35: 1.

[0037] 最后,进行冲洗步骤,冲洗压力设定为:浸润环(Ret Ring)为2.0磅/平方英寸(psi),内部舱室(Internal Chamber)为常压(Vent),上部舱室(Upper Chamber)为真空(Vacuum),外部舱室(External Chamber)为常压(Vent)。 [0037] Finally, the step of rinsing, flushing pressure set: infiltration ring (Ret Ring) 2.0 lb / square inch (PSI), an internal chamber (Internal Chamber) atmospheric pressure (Vent), an upper compartment (Upper Chamber) vacuum (vacuum), outer chamber (external Chamber) atmospheric pressure (Vent). 冲洗后晶圆转至卸载平台,结束对晶圆的化学机械研磨。 After washing the wafer unloading platforms go, the end of the chemical mechanical polishing of wafers.

[0038] 经生产对比,使用原有的生产方式生产的产品厚度平均值为920埃,变异数为8.5,经过本发明改进后的生产方式生产的产品厚度为919埃,变异数为7.6,基本上与改进前的产品结果一致,且提高了生产效率,之前两个步骤研磨,现在可以在一个步骤完成,生产时间为改进前的一半。 [0038] production by contrast, the average thickness of the product using the existing production methods for the production of 920 angstroms, 8.5 variance, after the production of the present invention is to improve production of products having a thickness of 919 angstroms, 7.6 variance, substantially results consistent with the product and improvement, and improve production efficiency, the polishing step before the two can now be done in one step, before half the production time is improved.

[0039] 以上所述实施例仅表达了本发明的实施方式,其描述较为具体和详细,但并不能因此而理解为对本发明专利范围的限制。 [0039] The above embodiments are only expressed embodiment of the present invention, and detailed description thereof is more specific, but can not therefore be understood as limiting the scope of the present invention. 应当指出的是,对于本领域的普通技术人员来说,在不脱离本发明构思的前提下,还可以做出若干变形和改进,这些都属于本发明的保护范围。 It should be noted that those of ordinary skill in the art, without departing from the spirit of the present invention, can make various changes and modifications, which fall within the protection scope of the present invention. 因此,本发明专利的保护范围应以所附权利要求为准。 Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention should be subject to the appended claims.

Claims (6)

  1. 1.一种用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤: 步骤1:提供一种化学机械研磨机,包括装载平台,第一研磨平台、第二研磨平台、第三研磨平台,卸载平台;每个研磨平台上均设有研磨垫,研磨头; 步骤2:将待研磨的晶圆置入装载平台,启动化学机械研磨机; 步骤3:晶圆进入第一研磨平台,使用第一选择比研磨液根据预定的研磨时间和研磨量进行研磨; 步骤4:晶圆进入第二研磨平台,使用第一选择比研磨液根据预定的研磨时间和研磨量进行研磨; 步骤5:晶圆进入第三研磨平台,使用第二选择比研磨液根据预定的研磨时间和研磨量进行研磨,所述第二选择比大于第一选择比; 步骤6:冲洗; 步骤7:晶圆转至卸载平台,结束对晶圆的化学机械研磨。 1. A chemical mechanical polishing method for the production of wafer planarization, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: Step 1: providing a chemical mechanical polishing machine, comprising a loading platform, the first polishing platform, the second polishing platform, a third polishing platform, the unloading platform; has the polishing pad, the polishing head of each polishing platen; step 2: the wafers to be ground into the loading platform, starts a chemical mechanical polishing machine; step 3: entering the first wafer polishing platen, using a first selection according to a predetermined ratio of the polishing liquid and the polishing time of the abrasive grinding; step 4: a wafer enters the second polishing platform polished using a first selection according to a predetermined ratio of the polishing liquid and the polishing amount of polishing time; step 5: the third wafer into the polishing surface, a second selection polishing liquid according to a predetermined ratio of the amount of grinding and polishing the polishing time, the second selection ratio is greater than the first selection; step 6: rinse; step 7: crystal go round unloading platform, the end of the chemical mechanical polishing of wafers.
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法,其特征在于,研磨量的建立过程为:通过预先生产两批次的晶圆产品后,根据前量及后量的对应关系在高级制程控制系统中建立起对应的研磨量,其中,研磨量的计算公式为: 研磨量=两批次产品的总研磨量平均值+研磨厚度与目标值之间的差值X厚度修正系数, 第一研磨平台与第二研磨平台采用时间控制方式研磨, 研磨时间的计算公式为: 研磨时间=研磨量+化学机械研磨机的研磨率。 The wafer of claim 1 for chemical mechanical polishing method as claimed in claim planarization produced, wherein, during the grinding amount is established: by previously produced product after two batches of wafers, according to the amount of the front and rear establishing a corresponding relationship between an amount corresponding to the amount of polishing in the advanced process control system, wherein, calculated as the amount of polishing: polishing amount of polishing amount = total mean + two batches grinding thickness and the difference between the target value X thickness correction factor, the first platform and the second polishing time control polishing platform polished, polishing time is calculated as: milling time = + polishing amount of the chemical mechanical polishing polishing machine.
  3. 3.根据权利要求2所述的用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法,其特征在于,第三研磨平台使用固定的时间进行研磨。 3. The wafer according to claim 2, the method for producing the chemical mechanical polishing planarization, characterized in that the third polishing platform polished fixed time.
  4. 4.根据权利要求1所述的用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法,其特征在于,普通选择比研磨液的选择比为Oxide:SiN = 3.1〜4:1,高选择比研磨液的选择比为Oxide: SiN = 30:1 〜35:1。 The wafer according to claim 1 a process for producing a chemical mechanical polishing planarization, characterized in that the common selection ratio selection ratio of the slurry Oxide: SiN = 3.1~4: 1, a high selectivity polishing liquid selection ratio Oxide: SiN = 30: 1 ~35: 1.
  5. 5.根据权利要求1所述的用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法,其特征在于,对研磨垫进行冲洗步骤中,压力设定为:浸润环为2.0磅/平方英寸,内部舱室为常压,上部舱室为真空,外部舱室为常压。 The wafer according to claim 1 a process for producing a chemical mechanical polishing planarization, wherein the polishing pad rinsing step, the pressure is set to: 2.0 infiltration ring lbs / square inch, internal compartment atmospheric pressure, the upper portion of a vacuum chamber, the outer chamber to atmospheric pressure.
  6. 6.根据权利要求1所述的用于晶圆平坦化生产的化学机械研磨方法,其特征在于,所述加载平台和卸载平台是同一个平台。 6. The wafer according to claim 1 a process for producing a chemical mechanical polishing planarization, wherein the loading platform and the unloading platform are the same platform.
CN 201410203461 2014-05-14 2014-05-14 Chemical mechanical polishing method for wafer planarization production CN105081957A (en)

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WO2001072472A2 (en) * 2000-03-27 2001-10-04 Applied Materials, Inc. Carrier head with a flexible membrane having parts made with different elastomers
CN1540741A (en) * 2003-04-24 2004-10-27 台湾积体电路制造股份有限公司 Method for making shallow trench isolation even
CN1670925A (en) * 2004-03-19 2005-09-21 台湾积体电路制造股份有限公司 CMP process control method
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