CN105052404A - Self-propelled two-layer covering machine for straws of orchard - Google Patents

Self-propelled two-layer covering machine for straws of orchard Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105052404A
CN105052404A CN201510486960.8A CN201510486960A CN105052404A CN 105052404 A CN105052404 A CN 105052404A CN 201510486960 A CN201510486960 A CN 201510486960A CN 105052404 A CN105052404 A CN 105052404A
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China
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stalk
soil
orchard
earthenware
throwing
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CN105052404B (en
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朱新华
郭文川
陈胤嗣
王东阳
宋永超
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Northwest A&F University
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Northwest A&F University
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Abstract

The present invention provides a self-propelled two-layer covering machine for straws of an orchard, and relates to the field of orchard machinery. A straw tank is mounted on a frame of of the covering machine; the tank bottom of the straw tank is a V-shaped structure; a discharge roller is arranged above an opening in the bottom of the V-shaped structure; and a slot body of a straw discharge slot below the discharge roller is inclined forwards and downwards. An soil throwing machine is suspended on a position, below the outlet of the straw discharge slot, at the bottom in front of the covering machine; and after an soil throwing opening of the soil throwing machine is inclined upwards, the direction of the soil throwing opening is crossed with the direction of the outlet of the straw discharge slot. The soil throwing machine can move up and down under the action of a hydraulic lifting oil cylinder. The covering machine can cover the straws on the ground between roes of the orchard, and covers the straws with a thin layer of soil, is suitable for mechanical operation of covering the orchard or other farmland with straws so as to achieve effects of keeping soil moisture, saving water, preventing weeds from growing in oil, increasing soil organic matters, keeping warm against freezing of soil, and improving soil texture and micro environment of soil, and is especially applicable in dwarf apple orchards The self-propelled two-layer covering machine for straws of the orchard provided by the present invention can reduce cost of covering straws, can promote large-scale utilization of straws, and can achieve agricultural income increase and efficiency growth.

Description

The double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk
Technical field
The present invention discloses the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk, belongs to agricultural mechanical field and straw resource utilization field, particularly relates to improving straw mulching machineryization field, orchard.
Background technology
The fast development of 30 years since reform and opening-up, China has become state of fruit sparetime university, the fast development of fruit industry scale, the cultivated area such as apple, pears, peach, grape, oranges and tangerines has reached the whole world the first all, current China fruit industry also stage of changing of from " quantity size " towards " quality and benifit " type.But compared with developed countries, the fruit industry product quality of China is low and industrial benefit is not high, wherein causes the main cause of this problem to be that comparatively hungry soil lack of water is serious for China's orchard soil.The content of organic matter in NORTHWEST CHINA drought plateau apple orchard is generally below 1.0%, and the apple orchard content of organic matter of American-European countries is generally more than 3.0%, and the Japanese apple orchard content of organic matter even reaches 6.8%; Arid, semiarid zone soil Seasonal Water-Deficit are also commonplace.Therefore, in northern China drought plateau and southwest, retaining and conserveing soil moisture in orchard, improves the most important thing that soil organic matter content has become orchard management.
Orchard management aspect, external orchard soil administrative skill is the cultivation of many orchard ground covers, orchard ground cover cultivation can improve soil physical and chemical property, strengthen guarantor, water-holding capacity and water use efficiency, increase soil organic matter content and micro organism quantity, improve orchard environment, improve fruit quality and output.Arid, semiarid zone and China orchard mostly distributes, the soil organic matter external content of comparing is lower, Sod culture should not be adopted, the phenomenon of grass contention Fruit Tree Moisture can be there is in drought-hit area Sod culture, not only consume annual precipitation infiltration capacity, but also constantly utilize deep soil live storage, cause deep soil water deficit, grass also can fight for nutrient with fruit tree, causes fruit quality decline output to reduce.And manage under China's orcharding and continue to use cultivated clearly for a long time, this soil management system has been disadvantageous by practice to growth and development of fruit tree.In recent years along with constantly practice and summary, China starts to adopt Orchard mulch technology.Current most area mainly adopts plastic mulching, but the volume increase of plastic mulching is to consume soil fertility for cost.Plastic mulching reduces the resolution ratio of organic materials in soil, and soil organic matter content is declined, and enzymic activity declines, and also has influence on the functional diversity of edaphon, thus affects soil fertility and function of soil ecosystem.
By research, to soil depletion, fertility is low, improving straw mulching technology is taked in the orchard being subject to weather and temperature impact, by common agricultural wastes, as maize straw, straw, bark, sawdust, pine needle, shell, the scraps of paper etc. cover soil surface exposed around fruit tree, cover one deck thin soil more above, not only can reduce the evaporation of soil moisture, to formation soil granular, fertilizer conservation preserves soil moisture, the soil organic matter and bioactive increase and improve fruit quality and have significant effect, and the thin soil layer covered prevents covering to be blown to four winds and the effect of fire preventing to play.Orchard improving straw mulching technology solves arid, semiarid zone because of the effective measures of rich water shortage restriction orchard upgrading volume increase, is also one of important production technology of developing ecology fruit industry, organic fruit industry.
The application of orchard improving straw mulching technology not only can improve soil quality, also well solves the recycling problem of orchard periphery agricultural wastes.According to United Nations Environment Programme, China's agricultural crop straw annual production is about 700,000,000 tons, first of the row world, amounts to standard coal amount 3.53 hundred million tons, accounts for about 30% of whole world stalk total amount.But China's straw from village resource is in the situation of high flow rate, high pollution, low output completely, minority stalk is only had to be used as natural pond processed, feed, fertilizer and the raw material of industry, considerable a part of agricultural crop straw is thrown aside or is burned, and does not obtain rational exploitation and utilization.Current China straw utilization rate is about 33%, and wherein major part does not add process, and what utilize after technical finesse only accounts for 2.6%.And the one of the main reasons causing stalk not to be used appropriately is, the distribution density of stalk resource is low, not easily collecting.Along with popularizing of improving straw mulching technology application, the waste straw of orchard periphery will be collected recycling.Effectively solve the problem of stalk resource waste.
At present, world fruit industry production technology is towards intensive, standardization, mechanization, modernization and low cost future development.In the world a lot of apple production big country a general section adopt the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf, during many countries short apple oneself account for more than 90%.The outstanding Heterosis of the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf is that Cold region apple abundance, efficiency are high, fruit high-quality, time saving and energy saving, its comprehensive production efficiency traditional arbor apple orchard of comparing increases significantly.Comparatively speaking, China's mainly tall anvil apple at present, account for 90%, and short anvil apple only accounts for about 10%.Therefore, following 10-20, China will welcome the high speed development upsurge of an Apple Culture technology upgrading replacement.In recent years, the apple cultivation such as Shaanxi, Shandong district was own starts scale introduction.Along with fruit dwarfing technology, particularly the advanced technology such as short anvil apple intensive culture technique is in the popularization of China, and orchard is spacious in the ranks, tree-like specification, will provide convenience for orchard operation machineryization.
At present, the laying of orchard stalk relies on manpower completely by stalk bedding in the ranks, and overwrite procedure takes time and effort.Along with the popularization on a large scale downgrading intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high, the continuous expansion of orchard area, the labour intensity of corresponding improving straw mulching increases, therefore, change the simple and crude method of orchard improving straw mulching in the past, research orchard improving straw mulching machineryization technology also develops orchard improving straw mulching work tool, it is the key playing orchard improving straw mulching technical benefits, also be the important channel realizing stalk resource efficiency utilization in the fruit industry of high added value, be improve orchard soil moisture, the content of organic matter, realize the important leverage of orchard high-yield and high-efficiency.
Yet there are no any relevant report in orchard improving straw mulching machineryization technical research and application aspect abroad at present.And the domestic patent CN204377363U that finds and CN204377459U orchard straw covering machine carry out operation by tractor-drawn trailer with stalk hopper, the advantage of this mulch-laying machine is that structure is simple, with low cost, engine versatility is good.But its shortcoming is obvious: structure is not compact, function is not single-minded, inefficiency, during work, radius of turn is excessive, very inconvenient under the intensive condition not abundant with space of turning around of plantation, the double-deck mulch-laying machine of one disclosed by the invention self-propelled orchard stalk, the problem of the large and inconvenience of turning around of existing orchard straw covering machine radius of turn can be solved, improve the operating efficiency of mulch-laying machine, promote the application of improving straw mulching technology in orchard, improve the reuse ratio of waste straw, economize on resources, protection of the environment, improve orchard soil fertility and improve fruit quality, realize increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention: disclose the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk, straw covering machine Problems existing in orchard in prior art can be improved, realize orchard improving straw mulching and top layer earthing lid presses mechanization of operation, standardization, this covering function promotes applying of orchard improving straw mulching technology, reduce orchard improving straw mulching operating cost, improve orchard soil situation, promote the extensive efficiency utilization of fruit district's periphery stalk, realize increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention: stalk double-deck mulch-laying machine in described self-propelled orchard solves the problem of the excessive and inconvenience of turning around of existing orchard straw covering machine radius of turn with which kind of the Nomenclature Composition and Structure of Complexes.And orchard improving straw mulching can be completed, and on improving straw mulching layer, cover the thin scholar of one deck, and make straw substrate cladding thickness and thin soil lid press thickness evenly adjustable, thus optimize existing improving straw mulching machineryization scheme, improve the operating efficiency of mulch-laying machine, reduce orchard improving straw mulching operating cost, improve orchard soil situation, promote the extensive efficiency utilization of fruit district's periphery stalk.
Realize garden improving straw mulching machineryization, need to have come according to processing step below:
(1) stalk is in small, broken bits: agricultural crop straw is processed into broken section of stalk.
(2) orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparation: add appropriate soil nutrient or soil structure improved addictive material in broken section of the stalk described in step (1), and carry out suitable desinsection, sterilization treatment as required, forms orchard improving straw mulching matrix.
(3) orchard soil is ploughed whole: with agricultural machinery to orchard in the ranks soil carry out that pine is ploughed, hack and leveling operation.
(4) straw substrate covers: stalk (broken section) the matrix machinery described in step (1) or step (2) is covered the soil surface of orchard in the ranks or between strain, and cladding thickness as far as possible evenly.
(5) thin soil lid pressure: cover one deck hack with machinery above the straw substrate layer of step (4) described covering, by the straw substrate layer thin soil lid pressure covered, formation stalk and topsoil bilayer cover.
In order to solve the technical problem to be solved in the present invention, The present invention gives following technical scheme:
The double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk, it is characterized in that comprising two schemes, the engine of scheme one is arranged on the rear of stalk hopper, and the engine of scheme two is arranged on the front of stalk hopper, the back lower place of driver's cabin.
Mulch-laying machine vehicle frame being provided with stalk hopper, is " V " shape structure at the bottom of the case of stalk hopper, and " V " shape structural base opening connects with stalk blow tank, and be provided with a discharge roller above its bottom opening, the cell body of stalk blow tank is downward-sloping forward; In bottom of frame front, mount one and throw earthenware, can oscilaltion, throw the below that earthenware is positioned at stalk hopper, that throws earthenware is axially installed with the native blade of several throwing, forms roll structure, throws the throwing soil blade rotary on earthenware, taken up by hack during work; Throw earthenware shell rear portion and throw Tu Kou to having one rearwardly and upwardly along throwing native blade tangent line, the position of throwing Tu Kou is in the side-lower of the outlet of stalk blow tank, throw the Way out of Tu Kou for tilting upward backward, the outlet of this direction and described stalk blow tank towards at space intersection; The double-deck mulch-laying machine of described one self-propelled orchard stalk, by straw substrate uniform fold in orchard in the ranks ground, form improving straw mulching layer, and cover one deck thin soil above improving straw mulching layer, form thin soil lid pressure layer.
In scheme one, the double-deck mulch-laying machine of described self-propelled orchard stalk, by engine power output shaft outputting power, passes to gearbox through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, chain wheel II, driving-chain II, drives mulch-laying machine walking.The power throwing earthenware is exported by engine power output shaft, passes to throwing earthenware through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, sprocket wheel V, driving-chain IV, sprocket wheel VI, drives the throwing soil blade rotary throwing earthenware.The power of discharge roller is exported by engine power output shaft, passes to discharge roller through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, sprocket wheel III, driving-chain III, sprocket wheel IV, drives discharge roller to rotate, stirs the even blanking of straw substrate.
In scheme two, the double-deck mulch-laying machine of described self-propelled orchard stalk, by engine power output shaft outputting power, passes to gearbox through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, chain wheel II, driving-chain II, drives mulch-laying machine walking.The power throwing earthenware is exported by engine power output shaft, passes to throwing earthenware through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, sprocket wheel III, driving-chain III, sprocket wheel IV, sprocket wheel V, driving-chain IV, sprocket wheel VI, drives the throwing soil blade rotary throwing earthenware.The power of discharge roller is exported by engine power output shaft, through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, passes to discharge roller, drives discharge roller to rotate, stirs the even blanking of straw substrate.
Described discharge roller is arranged on stalk hopper inside " V " shape structural base overthe openings, and its axis direction is vertical with stalk hopper length direction; Discharge roller rotates under sprocket wheel IV drives, and makes straw substrate uniform discharge and controls load; The roll surface of discharge roller has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk blow tank length direction to be discharged; Install speed adjusting gear additional and change discharge roller rotating speed, straw substrate load can be realized, i.e. the regulation and control of straw substrate overburden cover.
Shell upper and the vehicle frame of described throwing earthenware are hinged and connected at pin joint place, and throw the hinged a pair hydraulic lifting oil cylinder in front at the cover top portion two ends of earthenware, the upper end thereof of hydraulic lifting oil cylinder is suspended on vehicle frame; When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching work, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder extends, and drives whole throwing earthenware to rotate around pin joint, throwing earthenware is declined, throw native blade and bury; Throw earthenware throw soil amount number, namely thin soil lid pressure layer thickness regulate and control by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder; When not needing to throw soil, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder shortens, and drives whole throwing earthenware to rotate around pin joint, makes throwing earthenware increase.
The hack that described thin soil lid pressure needs fetches earth by throwing earthenware scene in operation process.
The walking power of the double-deck mulch-laying machine of described self-propelled orchard stalk, the power delivery mode throwing earthenware and discharge roller can adopt V belt translation or Chain conveyer.
Described orchard improving straw mulching device is applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area needs soil moisture conservation, the orchard of economizing on water or soil, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve orchard or the soil of soil property and soil organisms microenvironment, or need the orchard or the soil that suppress orchard weed, or need the orchard to soil heat preservation or soil, or the orchard of comprehensive above-mentioned multiple needs or soil, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, as short anvil apple orchard.
The double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk, operation principle is as follows:
Stalk double-deck mulch-laying machine in one of the present invention self-propelled orchard can complete that orchard soil is in small, broken bits and smooth, straw substrate covers and thin soil lid presses step, and for scheme one, detailed process and operation principle are expressed as follows:
Stalk double-deck mulch-laying machine in self-propelled orchard, by engine power output shaft outputting power, passes to gearbox through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, chain wheel II, driving-chain II, drives mulch-laying machine walking.
Carrying out in the improving straw mulching operation of orchard, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder extends, and drives whole throwing earthenware to rotate around pin joint, throwing earthenware is declined, throw native blade and bury; Mulch-laying machine in the ranks at the uniform velocity advances in orchard, engine power output shaft outputs power, throwing earthenware is passed to through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, sprocket wheel V, driving-chain IV, sprocket wheel VI, drive the throwing soil blade rotary throwing earthenware, to orchard in the ranks soil carry out in small, broken bits and smooth, and grogs in small, broken bits is tangentially thrown, dish out backward obliquely from the throwing Tu Kou throwing earthenware.Throw earthenware and have in small, broken bits, smooth effect to soil.
Engine power output shaft outputs power, and passes to discharge roller through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, sprocket wheel III, driving-chain III, sprocket wheel IV, drives discharge roller to rotate, stirs the even blanking of straw substrate.The roll surface of discharge roller has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk blow tank length direction to be discharged.Throwing the side-lower that the position of Tu Kou is in the outlet of stalk blow tank, throwing the Way out of Tu Kou for tilting upward backward, the outlet of this direction and described stalk blow tank towards at space intersection, thus, straw substrate stream is crossing aloft with soil stream.But because the air dynamic behaviour of straw substrate stream and soil stream differs greatly, and the proportion of soil stream, speed, kinetic energy are more much bigger than straw substrate stream, thus the change of straw substrate stream to soil stream trajectory of projection is negligible.
The impact of soil stream on the track of straw substrate stream is mainly drifted about obliquely backward, namely grogs has the effect of clashing into backward obliquely to the crushed straw aggregate met, but due to crushed straw aggregate light specific gravity, front face area is large, its flight coefficient is comparatively large, and air is comparatively large to the resistance of stalk, and crushed straw aggregate is very little by drift distance after grogs effect, thus, soil stream is also less to the change of straw substrate material flow track.
Because soil stream landing point is after straw substrate stream, so soil stream can drop on straw substrate cover layer, lid pressure is formed to improving straw mulching layer.
Overburden cover adjusts: when advancing constant airspeed, changes the tectal thickness of size adjustable straw substrate of the rotating speed of discharge roller, surface structure and stalk blow tank; Change the thickness that the rotating speed throwing native blade, the size of throwing Tu Kou and angle can adjust thin soil lid pressure layer.
In non-covered duty, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder shrinks, and drives whole throwing earthenware to rotate around pin joint, makes throwing earthenware increase; Power transmission shaft Power output cuts off, and throwing earthenware and discharge roller stop the rotation, and the entrance of stalk blow tank is blocked by discharge roller, stops discharging.
Advantageous Effects: technical scheme of the present invention can realize orchard improving straw mulching and top layer earthing lid presses mechanization of operation, standardization, promote applying of orchard improving straw mulching technology, reduce orchard improving straw mulching operating cost, improve orchard soil situation, substitute orchard ground cover technology, promote the extensive efficiency utilization of fruit district's periphery stalk, realize increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.
Accompanying drawing illustrates:
1. driver's cabin 2. stalk hopper 3. engine 4. power take-off 5. driving-chain I 6. vehicle frame 7. chain wheel I 8. chain wheel II
9. driving-chain II 10. stalk blow tank 11. is thrown native mouth 12. pin joint 13. and is thrown earthenware 14. hydraulic lifting oil cylinder
15. gearbox 16. engine radiator 17. hopper front support gusset 18. driving-chain IV 19. sprocket wheel VI 20. regulating wheels
21. sprocket wheel IV 22. driving-chain III 23. sprocket wheel III 24. hopper rear support gusset 25. sprocket wheel V 26. discharge rollers
27. throw earthenware rotating shaft 28. throws native blade 29. power transmission shaft
Fig. 1 is overall construction drawing on the left of the double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk
Fig. 2 is overall construction drawing on the right side of the double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk
Fig. 3 is a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one vertical view
Fig. 4 is a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one upward view
Fig. 5 is the structure chart of the throwing earthenware of the double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk
Fig. 6 is a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one power transmission sketch
Fig. 7 is overall construction drawing on the left of the double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme two of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk
Fig. 8 is overall construction drawing on the right side of the double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme two of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk
Fig. 9 is a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme two power transmission sketch
Embodiment
The present embodiment is in short anvil apple orchard, carry out improving straw mulching machinery equalization.Short anvil apple orchard line space 3.5 meters ~ 4.5 meters, tree-like tree crown is neat.
In the short anvil apple orchard of intensive cultivating, carry out improving straw mulching, need to have come according to processing step below:
(1) stalk is in small, broken bits: agricultural crop straw is processed into broken section of stalk.
(2) orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparation: add appropriate soil nutrient or soil structure improved addictive material in broken section of the stalk described in step (1), and carry out suitable desinsection, sterilization treatment as required, forms orchard improving straw mulching matrix.
(3) orchard soil is ploughed whole: with agricultural machinery to orchard in the ranks soil carry out that pine is ploughed, hack and leveling operation.
(4) straw substrate covers: stalk (broken section) the matrix machinery described in step (1) or step (2) is covered the soil surface of orchard in the ranks or between strain, and cladding thickness as far as possible evenly.
(5) thin soil lid pressure: cover one deck hack with machinery above the straw substrate layer of step (4) described covering, by the straw substrate layer thin soil lid pressure covered, formation stalk and topsoil bilayer cover.
As shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 9, the double-deck mulch-laying machine of described one self-propelled orchard stalk, two schemes, by engine 3 power take-off 4 outputting power, passes to gearbox 15 through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 7, chain wheel II 8, driving-chain II 9, drives mulch-laying machine walking.
As shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 7 and Figure 8, the double-deck mulch-laying machine of described one self-propelled orchard stalk, in two schemes, mulch-laying machine vehicle frame 6 is provided with stalk hopper 2, it is " V " shape structure at the bottom of stalk hopper 2 casees, " V " shape structural base opening connects with stalk blow tank 10, and be provided with a discharge roller 26 above its bottom opening, the cell body of stalk blow tank 10 is downward-sloping forward; At vehicle frame 6 bottom front, mount one and throw earthenware 13, throw the below that earthenware 13 is positioned at stalk hopper 2, that throws earthenware 13 is axially installed with the native blade 28 of several throwing, forms roll structure, and the throwing soil blade 28 thrown during work on earthenware 13 rotates, and is taken up by hack; Throw earthenware 13 shell rear portion and throw native mouth 11 to having one rearwardly and upwardly along throwing native blade 28 tangent line, the position of throwing native mouth 11 is in the side-lower of the outlet of stalk blow tank 10, throw the Way out of native mouth 11 for tilting upward backward, this direction with the outlet of described stalk blow tank 10 towards at space intersection; The double-deck mulch-laying machine of described one self-propelled orchard stalk, by straw substrate uniform fold in orchard in the ranks ground, form improving straw mulching layer, and cover one deck thin soil above improving straw mulching layer, form thin soil lid pressure layer.
As shown in Figure 6, the power of the throwing earthenware 13 described in scheme one is outputed power by engine 3 power take-off 4, pass to throw earthenware 13 through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 7, power transmission shaft 29, sprocket wheel V 25, driving-chain IV 18, sprocket wheel VI 19, drive the throwing soil blade 28 throwing earthenware to rotate.The power of described discharge roller 26 is outputed power by engine 3 power take-off 4, discharge roller 26 is passed to through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 7, power transmission shaft 29, sprocket wheel III 23, driving-chain III 22, sprocket wheel IV 21, drive discharge roller 26 to rotate, stir the even blanking of straw substrate and control load.
As shown in Figure 9, the power of the throwing earthenware 13 described in scheme two is outputed power by engine 3 power take-off 4, pass to throw earthenware 13 through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 7, power transmission shaft 29, sprocket wheel III 23, driving-chain III 22, sprocket wheel IV 21, sprocket wheel V 25, driving-chain IV 18, sprocket wheel VI 19, drive the throwing soil blade 28 throwing earthenware to rotate.The power of described discharge roller 26 is outputed power by engine 3 power take-off 4, discharge roller 26 is passed to through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 7, power transmission shaft 29, sprocket wheel III 23, driving-chain III 22, sprocket wheel IV 21, drive discharge roller 26 to rotate, stir the even blanking of straw substrate and control load.
As shown in Figure 3, in two kinds of designs, described discharge roller 26 is arranged on stalk hopper 2 inside " V " shape structural base overthe openings, and its axis direction is vertical with stalk hopper 2 length direction; Discharge roller 26 rotates under sprocket wheel IV 21 drives, and makes straw substrate uniform discharge and controls load; The roll surface of discharge roller 26 has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk blow tank 10 length direction to be discharged; Install speed adjusting gear additional and change discharge roller 26 rotating speed, straw substrate load can be realized, i.e. the regulation and control of straw substrate overburden cover.
As shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 5 and Fig. 7, in two schemes, the shell upper of described throwing earthenware 13 and vehicle frame 6 are hinged and connected at pin joint 12 place, and throw the hinged a pair hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 14 in front at earthenware 13 cover top portion two ends, the upper end thereof of hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 14 is suspended on vehicle frame 6; When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching work, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 14 extends, and drives whole throwing earthenware 13 to rotate around pin joint 12, throwing earthenware 13 is declined, and throws native blade 28 and buries; Throw earthenware 13 throw soil amount number, namely thin soil lid pressure layer thickness regulate and control by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 14; When not needing to throw soil, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 14 shortens, and drives whole throwing earthenware 13 to rotate around pin joint 12, makes throwing earthenware 13 increase.
The hack that described thin soil lid pressure needs fetches earth by throwing earthenware scene in operation process.
In the present embodiment, the walking power of the double-deck mulch-laying machine of described a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk adopts V belt translation, and the power delivery mode of throwing earthenware 13, discharge roller 26 can adopt Chain conveyer, also can adopt V belt translation.
Described orchard improving straw mulching device is applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area needs soil moisture conservation, the orchard of economizing on water or soil, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve orchard or the soil of soil property and soil organisms microenvironment, or need the orchard or the soil that suppress orchard weed, or need the orchard to soil heat preservation or soil, or the orchard of comprehensive above-mentioned multiple needs or soil, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, as short anvil apple orchard.
Further illustrate the operation principle of the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of self-propelled orchard of the present invention stalk:
Stalk double-deck mulch-laying machine in one of the present invention self-propelled orchard can complete that orchard soil is in small, broken bits and smooth, straw substrate covers and thin soil lid presses step, and for scheme one, detailed process and operation principle are expressed as follows:
As shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6, when carrying out orchard improving straw mulching operation, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 14 extends, and drives whole throwing earthenware 13 to rotate around pin joint 12, throwing earthenware 13 is declined, and throws native blade 28 and buries; Mulch-laying machine in the ranks at the uniform velocity advances in orchard, engine 3 power take-off 4 outputs power, pass to throw earthenware 13 through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 7, power transmission shaft 29, sprocket wheel biography V 25, driving-chain IV 18, sprocket wheel VI 19, the throwing soil blade 28 throwing earthenware is driven to rotate, to orchard in the ranks soil carry out in small, broken bits and smooth, and grogs in small, broken bits is tangentially thrown, dish out backward obliquely from the throwing soil mouth 11 throwing earthenware 13.Throw earthenware 13 pairs of soil and have in small, broken bits, smooth effect.
As shown in Figure 6, the power of discharge roller 26 is outputed power by engine 3 power take-off 4, pass to discharge roller 26 through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 7, power transmission shaft 29, sprocket wheel III 23, driving-chain III 22, sprocket wheel IV 21, drive discharge roller 26 to rotate, stir the even blanking of straw substrate.The roll surface of discharge roller 26 has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk blow tank 10 length direction to be discharged.
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 5, the position of throwing native mouth 11 is in the side-lower of the outlet of stalk blow tank 10, throw the Way out of native mouth 11 for tilting upward backward, the outlet of this direction and described stalk blow tank 10 towards at space intersection, thus, straw substrate stream can be crossing aloft with soil stream.But because the air dynamic behaviour of straw substrate stream and soil stream differs greatly, and the proportion of soil stream, speed, kinetic energy are more much bigger than straw substrate stream, thus the change of straw substrate stream to soil stream trajectory of projection is negligible.
The impact of soil stream on the track of straw substrate stream is mainly drifted about obliquely backward, namely grogs has the effect of clashing into backward obliquely to the crushed straw aggregate met, but due to crushed straw aggregate light specific gravity, front face area is large, its flight coefficient is comparatively large, and air is comparatively large to the resistance of stalk, and crushed straw aggregate is very little by drift distance after grogs effect, thus, soil stream is also less to the change of straw substrate material flow track.Because soil stream landing point is after straw substrate stream, so soil stream can drop on straw substrate cover layer, lid pressure is formed to improving straw mulching layer.
Overburden cover adjusts: when advancing constant airspeed, changes the tectal thickness of size adjustable straw substrate of the rotating speed of discharge roller 26, surface structure and stalk blow tank 10; Change the thickness that the rotating speed throwing native blade 28, the size of throwing native mouth 11 and angle can adjust thin soil lid pressure layer.
In non-covered duty, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 14 shrinks, and drives whole throwing earthenware 13 to rotate around pin joint 12, makes throwing earthenware 13 increase; Power transmission shaft 29 outputting power cuts off, and throwing earthenware 13 and discharge roller 26 stop the rotation, and stalk blow tank 10 is blocked by discharge roller 26, stops discharging.
3 needs special instructions below:
1. a kind of orchard of the present invention improving straw mulching device is except being specially adapted to short anvil apple orchard, also be applicable to need soil moisture conservation, other orchards of economizing on water or soil in Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve other orchards or the soil of soil property and soil organisms microenvironment, or need other orchards or the soil that suppress orchard weed, or need other orchards to soil heat preservation or soil, or other orchards of comprehensive above-mentioned multiple needs or soil.
2. the throwing earthenware of the present invention not work tool such as rotary tillage of the prior art, rake, but there is the device throwing the multiple effect such as pacifically of soil, hack, its Main Function throws soil, and its power demand is less.Thus, before improving straw mulching operation, need first whole to ploughing with other agricultural machinery in the ranks.
3. specification of the present invention and accompanying drawing are in order to clearly demonstrate technical scheme, give some technical scheme details, the restriction of these details not to claims of the present invention.Any distortion of doing these details or amendment, all do not exceed the scope of the claims in the present invention protection.

Claims (8)

1. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of self-propelled orchard stalk, it is characterized in that, described mulch-laying machine is self-propelling, provides locomotor activity for oneself; The vehicle frame (6) of mulch-laying machine is provided with stalk hopper (2), engine (3) is arranged on the rear of stalk hopper (2), it is " V " shape structure at the bottom of the case of stalk hopper (2), the bottom opening of " V " shape structure connects with stalk blow tank (10), be provided with a discharge roller (26) above its bottom opening, the cell body of stalk blow tank (10) is downward-sloping forward; At vehicle frame (6) bottom front, mount one and throw earthenware (13), can oscilaltion, throw the below that earthenware (13) is positioned at stalk hopper (2), throw earthenware (13) shell rear portion and throw Tu Kou (11) to having one rearwardly and upwardly along throwing native blade (28) tangent line, the position of throwing Tu Kou (11) is in the side-lower of the outlet of stalk blow tank (10), throw the Way out of Tu Kou (11) for tilting upward backward, the outlet of this direction and described stalk blow tank (10) is towards at space intersection;
The double-deck mulch-laying machine of described one self-propelled orchard stalk, by straw substrate uniform fold in orchard in the ranks ground, form improving straw mulching layer, and cover one deck thin soil above improving straw mulching layer, form thin soil lid pressure layer.
2. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of one according to claim 1 self-propelled orchard stalk, it is characterized in that, its walking power is by engine (3) power take-off (4) outputting power, pass to gearbox (15) through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (7), chain wheel II (8), driving-chain II (9), drive mulch-laying machine walking; The power throwing earthenware (13) is outputed power by engine (3) power take-off (4), pass to throw earthenware (13) through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (7), power transmission shaft (29), sprocket wheel V (25), driving-chain IV (18), sprocket wheel VI (19), drive throwing soil blade (28) of throwing earthenware to rotate; The power of discharge roller (26) is outputed power by engine (3) power take-off (4), discharge roller (26) is passed to through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (7), power transmission shaft (29), sprocket wheel III (23), driving-chain III (22), sprocket wheel IV (21), drive discharge roller (26) to rotate, stir the even blanking of straw substrate.
3. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of one according to claim 1 self-propelled orchard stalk, it is characterized in that, described discharge roller (26) is arranged on stalk hopper (2) inner " V " shape structural base overthe openings, and its axis direction is vertical with stalk hopper (2) length direction; Discharge roller (26) rotates under sprocket wheel IV (21) drives, and makes straw substrate uniform discharge and controls load; The roll surface of discharge roller (26) has spike-tooth or convex-concave, and the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk blow tank (10) length direction to be discharged; Install speed adjusting gear additional and change discharge roller (26) rotating speed, straw substrate load can be realized, i.e. the regulation and control of straw substrate overburden cover.
4. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of one according to claim 1 self-propelled orchard stalk, it is characterized in that, the native blade of several throwing (28) is axially installed with in described throwing earthenware (13), form roll structure, shell upper and the vehicle frame (6) of throwing earthenware (13) are hinged and connected at pin joint (12) place, throw the hinged a pair hydraulic lifting oil cylinder (14) in front at earthenware (13) cover top portion two ends, the upper end thereof of hydraulic lifting oil cylinder (14) is suspended on vehicle frame (6); When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching work, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder (14) extends, and drives whole throwing earthenware (13) to rotate around pin joint (12), throwing earthenware (13) is declined, throws native blade (28) and bury; Throw earthenware (13) throw soil amount number, namely thin soil lid pressure layer thickness regulate and control by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder (14); When not needing to throw soil, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder (14) shortens, and drives whole throwing earthenware (13) to rotate around pin joint (12), makes throwing earthenware (13) increase.
5. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of one according to claim 1 self-propelled orchard stalk, is characterized in that, the hack that described thin soil lid pressure needs fetches earth by throwing earthenware (13) scene in operation process.
6. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of self-propelled orchard stalk, it is characterized in that, described mulch-laying machine is self-propelling, provides locomotor activity for oneself; The engine (3) of mulch-laying machine is arranged on the back lower place of driver's cabin (1), upper driver's cabin (1) rear portion of vehicle frame (6) is stalk hopper (2), it is " V " shape structure at the bottom of the case of stalk hopper (2), " V " shape structural base opening connects with stalk blow tank (10), be provided with a discharge roller (26) above its bottom opening, the cell body of stalk blow tank (10) is downward-sloping forward; At vehicle frame (6) bottom front, mount one and throw earthenware (13), can oscilaltion, throw the below that earthenware (13) is positioned at stalk hopper (2), throw earthenware (13) shell rear portion and throw Tu Kou (11) to having one rearwardly and upwardly along throwing native blade (28) tangent line, the position of throwing Tu Kou (11) is in the side-lower of the outlet of stalk blow tank (10), throw the Way out of Tu Kou (11) for tilting upward backward, the outlet of this direction and described stalk blow tank (10) is towards at space intersection.
7. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of one according to claim 6 self-propelled orchard stalk, it is characterized in that, its walking power is by engine (3) power take-off (4) outputting power, pass to gearbox (15) through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (7), chain wheel II (8), driving-chain II (9), drive mulch-laying machine walking; The power throwing earthenware (13) is outputed power by engine (3) power take-off (4), pass to throw earthenware (13) through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (7), power transmission shaft (29), sprocket wheel III (23), driving-chain III (22), sprocket wheel IV (21), sprocket wheel V (25), driving-chain IV (18), sprocket wheel VI (19), drive throwing soil blade (28) of throwing earthenware to rotate; The power of discharge roller (26) is outputed power by engine (3) power take-off (4), discharge roller (26) is passed to through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (7), power transmission shaft (29), sprocket wheel III (23), driving-chain III (22), sprocket wheel IV (21), drive discharge roller (26) to rotate, stir the even blanking of straw substrate.
8. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of the self-propelled orchard of the one according to claim 2 or 7 stalk, is characterized in that, the walking power of described mulch-laying machine, the power delivery mode throwing earthenware and discharge roller can adopt V belt translation or Chain conveyer.
CN201510486960.8A 2015-08-11 2015-08-11 Self-propelled two-layer covering machine for straws of orchard Active CN105052404B (en)

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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2532222A1 (en) * 2011-06-10 2012-12-12 CLAAS Selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen GmbH Conditioning apparatus
CN104429384A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-03-25 西北农林科技大学 Orchard straw and surface soil double-layer coverage mechanical operating method and covering machine
CN104429385A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-03-25 西北农林科技大学 Double-layer straw mulch-laying machine for orchard
CN204377363U (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-06-10 西北农林科技大学 A kind of orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil
CN204377459U (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-06-10 西北农林科技大学 A kind of orchard straw covering machine
CN204888034U (en) * 2015-08-11 2015-12-23 西北农林科技大学 Double -deck mulch laying machine of self -propelled orchard straw

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2532222A1 (en) * 2011-06-10 2012-12-12 CLAAS Selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen GmbH Conditioning apparatus
CN104429384A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-03-25 西北农林科技大学 Orchard straw and surface soil double-layer coverage mechanical operating method and covering machine
CN104429385A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-03-25 西北农林科技大学 Double-layer straw mulch-laying machine for orchard
CN204377363U (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-06-10 西北农林科技大学 A kind of orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil
CN204377459U (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-06-10 西北农林科技大学 A kind of orchard straw covering machine
CN204888034U (en) * 2015-08-11 2015-12-23 西北农林科技大学 Double -deck mulch laying machine of self -propelled orchard straw

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