CN105067049B - A kind of differential pressure type flow meter and method based on eddy flow principle - Google Patents

A kind of differential pressure type flow meter and method based on eddy flow principle Download PDF

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CN105067049B
CN105067049B CN201510431506.2A CN201510431506A CN105067049B CN 105067049 B CN105067049 B CN 105067049B CN 201510431506 A CN201510431506 A CN 201510431506A CN 105067049 B CN105067049 B CN 105067049B
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flow
fluid
pressure
cyclone
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CN105067049A (en
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王帅
王栋
牛棚满
张兴凯
杨杨
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Xi an Jiaotong University
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Abstract

A kind of differential pressure type flow meter and method based on eddy flow principle, include the pipeline of an a diameter of D, it is provided with and is fitted closely with tube wall and the cyclone of static arrangement in pipeline, the pipeline in cyclone downstream is provided with tube wall pressure pipe and tube hub pressure pipe, and the outlet of tube wall pressure pipe and tube hub pressure pipe is connected with two fluid inlets of differential pressure transmitter respectively;The present invention acquires mean flow rate by measuring the pressure difference of same level, flow and traditional differential pressure flowmeter are acquired further according to mean flow rate comparatively, required straight pipe greatly shortens, pressure difference also greatly reduces, and has fabulous adaptability to the case where rotational flow and vortex;For heterogeneous fluid, complicated heterogeneous fluid can be rectified into pipe symmetric about the axis " being mutually separated " state by swirl-flow devices, be measured to easily facilitate.

Description

A kind of differential pressure type flow meter and method based on eddy flow principle
Technical field
The invention belongs to fluid measurement technical fields, and in particular to a kind of differential pressure type flow measurement dress based on eddy flow principle It sets and method.
Background technology
In field of flow measurement, differential pressure flowmeter account for flowmeter sum 1/3 or more, no matter from developing history, application For range with from the point of view of usage quantity, it is all undisputed first major class flowmeter.Currently, common differential pressure flowmeter is divided into two Major class:Throttle type and flow around type.Throttle type include standard type (orifice plate, nozzle and Venturi tube) and it is non-standard (slotted orifice plate, Porous plate, 1/4 orifice plate, bend pipe, conical entrance orifice plate etc.).Flow around type includes annular oriffice, circular passage (V-type inner cone, conduit Formula etc.), even speed tube etc..
The advantages of standard orifice plate throttling set is simple in structure, application technology is ripe, product has been carried out standardization, is mesh The preceding widest flow instrument of commercial Application;But its shortcomings that, is also very much:Permanent compression loss it is excessive, installation when require up and down Trip has longer straight pipe, range ratio narrow, and only 3:1, verge of opening passivation can make its accuracy decline, fluid stream through throttling A fluid stream must be parallel with conduit axis and must not have rotating flow etc. before device.Although nozzle and venturi are in same traffic and β value When Pressure Loss Ratio orifice plate want low 30%~50%, but nozzle and venturi are expensive, and structure is more complex.
Elbow meter be using the differential pressure flowmeter of side pressure difference measurements flow inside and outside bend pipe, it the advantages of be spend at This relatively low, easy installation and use, the disadvantage is that the interference of Secondary Flow is susceptible to, since discharge coefficient is joined by bend pipe structure size The influence of number R/D is very sensitive, so being not easily accomplished very much standardization.
Measurement for multiphase flow rate, elbow meter cannot achieve, and due to the flow operating mode of two-phase fluid complexity Property, orifice plate, nozzle, venturi can not borrow unified empirical equation, generally be measured using combined method, such as Li Yuxing The dual grooved orifice plate combination of equal propositions, Venturi tube-vortex-shedding meter combination, Chenquan Hua's of Zhiqiang Sun etc. The orifice plate or Venturi tube of the propositions such as slotted orifice plate-vortex precession flowmeter combination, C.H.Hong-critical flow nozzle combination, Shunpei The Venturi tube of the propositions such as Yamazaki-laminar flow flowmeter combination etc., these methods can work normally in a certain range, And once exceeding its measurement range, flow signal will be submerged in strong " noise ", and measurement error increased dramatically very therewith It cannot extremely work.
Invention content
In order to overcome the above-mentioned deficiencies of the prior art, it is an object of the invention to propose a kind of difference based on eddy flow principle Pressure type flow measuring device and method, the required straight pipe of the present invention greatly shorten, and pressure difference also greatly reduces, and to rotating flow , there is fabulous adaptability in the case where dynamic and vortex;For heterogeneous fluid, complicated heterogeneous fluid can be rectified by swirl-flow devices It " is mutually separated " state in pipe symmetric about the axis, is measured to easily facilitate, the only letter measured due to influencing such method Single cyclone, so compared to for other non-standard differential pressure flowmeters, such method and apparatus are easier realization standard Change.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that:
A kind of differential pressure type flow meter based on eddy flow principle includes the pipeline 7 of an a diameter of D, is set in pipeline 7 It is equipped with and is fitted closely with tube wall and the cyclone of static arrangement 2, the pipeline in 2 downstream of cyclone is provided with tube wall pressure pipe 4 and pipe Center pressure pipe 5, tube wall pressure pipe 4 and tube hub pressure pipe 5 outlet respectively with two fluid inlet phases of differential pressure transmitter 6 Connection.
The cyclone 2 is located at the downstream of entrance 1, and distance between the two is not less than 2D.
The cyclone 2 is located at the upstream of pipe outlet 3, and distance between the two is not less than 2D.
The tube wall pressure pipe 4 and tube hub pressure pipe 5 are located at 2 downstream 2D~10D of cyclone, tube wall pressure pipe 4 The pressure tappings of axis and tube hub pressure pipe 5 are located at same level.
A diameter of 0.5~the 2.0mm of pressure port at the tube wall pressure pipe 4 and tube hub pressure pipe 5.
The axis of pressure port is vertical with tube wall at the tube wall pressure pipe 4.
The pressure port axis direction of the tube hub pressure pipe 5 is identical with flow direction.
A kind of differential pressure type flow measurement method based on eddy flow principle, includes the following steps:
Step 1: when fluid flows through the cyclone 2 in pipeline 7, since fluid is by the constraint of cyclone 2, stream is forced Body generates vortex flow according to the shape of cyclone 2, and fluid is rotated around tube hub axis, the flow further downstream in rotation, flowing Track is approximately a helix, and the centrifugal force that fluid generates makes fluid generate pressure difference, tube wall pressure pipe 4 in tube wall and tube hub Take out the static pressure of tube wall and tube hub respectively with tube hub pressure pipe 5, the pressure difference of the two is measured by differential pressure transmitter 6;
Step 2: for cyclone 2, a certain cross section tube wall and tube hub after the size and cyclone 2 of fluid flow Pressure difference takes the infinitesimal fluid of a certain cross section, the centrifugal force of unit mass micro unit to be there are certain relationshipIt should be with pressure Force gradient balances each other, i.e.,:
By INTEGRAL THEOREM OF MEAN it is found that there is always a radius r*, the tangential flow velocity at this can represent the tangential of the section Mean flow rateThen formula (1) pair radius is integrated from 0-R:
In formulaAnd r*The tangential mean flow rate and the corresponding mean radius of mean flow rate, R for respectively representing section represent pipeline Internal diameter;
Step 3: since fluid is by being to do rotation to move upwards after cyclone, it is axial flat if cyclone is certain Equal flow velocity and the tangential mean flow rate in some section certainly exist a fixed proportionate relationship, and the tangential mean flow rate with 1/2 power of pressure difference is linear, that is to say, that 1/2 time of axial mean flow rate and some section tube wall and tube hub pressure difference Side is linear:
In formula, α represents discharge coefficient, and related with pipe diameter, sectional position, value is obtained by experimental calibration;Δ P tables Show the pressure drop between pipeline center and tube wall when fluid media (medium) flows through a certain section;ρ indicates Media density;
Step 4: for monophasic fluid, according to formulaAcquire the flow of fluid;For heterogeneous fluid, lead to The axial mean flow rate for crossing each phase is multiplied by the actual internal area of corresponding each phase, you can obtains the flow of each phase.
The present invention measuring principle be:
For cyclone, the pressure differential deltap P of a certain cross section upper tube wall and tube hub after the size and cyclone of fluid flow There are certain relationships, by simulation and experimental verification it is found that axial mean flow rateWith the section tube wall and tube hub pressure differential deltap P 1/2 power is linear, and remoter from cyclone, and discharge coefficient α is bigger;Therefore it only needs in advance to specific cyclone knot Structure is demarcated, according to the pressure difference in a certain section after the cyclone measured, you can obtains the axial mean flow rate of pipeline, in turn Learn the flow of fluid.
Advantages of the present invention:
Comparatively, required straight pipe greatly shortens, pressure difference also greatly subtracts for the present invention and traditional differential pressure flowmeter It is small, and have fabulous adaptability to the case where rotational flow and vortex;For heterogeneous fluid, swirl-flow devices can be by complexity Heterogeneous fluid is rectified into pipe symmetric about the axis " being mutually separated " state, is measured to easily facilitate, due to influencing such side What method measured is only simple cyclone, so compared to for other non-standard differential pressure flowmeters, such method and apparatus More easily realize standardization.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the device of the invention structural schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is the relational graph of axial mean flow rate and tube wall and 1/2 power of tube hub pressure difference.
When Fig. 3 is biphase gas and liquid flow (gas flow 2L/min), 1/2 time of water phase flow and tube wall and tube hub pressure difference The relational graph of side.
Specific implementation mode
The present invention will be described in more detail below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of differential pressure type flow meter based on eddy flow principle, includes the pipeline of an a diameter of D 7, it is provided in pipeline 7 and is fitted closely with tube wall and the cyclone of static arrangement 2, the pipeline in 2 downstream of cyclone are provided with tube wall Pressure pipe 4 and tube hub pressure pipe 5, tube wall pressure pipe 4 and tube hub pressure pipe 5 outlet respectively with differential pressure transmitter 6 two A fluid inlet is connected.
The cyclone 2 is located at the downstream of entrance 1, and distance between the two is not less than 2D.
The cyclone 2 is located at the upstream of pipe outlet 3, and distance between the two is not less than 2D.
The tube wall pressure pipe 4 and tube hub pressure pipe 5 are located at 2 downstream 2D~10D of cyclone, tube wall pressure pipe 4 The pressure tappings of axis and tube hub pressure pipe 5 are located at same level.
A diameter of 0.5~the 2.0mm of pressure port at the tube wall pressure pipe 4 and tube hub pressure pipe 5.
The axis of pressure port is vertical with tube wall at the tube wall pressure pipe 4.
The pressure port axis direction of the tube hub pressure pipe 5 is identical with flow direction.
A kind of differential pressure type flow measurement method based on eddy flow principle, includes the following steps:
Step 1: when fluid flows through the cyclone 2 in pipeline 7, since fluid is by the constraint of cyclone 2, stream is forced Body generates vortex flow according to the shape of cyclone 2, and fluid is rotated around tube hub axis, the flow further downstream in rotation, flowing Track is approximately a helix, and the centrifugal force that fluid generates makes fluid generate pressure difference in tube wall and tube hub.The centrifugal force The factors such as size and the shape of the tangential flow velocity of fluid, internal diameter of the pipeline, the density of fluid and cyclone 2 are related, tube wall pressure pipe 4 The static pressure of tube wall and tube hub can be taken out respectively with tube hub pressure pipe 5, the pressure difference of the two can be surveyed by differential pressure transmitter 6 It measures and;
Step 2: for cyclone 2, a certain cross section tube wall and tube hub after the size and cyclone 2 of fluid flow For pressure difference there are certain relationship, analytic process is as follows:
The infinitesimal fluid of a certain cross section, the centrifugal force of unit mass micro unit is taken to beIt should be with barometric gradient phase Balance, i.e.,:
By spin theory, by the tangential velocity variation rule along radius it is found that the tangential velocity of micro unit can be divided into potential barrier Rotary District and like solid Rotary District, that is to say, that there are the cylindrical surfaces that a radius is r, and tangential velocity is maximum on it, is less than The region of the diameter is known as like solid Rotary District, and tangential velocity reduces with radius and increased;Region more than the diameter is known as gesture Rotary District is flowed, tangential velocity value is inversely proportional with radius r, and closer to axle center, tangential velocity is bigger.
By INTEGRAL THEOREM OF MEAN it is found that there is always a radius r*, the tangential flow velocity at this can represent the tangential of the section Mean flow rateThen formula (1) pair radius is integrated from 0-R:
In formulaAnd r*The tangential mean flow rate and the corresponding mean radius of mean flow rate, R for respectively representing section represent pipeline Internal diameter.
Step 3: to seek the flow of fluid, it is necessary to acquire axial mean flow rateBut the regularity of distribution of axial velocity It is more more complex than tangential velocity, simple theory analysis cannot be carried out, the structural shape of physical device is primarily due to Diversification.
Since fluid is by being to do rotation to move upwards after cyclone, if cyclone is certain, axial mean flow rate A fixed proportionate relationship is certainly existed with the tangential mean flow rate in some section, and the tangential mean flow rate and pressure difference 1/2 power is linear, that is to say, that 1/2 power of axial mean flow rate and some section tube wall and tube hub pressure difference is at line Sexual intercourse:
In formula, α represents discharge coefficient, related with pipe diameter, sectional position etc., and it is a certain that Δ P indicates that fluid media (medium) flows through Pressure drop when section between pipeline center and tube wall, ρ indicate Media density.
Due to the axial mean flow rate in all sections of pipelineIt is certain, and with the progress of flow direction, swirl strength Can gradually it weaken, the pressure differential deltap P of tube wall and pipeline center can be gradually reduced, so as to cause the tangential mean flow rate of different cross section It is different, that is to say, that discharge coefficient α is then related with the distance of cross-sectional distance cyclone, and remoter apart from cyclone, the value of α is got over Greatly.
In order to verify conclusions, we use 1 writing brush diameter (D=25.4mm), and cyclone is using specific " 8 rotations Stream ", fluid media (medium) is water, we measure the pressure difference of pipeline center and tube wall respectively at cyclone downstream 2.7D and 11.8D, is led to The flow for changing water is crossed, we delineate axial mean flow rateWith the relational graph of the section tube wall and tube hub pressure differential deltap P.
As shown in Fig. 2, for the position of cyclone downstream 2.7D,Relationship with Δ P is:
For the position of cyclone downstream 11.8D,Relationship with Δ P is:
It is found that axial mean flow rateIt is linear with the section tube wall and tube hub pressure differential deltap P, and from cyclone Remoter, discharge coefficient α is bigger.Therefore it only needs in advance to demarcate specific hydrocyclone structure, after the cyclone measured The pressure difference in a certain section, you can obtain the axial mean flow rate of pipeline, and then learn the flow of fluid.
Similarly, for multiphase flow, by taking biphase gas and liquid flow (Air-Water) as an example, when gas-liquid two-phase fluid flows through swirl-flow devices Afterwards, due to density variation, it may occur that " being mutually separated " phenomenon relies on the effect of centrifugal force, biphase gas and liquid flow to be separated in pipe At annular flow symmetric about the axis, center is gas core, and tube wall is annular liquid, has clear smooth interface between two-phase. When gas flow is 2L/min, as shown in figure 3, water phase flow and the section tube wall and tube hub pressure differential deltap P are also in certain Linear relationship, as long as passing through calibration, so that it may calculate the size of flow with the pressure difference by a certain section after eddy flow.
Step 4: for monophasic fluid, according to formulaAcquire the flow of fluid.For heterogeneous fluid, The actual internal area of corresponding each phase can be multiplied by by the axial mean flow rate of each phase, you can obtain the flow of each phase.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of measurement method of the differential pressure type flow meter based on eddy flow principle, which is characterized in that the differential pressure type Flow measurement device includes the pipeline (7) of an a diameter of D, is provided with and is fitted closely with tube wall and static arrangement in pipeline (7) Cyclone (2), the pipeline in cyclone (2) downstream is provided with tube wall pressure pipe (4) and tube hub pressure pipe (5), tube wall pressure The outlet of pipe (4) and tube hub pressure pipe (5) is connected with two fluid inlets of differential pressure transmitter (6) respectively, method packet Include following steps:
Step 1: when fluid flows through cyclone (2) in pipeline (7), since fluid is by the constraint of cyclone (2), force Fluid generates vortex flow according to the shape of cyclone (2), and fluid is rotated around tube hub axis, the flow further downstream in rotation, Flow trace is approximately a helix, and the centrifugal force that fluid generates makes fluid generate pressure difference in tube wall and tube hub, and tube wall takes Pressure pipe (4) and tube hub pressure pipe (5) take out the static pressure of tube wall and tube hub respectively, and the pressure difference of the two passes through differential pressure transmitter (6) it measures;
Step 2: for cyclone (2), a certain cross section tube wall and tube hub after the size and cyclone (2) of fluid flow Pressure difference takes the infinitesimal fluid of a certain cross section, the centrifugal force of unit mass micro unit to be there are certain relationshipIt should be with pressure Force gradient balances each other, i.e.,:
By INTEGRAL THEOREM OF MEAN it is found that there is always a radius r*, the tangential flow velocity at this can represent the tangential mean flow in the section SpeedThen formula (1) pair radius is integrated from 0-R:
In formulaAnd r*The tangential mean flow rate and the corresponding mean radius of mean flow rate, R for respectively representing section represent in pipeline Diameter;
Step 3: since fluid is by being to do rotation to move upwards after cyclone, if cyclone is certain, axial mean flow The tangential mean flow rate in speed and some section certainly exists a fixed proportionate relationship, and the tangential mean flow rate and pressure difference 1/2 power it is linear, that is to say, that 1/2 power of axial mean flow rate and some section tube wall and tube hub pressure difference at Linear relationship:
In formula, α represents discharge coefficient, and related with pipe diameter, sectional position, value is obtained by experimental calibration;Δ P indicates stream Pressure drop when body medium flows through a certain section between pipeline center and tube wall;ρ indicates Media density;
Step 4: for monophasic fluid, according to formulaAcquire the flow of fluid;For heterogeneous fluid, by each The axial mean flow rate of phase is multiplied by the actual internal area of corresponding each phase, you can obtains the flow of each phase.
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