CN105071760A - Solar energy dual-axis tracking system - Google Patents

Solar energy dual-axis tracking system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105071760A
CN105071760A CN201510567704.1A CN201510567704A CN105071760A CN 105071760 A CN105071760 A CN 105071760A CN 201510567704 A CN201510567704 A CN 201510567704A CN 105071760 A CN105071760 A CN 105071760A
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China
Prior art keywords
module
tracking
storage battery
chip microcomputer
azimuth
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Pending
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CN201510567704.1A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
李晓
刘磊
刘启博
韩寿星
李景诗
李卞文
韩绍燕
刘春才
金峰
曲秀娥
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Xiajin Power Supply Co of State Grid Shandong Electric Power Co Ltd
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Xiajin Power Supply Co of State Grid Shandong Electric Power Co Ltd
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Application filed by Xiajin Power Supply Co of State Grid Shandong Electric Power Co Ltd filed Critical Xiajin Power Supply Co of State Grid Shandong Electric Power Co Ltd
Priority to CN201510567704.1A priority Critical patent/CN105071760A/en
Publication of CN105071760A publication Critical patent/CN105071760A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy

Abstract

The invention discloses a solar energy dual-axis tracking system and belongs to the solar energy technical field. The solar energy dual-axis tracking system includes a tracking rake, a photovoltaic cell panel, a storage battery, an elevating angle adjusting motor, an azimuth angle adjusting motor and a control module, wherein the control module includes a single-chip microcomputer, a tracking module and a charging and discharging module, wherein the tracking module includes a motor driving module and a light intensity detection module, and the charging and discharging module includes a switch module and a detection unit module, wherein the detection unit module includes a capacity and current detection module and a temperature detection module which are used for protecting the service life of the storage battery, and an extreme position detection module which protects the operation of the system. With the solar energy dual-axis tracking system adopted, the tracking for the sun can be accomplished, power generation capacity can be increased, and the charge and discharge frequency of the storage battery can be decreased, and the problems of overcharge and over-discharge of the storage battery can be avoided, and the service life of the storage battery can be guaranteed, and the electric energy loss of the tracking system can be reduced.

Description

A kind of solar biaxial tracking system
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of solar, specifically a kind of solar biaxial tracking system.
Background technology
The most general form of Solar use has two kinds, and one is, by opto-electronic conversion, solar energy is changed into electric energy, and another kind is, by heat collector, solar energy is converted to heat energy.Adopt photovoltaic generating system to be a kind of method utilizing solar energy, but its generating efficiency is low, cost of electricity-generating is relatively high, this remains the key factor of its large-scale application of restriction.Before not there is efficient photovoltaic cell material, development has solar condenser and the automatic tracking system of practical value, realizes low cost, be then one of main path promoting solar energy extensive use.
The solar automatic tracking system used at present mainly contains two kinds, and one is single shaft automatic tracking system, can improve energy output about 20%; Another kind is double-shaft auto-tracking system, can improve energy output about 35%.But existing solar automatic tracking system major part only has the function to automatic sun tracking, there is following problem in actual use:
1) existing solar tracking system is primarily of the operation power supply of storage battery as system, and discharge and recharge repeatedly reduces the useful life of storage battery.
2) existing solar tracking system lacks the protection to storage battery, cannot solve the overcharging of storage battery, cross and put problem.
3) existing solar tracking system carries out real-time tracking to the sun, but the speed of service of the sun is comparatively slow, and photovoltaic battery panel energy conversion efficiency change in certain illumination angle is little, and always running of tracking system, causes certain electric energy loss.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of solar biaxial tracking system, it can complete the tracking to the sun, improve energy output, the discharge and recharge number of times of storage battery can be reduced, the overcharging of storage battery can be avoided, cross and put problem, the useful life of storage battery can be ensured, the electric energy loss of tracking system can be reduced.
The present invention for achieving the above object, is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of solar biaxial tracking system, comprise tracking frame, photovoltaic battery panel, storage battery, elevation angle adjustment motor, azimuth adjustment motor and control module, described control module comprises single-chip microcomputer, tracking module and charge-discharge modules, described tracking module comprises motor drive module and light-intensity test module, described motor drive module comprises photoelectric isolation module, to enjoy a double blessing bridge driver module and outside bridge road module, described motor drive module connects elevation angle adjustment motor, azimuth adjustment motor and single-chip microcomputer, described light-intensity test module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, in described light-intensity test module, photo resistance is set, described photo resistance is fixed on photovoltaic battery panel, described charge-discharge modules comprises switch module and detecting unit module, described switch module comprises charging module, voltage detection module and power circuit block, in described charging module, MOSFET is set, described charging module connects photovoltaic battery panel and storage battery, described voltage detection module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, one end of described power circuit block connects photovoltaic battery panel and storage battery simultaneously and provides D.C. regulated power supply for the operation of solar biaxial tracking system, described power circuit block comprises polarity protection module, filter circuit module and voltage stabilizing circuit module, described detecting unit module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, described detecting unit module comprises capacity and the current detection module of the protection life of storage battery, the extreme position detection module that temperature detecting module and protection system are run.
Setting data outlet selector CD4501 in described light-intensity test module, described CD4501 is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, and described CD4501 carries out selection collection to light intensity detection circuit.
Described control module arranges human-machine interface module, and described human-machine interface module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, and described human-machine interface module comprises manual adjustments key-press module, numeral method module, sets and check key-press module, indicating lamp module and alarm module.
Described azimuth adjustment motor is fixed on to be followed the tracks of in frame, described tracking frame arranges azimuth axis, described azimuth axis is rotationally connected with tracking frame, described azimuth adjustment motor is connected by gear drive with azimuth axis, described azimuth axis arranges supporting seat, described elevation angle adjustment motor is fixed on supporting seat, described supporting seat arranges pitch axis, described pitch axis and supporting seat are rotationally connected, described elevation angle adjustment motor is connected by Worm Wheel System with pitch axis, described azimuth axis arranges bracing frame, described photovoltaic battery panel is threaded with bracing frame.
Contrast prior art, beneficial effect of the present invention is:
1, system of the present invention comprises elevation angle adjustment motor, azimuth adjustment motor and control module, tracking module in control module can control the elevation angle of elevation angle adjustment motor adjustment photovoltaic battery panel by drive circuit according to illumination, the azimuth of controlling party parallactic angle adjustment motor adjustment photovoltaic battery panel, can make illumination vertical irradiation on photovoltaic battery panel, to solar tracking, the energy output of photovoltaic battery panel can be improved.
2, charge-discharge modules of the present invention comprises switch module, described switch module comprises charging module, voltage detection module and power circuit block, voltage detection module can to detect the voltage of photovoltaic battery panel and the voltage of storage battery according to opening of MOSFET and pass the signal along to single-chip microcomputer with pinch off, when photovoltaic cell voltage is higher than storage battery, and storage battery is not when overcharging, MOSFET in charging circuit is operated in crossing current district, and photovoltaic battery panel is directly to system power supply; When darkness or cloudy day, storage battery, to system power supply, can reduce the discharge and recharge number of times of storage battery, ensures the useful life of storage battery.
3, power circuit block of the present invention comprises polarity protection module, filter circuit module and voltage stabilizing circuit module, can provide stable D.C. regulated power supply for operation of the present invention, can ensure normal operation of the present invention.
4, motor drive module of the present invention comprise photoelectric isolation module, enjoy a double blessing bridge driver module and outside bridge road module, described motor drive module connects elevation angle adjustment motor, azimuth adjustment motor and single-chip microcomputer, photoelectric isolation module adopts photoelectric coupled device can isolate the output of the output of single-chip microcomputer and bridge driver module of enjoying a double blessing, interference and noise can be prevented, performance is more stable, and motor drive module can carry out speed governing to motor, outside bridge road module is that inductive load is necessary, can improve conveyance capacity.
5, light-intensity test module of the present invention can carry out beam intensity ratio comparatively, judge the position of the sun, the signal transmission that the photo resistance on photovoltaic battery panel can be collected is to single-chip microcomputer, adjusted the angle of photovoltaic battery panel by Single-chip Controlling motor drive module, can according to position of sun automatically adjust photovoltaic battery panel towards.
6, capacity of the present invention and current detection module, can detect the capacity of storage battery, the overcharging of storage battery can be prevented, cross and put, the discharge and recharge controlling storage battery can be coordinated with switching circuit, when storage battery is full of, pass the signal along to single-chip microcomputer, Single-chip Controlling switching circuit stops charging a battery, to the detection of electric current be in order to detect photovoltaic battery panel to the charging current of storage battery and night or overcast and rainy time storage battery discharging current, avoid because charging and discharging currents is excessive or the too small life of storage battery caused reduces.
7, extreme position detection module of the present invention, can judge the extreme position of photovoltaic battery panel, can reset to system, can limit the amplitude that photovoltaic battery panel follows the tracks of solar azimuth and elevation angle, ensure reliability service of the present invention.
8, setting data outlet selector CD4501 in described light-intensity test module, described CD4501 is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, and described CD4501 carries out selection collection to light intensity detection circuit.Because in single-chip microcomputer, A/D acquisition channel is limited, utilize CD4501 can reduce the usage quantity of single-chip microcomputer, structure is simple, and to the signal lag collection on light intensity detection circuit, can reduce the energy consumption of system under the prerequisite of energy output meeting photovoltaic battery panel.
9, described control module arranges human-machine interface module, described human-machine interface module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, and described human-machine interface module comprises manual adjustments key-press module, numeral method module, sets and check key-press module, indicating lamp module and alarm module.Can facilitate succinct checking or arrange running status of the present invention by human-machine interface module, manual adjustments key-press module can control more flexibly to solar tracking system, and system can be made to enter completely manual pattern.Numeral method module and indicating lamp module can the running statuses of display system, and alarm module can be reported to the police when system malfunctions, is convenient to attendant's Timeliness coverage and safeguards.
10, described azimuth adjustment motor is fixed on to be followed the tracks of in frame, described tracking frame arranges azimuth axis, described azimuth axis is rotationally connected with tracking frame, described azimuth adjustment motor is connected by gear drive with azimuth axis, described azimuth axis arranges supporting seat, described elevation angle adjustment motor is fixed on supporting seat, described supporting seat arranges pitch axis, described pitch axis and supporting seat are rotationally connected, described elevation angle adjustment motor is connected by Worm Wheel System with pitch axis, described azimuth axis arranges bracing frame, described photovoltaic battery panel is threaded with bracing frame.Can for the invention provides support structure, gear drive and Worm Wheel System can carry out precision drive, can ensure accurate operation of the present invention.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Accompanying drawing 1 is the block diagram of tracking module of the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 2 is block diagrams of charge-discharge modules of the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 3 is circuit diagrams of motor drive module in embodiment;
Accompanying drawing 4 is circuit diagrams of light-intensity test module in embodiment;
Accompanying drawing 5 is circuit diagrams of embodiment breaker in middle module;
Accompanying drawing 6 is circuit diagrams of capacity and current detection module in embodiment;
Accompanying drawing 7 is circuit diagrams of extreme position detection module in embodiment;
Accompanying drawing 8 is circuit diagrams of manual adjustments key-press module in embodiment;
Accompanying drawing 9 is circuit diagrams of numeral method module;
Accompanying drawing 10 is circuit diagrams that in embodiment, key-press module is checked in setting;
Accompanying drawing 11 is circuit diagrams of indicating lamp module in embodiment;
Accompanying drawing 12 is circuit diagrams of alarm module in embodiment;
Accompanying drawing 13 is structural representations of tracking frame of the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 14 is the control main program flow charts in embodiment;
Accompanying drawing 15 is that in embodiment, A/D gathers subroutine flow chart;
Accompanying drawing 16 is timer subroutine flow charts in embodiment;
Accompanying drawing 17 is Electric Machine Control subroutine flow charts in embodiment.
Attached number in the figure: 1, follow the tracks of frame; 2, photovoltaic battery panel; 3, storage battery; 4, elevation angle adjustment motor; 5, azimuth adjustment motor; 6, control module; 7, azimuth axis; 8, supporting seat; 9, pitch axis; 10, bracing frame.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, set forth the present invention further.Should be understood that these embodiments are only not used in for illustration of the present invention to limit the scope of the invention.In addition should be understood that those skilled in the art can make various changes or modifications the present invention, and these equivalent form of values fall within the application's appended claims limited range equally after the content of having read the present invention's instruction.
Of the present invention is a kind of solar biaxial tracking system, comprise and follow the tracks of frame 1, photovoltaic battery panel 2, storage battery 3, elevation angle adjustment motor 4, azimuth adjustment motor 5 and control module 6, described control module 6 comprises single-chip microcomputer, tracking module and charge-discharge modules, tracking module can control the elevation angle of elevation angle adjustment motor adjustment photovoltaic battery panel by drive circuit according to illumination, the azimuth of controlling party parallactic angle adjustment motor adjustment photovoltaic battery panel, can make illumination vertical irradiation on photovoltaic battery panel, can to solar tracking, improve the energy output of photovoltaic battery panel.Described tracking module comprises motor drive module and light-intensity test module, described motor drive module comprises photoelectric isolation module, to enjoy a double blessing bridge driver module and outside bridge road module, described motor drive module connects elevation angle adjustment motor, azimuth adjustment motor and single-chip microcomputer, photoelectric isolation module adopts photoelectric coupled device can isolate the output of the output of single-chip microcomputer and bridge driver module of enjoying a double blessing, interference and noise can be prevented, performance is more stable, and motor drive module can carry out speed governing to motor, outside bridge road module is that inductive load is necessary, conveyance capacity can be improved.Described light-intensity test module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, in described light-intensity test module, photo resistance is set, described photo resistance is fixed on photovoltaic battery panel, light-intensity test module can carry out beam intensity ratio comparatively, judge the position of the sun, the signal transmission that the photo resistance on photovoltaic battery panel can be collected, to single-chip microcomputer, is adjusted the angle of photovoltaic battery panel by Single-chip Controlling motor drive module, can according to position of sun automatically adjust photovoltaic battery panel towards.Described charge-discharge modules comprises switch module and detecting unit module, described switch module comprises charging module, voltage detection module and power circuit block, in described charging module, MOSFET is set, described charging module connects photovoltaic battery panel and storage battery, described voltage detection module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, voltage detection module can to detect the voltage of photovoltaic battery panel and the voltage of storage battery according to opening of MOSFET and pass the signal along to single-chip microcomputer with pinch off, when photovoltaic cell voltage is higher than storage battery, and storage battery is not when overcharging, MOSFET in charging circuit is operated in crossing current district, photovoltaic battery panel is directly to system power supply, when darkness or cloudy day, storage battery, to system power supply, can reduce the discharge and recharge number of times of storage battery, ensures the useful life of storage battery.One end of described power circuit block connects photovoltaic battery panel and storage battery simultaneously and provides D.C. regulated power supply for the operation of solar biaxial tracking system; described power circuit block comprises polarity protection module, filter circuit module and voltage stabilizing circuit module; stable D.C. regulated power supply can be provided for operation of the present invention, normal operation of the present invention can be ensured.Described detecting unit module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, and described detecting unit module comprises the capacity of the protection life of storage battery and the extreme position detection module of current detection module, temperature detecting module and protection system operation.Capacity and current detection module can detect the capacity of storage battery, the overcharging of storage battery can be prevented, cross and put, the discharge and recharge controlling storage battery can be coordinated with switching circuit, when storage battery is full of, pass the signal along to single-chip microcomputer, Single-chip Controlling switching circuit stops charging a battery, to the detection of electric current be in order to detect photovoltaic battery panel to the charging current of storage battery and night or overcast and rainy time storage battery discharging current, avoid because charging and discharging currents is excessive or the too small life of storage battery caused reduces.Extreme position detection module, can judge the extreme position of photovoltaic battery panel, can reset to system, can limit the amplitude that photovoltaic battery panel follows the tracks of solar azimuth and elevation angle, ensure reliability service of the present invention.Single-chip microcomputer of the present invention is controller, elevation angle adjustment motor, azimuth adjustment motor and motor drive module are actuator, and photovoltaic battery panel is controlled device, and each detecting unit is feedback element, they constitute closed-loop control system, have the advantages that antijamming capability is strong.
In order to reduce the energy consumption of system, setting data outlet selector CD4501 in described light-intensity test module, described CD4501 is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, and described CD4501 carries out selection collection to light intensity detection circuit.Because in single-chip microcomputer, A/D acquisition channel is limited, utilize CD4501 can reduce the usage quantity of single-chip microcomputer, structure is simple, and to the signal lag collection on light intensity detection circuit, can reduce the energy consumption of system under the prerequisite of energy output meeting photovoltaic battery panel.
For the ease of man-machine interaction, described control module arranges human-machine interface module, described human-machine interface module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, and described human-machine interface module comprises manual adjustments key-press module, numeral method module, sets and check key-press module, indicating lamp module and alarm module.Can facilitate succinct checking or arrange running status of the present invention by human-machine interface module, manual adjustments key-press module can control more flexibly to solar tracking system, and system can be made to enter completely manual pattern.Numeral method module and indicating lamp module can the running statuses of display system, and alarm module can be reported to the police when system malfunctions, is convenient to attendant's Timeliness coverage and safeguards.
In order to ensure accurate operation of the present invention, described azimuth adjustment motor 5 is fixed on to be followed the tracks of in frame 1, described tracking frame 1 arranges azimuth axis 7, described azimuth axis 7 is rotationally connected with tracking frame 1, described azimuth adjustment motor 5 is connected by gear drive with azimuth axis 7, described azimuth axis 7 arranges supporting seat 8, described elevation angle adjustment motor 4 is fixed on supporting seat 8, described supporting seat 8 arranges pitch axis 9, described pitch axis 9 is rotationally connected with supporting seat 8, described elevation angle adjustment motor 4 is connected by Worm Wheel System with pitch axis 9, described azimuth axis 7 arranges bracing frame 10, described photovoltaic battery panel 2 is threaded with bracing frame 10.Can for the invention provides support structure, gear drive and Worm Wheel System can carry out precision drive, can ensure accurate operation of the present invention.
The present invention in use, after being installed by native system, by control program typing single-chip microcomputer, can utilize the closed-loop control system of control module automatically to run native system, also manual mode can be adopted to run by the manual adjustments key-press module of human-machine interface module.
Embodiment: of the present invention is a kind of solar biaxial tracking system, comprises and follows the tracks of frame, photovoltaic battery panel, storage battery, elevation angle adjustment motor, azimuth adjustment motor and control module.Described storage battery and control module can be fixed on follows the tracks of in frame, also can be placed in control room, and is connected with control module photovoltaic battery panel, storage battery, elevation angle adjustment motor, azimuth adjustment motor by wire.
Described azimuth adjustment motor is fixed on to be followed the tracks of in frame, described tracking frame arranges azimuth axis, described azimuth axis is rotationally connected with tracking frame, described azimuth adjustment motor is connected by gear drive with azimuth axis, described azimuth axis arranges supporting seat, described elevation angle adjustment motor is fixed on supporting seat, described supporting seat arranges pitch axis, described pitch axis and supporting seat are rotationally connected, described elevation angle adjustment motor is connected by Worm Wheel System with pitch axis, described azimuth axis arranges bracing frame, described photovoltaic battery panel is threaded with bracing frame, said structure can for the invention provides support structure, gear drive and Worm Wheel System can carry out precision drive, accurate operation of the present invention can be ensured.
Described control module comprises single-chip microcomputer, tracking module and charge-discharge modules, tracking module can control the elevation angle of elevation angle adjustment motor adjustment photovoltaic battery panel by drive circuit according to illumination, the azimuth of controlling party parallactic angle adjustment motor adjustment photovoltaic battery panel, can make illumination vertical irradiation on photovoltaic battery panel, to solar tracking, the energy output of photovoltaic battery panel can be improved.
Described tracking module comprises motor drive module and light-intensity test module, described motor drive module comprises photoelectric isolation module, to enjoy a double blessing bridge driver module and outside bridge road module, described motor drive module connects elevation angle adjustment motor, azimuth adjustment motor and single-chip microcomputer, bridge driver module of enjoying a double blessing selects L298, photoelectric isolation module adopts photoelectric coupled device can isolate the output of the output of single-chip microcomputer and L298, interference and noise can be prevented, performance is more stable, and motor drive module also can carry out speed governing to motor, the bridge of enjoying a double blessing of L298 inside can complete the bi-directional drive to two motors, outside bridge road is that inductive load is necessary, conveyance capacity can be improved.Control solar azimuth, be control axis of orientation by direct current azimuth adjustment motor M 1 to realize, L298 drives by its logic function, can complete the rotating of motor.Because L298 is connected by photoelectrical coupler with one-chip machine port, so the level of L298 port is contrary with the level of single-chip microcomputer.Namely RD3=0, RD4=0, RD5=1 motor rotates forward; RD3=0, RD4=1, RD5=0 motor reversal; RD3=1 motor stops.Control sun altitude, be control to face upward by direct current elevation angle adjustment motor M 2 axle realization of bowing, its bi-directional drive principle drives identical with axis of orientation.Namely RC0=0, RD6=0, RD7=1 motor rotates forward; RC0=0, RD6=1, RD7=0 motor reversal; RC0=1 motor stops.
Described light-intensity test module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, in described light-intensity test module, photo resistance is set, photo resistance highly sensitive, accurately can judge the position of the sun, described photo resistance is fixed on photovoltaic battery panel, light-intensity test module can carry out beam intensity ratio comparatively, judge the position of the sun, the signal transmission that the photo resistance on photovoltaic battery panel can be collected is to single-chip microcomputer, adjusted the angle of photovoltaic battery panel by Single-chip Controlling motor drive module, can according to position of sun automatically adjust photovoltaic battery panel towards.
The testing circuit of described light-intensity test module adopts three-wire system connection, described testing circuit comprises 5 azimuth, tunnel testing circuits and 3 tunnel elevation angle testing circuits, because in single-chip microcomputer, A/D acquisition channel is limited, in order to use an all parameter of microprocessor detect, again because light intensity detection circuit has 8 tunnels altogether, therefore select the data outlet selector CD4501 timesharing of list 8 passage to carry out selection collection to 8 road light intensity detection circuits, R35 in light-intensity test modular circuit, R36, R37, R38, R39 represents the photo resistance that azimuth is detected, evenly be fixed on the length direction of photovoltaic battery panel, wherein R37 is positioned at the centre position of the length of photovoltaic battery panel, R32, R33, R34 are the photo resistance that elevation angle detects, and be evenly fixed on the Width of photovoltaic battery panel, wherein R33 is positioned at the centre position of the width of photovoltaic battery panel.The components and parts that 8 shunt of described light intensity detection circuit adopt are identical, and wherein in a testing circuit, R30, R31 are fixing 2K resistance, and R39 is photo resistance, and test point connects the passage 0 (X0) of CD4501.R30 plays dividing potential drop effect, and when solar radiant energy strengthens, photo resistance resistance diminishes, and its terminal voltage reduces, and test point voltage reduces, and the voltage at corresponding R30 two ends increases, and R31 ensure that and detects voltage higher than 2.5V, is convenient to detect.The data outlet selector CD4501BC of single 8 passages, has three binary system control inputs, A, B and C, an enable input/EN.Three binary system control inputs are used for selecting input channel 0 (X0) to be connected to passage 7 (X7) with output channel X.And CD4501 to the signal lag collection on light intensity detection circuit, can reduce the use of single-chip microcomputer, the energy consumption of system can be reduced under the prerequisite of energy output meeting photovoltaic battery panel.
Described charge-discharge modules comprises switch module and detecting unit module, described switch module comprises charging module, voltage detection module and power circuit block, in described charging module, MOSFET is set, described charging module connects photovoltaic battery panel and storage battery, and when charging, MOSFET forms conducting channel, photovoltaic battery panel and storage battery form loop, there is pressure reduction between its grid source, gate source voltage equals the voltage of voltage stabilizing didoe, i.e. U gS=U dZ1, after voltage stabilizing didoe and resistance R6 connect and triode QN2 in parallel and then connect with resistance R7 and receive on 9V power supply, there is pressure reduction between grid source and QN2 is ended, QN2 ends and must ensure that voltage between its base stage and emitter is very little or be zero, and namely QP1 ends.When the RC2 of single-chip microcomputer is high level, QP1 ends, and 9V power supply is by R7, R6 and voltage-stabiliser tube, and voltage-stabiliser tube reverse breakdown, carries out voltage stabilizing to MOSFET grid source and make it form certain conducting channel.If want MOSFET pinch off, QP1 and QN2 is operated in saturation region, and namely the RC2 of single-chip microcomputer is low level, and MOSFET gate source voltage is very little, can not form conducting channel, is in pinch off state, and photovoltaic battery panel and storage battery do not constitute loop.Only have when cell plate voltage is greater than accumulator voltage, just can charge, in order to automatic control, the voltage of photovoltaic battery panel and storage battery is detected by voltage detection module, when MOSFET opens, what detect is the voltage of photovoltaic battery panel, when MOSFET pinch off, and the voltage of the storage battery of detection, by these two voltages of single-chip microcomputer acquisition time, compare, when cell plate voltage is greater than battery tension, and when storage battery does not overcharge, just charging can be opened, even if MOSFET is operated in crossing current district, otherwise charge closing, make MOSFET be operated in pinch off region.
Described voltage detection module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, voltage detection module can to detect the voltage of photovoltaic battery panel and the voltage of storage battery according to opening of MOSFET and pass the signal along to single-chip microcomputer with pinch off, when photovoltaic cell voltage is higher than storage battery, and storage battery is not when overcharging, MOSFET in charging circuit is operated in crossing current district, and photovoltaic battery panel is to charge in batteries and directly to system power supply; When darkness or cloudy day, storage battery, to system power supply, can reduce the discharge and recharge number of times of storage battery, ensures the useful life of storage battery.
One end of described power circuit block connects photovoltaic battery panel and storage battery simultaneously and provides D.C. regulated power supply for the operation of solar biaxial tracking system, and described power circuit block comprises polarity protection module, filter circuit module and voltage stabilizing circuit module.Polarity protection module adopts the direction of diode current limit, and two diodes of employing are D1 and D2.D1, D2 can ensure that reversal connection power supply does not affect circuit, 9V and 5V is made again to stablize non-interference, first filter circuit will meet voltage request, the larger filter effect of electric capacity is better, by integrated voltage stabilizer LM7805 and LM7809 after the filtering of source, just can produce stable 5V and 9V power supply, stable D.C. regulated power supply can be provided for operation of the present invention, normal operation of the present invention can be ensured.
Described detecting unit module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, and described detecting unit module comprises the capacity of the protection life of storage battery and the extreme position detection module of current detection module, temperature detecting module and protection system operation.Capacity and current detection module can detect the capacity of storage battery, overcharging of storage battery can be prevented, cross and put, the discharge and recharge controlling storage battery can be coordinated with switching circuit, when storage battery is full of, pass the signal along to single-chip microcomputer, Single-chip Controlling switching circuit stops charging a battery, to the detection of electric current be in order to detect photovoltaic battery panel to the charging current of storage battery and night or overcast and rainy time storage battery discharging current, the rated capacity value that must not be greater than 0.3 times to battery charging current must be ensured, discharging current General Requirements is 0.05 ~ 3 times of rated capacity value, avoid because charging and discharging currents is excessive or the too small life of storage battery caused reduces.Described capacity and current detection module comprise charging module, voltage detection module and current detection module, and wherein charging module and voltage detection module and switch module share.
Described current detection module selects current detecting chip MAX472, and MAX472 is U.S. two-way precison current-sensor amplifier, and required supply power voltage is 3 ~ 36V, and the change frequency of the electric current that can follow the tracks of can reach 130kHz.It is converted to voltage signal by after the current ratio computing flowing through 10m Ω resistance RT by an output resistance.For meeting the single-chip microcomputer input voltage of 0 ~ 5V, selected the precision wound sensing resistor of 10m Ω, gain resistor has selected 100 Ω, and in order to measure the electric current of 0 ~ 5A, determine that output regulating resistor can be a bit larger tham and equal 5K Ω, then the full scale of output voltage is 2.5V.
Described temperature detecting module selects temperature detection sensor, and temperature detection sensor is fixed on the outer wall of storage battery, when storage battery is overheated, stops charging, can ensure the useful life of storage battery.
Described extreme position detection module can judge the extreme position of photovoltaic battery panel, can reset to system, can limit the amplitude that photovoltaic battery panel follows the tracks of solar azimuth and elevation angle, ensure reliability service of the present invention.Extreme position detection module selects travel switch as execution components and parts, and travel switch menu is as shown in table 1.
S5 S6 S7 S8 Function
0 1 1 1 The western limit, motor automatically returns to Dong Jixianchu to be stopped
1 0 1 1 The east limit, motor stops
1 1 0 1 Limes superiors, motor stops
1 1 1 0 Limit inferior, motor stops
Table 1 travel switch menu
Single-chip microcomputer of the present invention is controller, elevation angle adjustment motor, azimuth adjustment motor and motor drive module are actuator, and photovoltaic battery panel is controlled device, and each detecting unit is feedback element, they constitute closed-loop control system, have the advantages that antijamming capability is strong.
Described human-machine interface module, man-machine communication can be convenient to, described human-machine interface module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, described human-machine interface module comprises manual adjustments key-press module, numeral method module, sets and check key-press module, indicating lamp module and alarm module, can facilitate succinct checking or arrange running status of the present invention by human-machine interface module.
Described manual adjustments key-press module adopts stand-alone keypad circuit structure, can control more flexibly solar tracking system, and system can be made to enter completely manual pattern.When pressing without button, what be connected to one-chip machine port is high level (" 1 "), and when having button to press, corresponding one-chip machine port becomes low level (" 0 ").Wherein S1, S2, S3, S4 are the button of manual adjustments motor, key-press status and menu as shown in table 2.
S1 S2 S3 S4 Function
0 1 1 1 West turns
1 0 1 1 East turns
1 1 0 1 Nutation
1 1 1 0 Face upward
Table 2 key-press status and menu
Described numeral method module adopts static state display, selects and has the chip SL74HC595 of 8 Bits Serial input displacement parallel outputs with latch function, and adopt serial communication SPI pattern between single-chip microcomputer.When single-chip microcomputer sends two bits continuously, DS1 receives second data, and DS2 receives the first bit data, can the running status of display system.
Described setting checks that key-press module arranges a setting button S10 and and checks button S9, match with indicating lamp module and can check the running status of system, indicating lamp module is according to the operating state of system, operating state, charged state, discharge condition and malfunction indicator light are set respectively, the checking and set as shown in table 3 of system mode.
The checking and setting of table 3 system mode
Note: " 1 " high level in table, " 0 " is low level, is the state of the corresponding one-chip machine port of button and indicator light.
Described alarm module adopts audible alarm, when accumulator super-charge, cross put, excess temperature or reach the limit of position time, producing warning and indicating, be convenient to attendant's Timeliness coverage and safeguard.Warning circuit is made up of the triode T7 and buzzer JP2 being in saturated or cut-off operating state, controls with the RB3 mouth of single-chip microcomputer.When RB3 is for continuing height at ordinary times, buzzer continues to ring, and when RB3 is low level, buzzer not sound, when RB3 height changes, the sound of certain frequency can occur buzzer.
The present invention in use, need to control in the typing single-chip microcomputer such as main program, A/D collection subprogram, timer subroutine and Electric Machine Control subprogram, control main program flow chart as shown in Figure 14, A/D gathers subroutine flow chart as shown in Figure 15, as shown in Figure 16, Electric Machine Control subroutine flow chart as shown in Figure 17 for timer subroutine flow chart.
A/D has gathered the real-time detection to light intensity, by the signal feedback single-chip microcomputer gathered, as the foundation of Electric Machine Control.Because single-chip microcomputer inside only has an A/D modular converter, test point is selected to be necessary.Test point is selected to be completed by the data outlet selector CD4501BC controlling single 8 passages.It is detect eight photo resistance that an A/D detects.A/D sample time delay be in order to etc. to be done to A/D adopt capacitor charging, be A/D gather necessary process.
Because approximately every 20 minutes of the earth turns 5 degree, so in order to Loss reducing with avoid error, there is no need continuously to Electric Machine Control, utilize timing employing timing mode that twice Survey control process is separated, can system energy consumption be reduced, be very important.On the other hand, the speed governing to motor can also be realized by timing modulation PWM ripple.
In Electric Machine Control subprogram activation process, after first carrying out azimuth adjustment, then carry out elevation angle adjustment, the object that key judges is in order to manual adjustments and extreme position judge, when the sun is in northeastward, if pedestal thing is arranged, which cell panel will be in direction, due east; If photovoltaic battery panel turn to positive west to time, in order to system at day cell panel be in direction, due east, then when contacting west travel switch, photovoltaic battery panel automatically return to towards east stop, completing the tracing task of a day.
Note: in accompanying drawing 14, X-axis motor is azimuth adjustment motor, y-axis motor is elevation angle adjustment motor.
In accompanying drawing 17, R37 is the photo resistance that mediates in five photo resistance detecting solar azimuth, it is minimum refer in these five photo resistance minimum;
R33 is the photo resistance that mediates in three photo resistance detecting sun altitude, it is minimum refer in these three photo resistance minimum;
Motor X is azimuth adjustment motor, and motor Y is elevation angle adjustment motor.

Claims (4)

1. a solar biaxial tracking system, comprise and follow the tracks of frame (1), photovoltaic battery panel (2), storage battery (3), elevation angle adjustment motor (4), azimuth adjustment motor (5) and control module (6), it is characterized in that: described control module (6) comprises single-chip microcomputer, tracking module and charge-discharge modules, described tracking module comprises motor drive module and light-intensity test module, described motor drive module comprises photoelectric isolation module, to enjoy a double blessing bridge driver module and outside bridge road module, described motor drive module connects elevation angle adjustment motor, azimuth adjustment motor and single-chip microcomputer, described light-intensity test module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, in described light-intensity test module, photo resistance is set, described photo resistance is fixed on photovoltaic battery panel, described charge-discharge modules comprises switch module and detecting unit module, described switch module comprises charging module, voltage detection module and power circuit block, in described charging module, MOSFET is set, described charging module connects photovoltaic battery panel and storage battery, described voltage detection module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, one end of described power circuit block connects photovoltaic battery panel and storage battery simultaneously and provides D.C. regulated power supply for the operation of solar biaxial tracking system, described power circuit block comprises polarity protection module, filter circuit module and voltage stabilizing circuit module, described detecting unit module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, described detecting unit module comprises capacity and the current detection module of the protection life of storage battery, the extreme position detection module that temperature detecting module and protection system are run.
2. a kind of solar biaxial tracking system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: setting data outlet selector CD4501 in described light-intensity test module, described CD4501 is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, and described CD4501 carries out selection collection to light intensity detection circuit.
3. a kind of solar biaxial tracking system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described control module arranges human-machine interface module, described human-machine interface module is connected with single-chip microcomputer signal, and described human-machine interface module comprises manual adjustments key-press module, numeral method module, sets and check key-press module, indicating lamp module and alarm module.
4. a kind of solar biaxial tracking system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described azimuth adjustment motor (5) is fixed on follows the tracks of in frame (1), described tracking frame (1) arranges azimuth axis (7), described azimuth axis (7) is rotationally connected with tracking frame (1), described azimuth adjustment motor (5) is connected by gear drive with azimuth axis (7), described azimuth axis (7) is arranged supporting seat (8), described elevation angle adjustment motor (4) is fixed on supporting seat (8), described supporting seat (8) is arranged pitch axis (9), described pitch axis (9) and supporting seat (8) are rotationally connected, described elevation angle adjustment motor (4) is connected by Worm Wheel System with pitch axis (9), described azimuth axis (7) is arranged bracing frame (10), described photovoltaic battery panel (2) is threaded with bracing frame (10).
CN201510567704.1A 2015-09-08 2015-09-08 Solar energy dual-axis tracking system Pending CN105071760A (en)

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Application publication date: 20151118