CN105044644B  For the calibration standard choosing method of vector network analyzer Electronic Calibration part  Google Patents
For the calibration standard choosing method of vector network analyzer Electronic Calibration part Download PDFInfo
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 CN105044644B CN105044644B CN201510475248.8A CN201510475248A CN105044644B CN 105044644 B CN105044644 B CN 105044644B CN 201510475248 A CN201510475248 A CN 201510475248A CN 105044644 B CN105044644 B CN 105044644B
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Abstract
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to vector network analysis field, especially a kind of school for vector network analyzer Electronic Calibration part The quasi choosing method of fiducial mark.
Background technology
The various impedance states of vector network analyzer Electronic Calibration part are common by transmission line, electronic switch and electronic standard It is determined that.Due to there is the interconnection of multiple devices in signalling channel, there is multiple discontinuity poinies.The presence pair of these discontinuity poinies Influence can be brought by controlling the parameter of various impedance states, the accurate model for establishing electronic standard is become extremely difficult, brought Multipath reflection can make substantial deviation occurs between the actual S parameter and design load of electronic standard.Along with microcomponent assembling etc. no The influence of factor is determined, there is the phenomenon of " rule violations " the Electronic Calibration part standard room for causing to produce.
After vector network analyzer is calibrated by Electronic Calibration part, the error of vector network analyzer will pass through each mark Accurate calibration value and measured value is quantized, and here it is the solution of port error coefficient.Multiple standards can be provided according to Electronic Calibration Advantage, using Changeable weight Electronic Calibration algorithm to overdetermined systems solve can to improve error coefficient solving precision.
Error coefficient solution procedure is：
A, weighted leastsquares method solution is carried out on each port, obtains reflection error coefficient corresponding to each port .
B, corresponding transmission error coefficient item is solved using ten binomial error models between each two port.
Transmission error term between twoport is solved to common linear equation and solved.And single port reflection error coefficient uses Be overdetermined equation least square solve.Error coefficient directionality, source matching, skin tracking are respectively by E_{DF}、E_{SF}、E_{RF}Represent, Γ_{m}The measured value of electronic standard is represented, Γ represents the scaled values of electronic standard.Error model establishes error coefficient item, to be measured Relation between part actual value, part test value to be measured, as shown in Figure 1.
It can be obtained from error model：
Γ_{m}=E_{DF}(E_{DF}E_{SF}E_{RF})Γ+E_{SF}Γ_{m}Γ (1)
Calibrated for Electronic Calibration part, its calibration module is made up of cmos switch, there is provided calibrates required reflection electronic mark Accurate and straightthrough electronic standard.Schematic diagram is shown in Fig. 2, and 8 control signals are used for selecting calibration standard, so as to complete to calibrate.
(such as port 1) may be constructed 8 electronic standard impedance states on the calibration module single port shown in Fig. 2, Its corresponding standard value is Γ_{1}、Γ_{2}、Γ_{3}、Γ_{4}、Γ_{5}、Γ_{6}、Γ_{7}、Γ_{8}.The determination of standard value is determined by using highly sophisticated device Mark obtains.Measured value in calibration process is Γ_{m1}、Γ_{m2}、Γ_{m3}、Γ_{m4}、Γ_{m5}、Γ_{m6}、Γ_{m7}、Γ_{m8}。
The 8 electronic standard impedance states provided for abovementioned Electronic Calibration part, obtain equation group and are represented with matrix form：
It is simplified shown as：
A × x=b (3)
When solving equation using least square, if there is illcondition matrix, equation will be without solution or in the presence of mistake solution.It is and electric Sub calibrating device can not show a candle to mechanical standard parts index as the MMIC standard indexs realized, but this and without prejudice to these MMIC impedance shapes State is referred to as a kind of Electronic Calibration standard, because Electronic Calibration is multimode using the calibration mode based on data file and multistandard Error coefficient derivation algorithm, accurate error coefficient solution can be equally carried out using these standards, but have three to this standard Individual basic requirement：
1. standard state curve can not avoid correctly carrying out in error coefficient is solved and calculated with the presence of catastrophe point Interpolation calculation.
2. the impedance state of each standard of each Frequency point can be distributed in Smith's artwork and scatter, i.e., each electronics mark Quasi impedance state will have independence, so can guarantee that listed equation group is nonillcondition matrix in error coefficient solution procedure, reduce The solving precision of error coefficient.
3. the impedance state of standard will have stability, it can keep stable in longer time, avoid frequently calibrating Operation.
From figure 3, it can be seen that with the rise of frequency, near 40GHz, the impedance curve of each standard is gradually screwed in one Rise, the phenomenon that this impedance state reaches unanimity cannot be guaranteed the independence of electronic standard.So as to it cannot be guaranteed that least square During solution, equation (3) occurs without morbid state.
Also have in other module and be used for temperature controlled circuit.Moduleexternal also needs to assemble corresponding microwave module joint.
That is, the identical standard scaled values after different Electronic Calibration part assemblings, are distinguishing.This inconsistency When also result in equation (3) solution, it is impossible to the calibrating device characteristic of whole batch is determined by the characteristic of some calibrating device.
Existing Electronic Calibration part in terms of index is improved, mainly by detailed MMIC designs, strict flow technique, The methods of highprecision connector design.Algorithmically processing mainly is weighted to carry on the basis of original least square High calibration accuracy.
Improvement from technique, design aspect is the basic of raising Electronic Calibration part calibration accuracy.But existing process Fixed with design, the limited allowance of raising.
, it is necessary to which the characteristic according to calibrating device standard carries out weights when being improved by weighted leastsquares method to calibration accuracy Setting.Because calibrating device batch uniformity is difficult to ensure that, it is impossible to carry out weight computing to some Electronic Calibration part, then apply Calibration to whole calibrating devices calculates, you can productivity is poor.
The content of the invention
In order to solve the deficiencies in the prior art, the present invention proposes a kind of for vector network analyzer Electronic Calibration part Calibration standard choosing method.
The present invention adopts the following technical scheme that：
For the calibration standard choosing method of vector network analyzer Electronic Calibration part, it is characterised in that the calibration mark Quasi choosing method uses following steps：
Step 1, the scaled values of Electronic Calibration part are converted into the numerical value on Smith chart, the calibration of Electronic Calibration part Value number is n；
Step 2, the correlation values r (i, j) gone out using equation solution between various criterion scaled values；
Step 3, all correlation values obtained in step 2 are formed into matrix R；
Step 4, related tolerance threshold value z (0 is set<z<1)；
Step 5, combined using selection standard come selection standard；
Step 6, in Electronic Calibration part firmware program, the standard combination of the selection of markers step 5；
Step 7, when being calibrated using Electronic Calibration part, the standard of selected marker measures and carries out asking for single port error Solution；
Step 8, using single port error, transmission tracking, load matched error are obtained with reference to straightthrough measurement data.
In the step 2 correlation values between various criterion scaled values are solved using equation below：
Wherein：T is scaling point, and p is that scaling point is total, Γ_{it}For scaled values of ith of standard on scaling point t,For The average value of all scaled values of ith of standard, r (i, j) represent the correlation of ith of standard and jth of standard, and r (i, j) =r (j, i).
Matrix R is in the step 3：
In the step 5 following steps are used using selection standard come selection standard combination：
A, the criterion numeral chosen is v, makes v=n；
If B, v≤3, without satisfactory combination, computing is exited；
If v>3, it is (a total of that v standard is chosen in n standardIndividual combination), Correlation Moment is obtained by step 3 for each combination Battle array, and be denoted asTo R_{v1}Matrix element modulus value, then element is cumulative obtainsSimilarly matrix It is calculatedFromIn find minimum value, be denoted as
C, it is rightWhether meet that the threshold requirement that step 4 is set is judged, judge whether to meet threshold requirement：If meeting this requirement, record is formedStandard, successfully exit；If being unsatisfactory for this requirement, v reduces 1, weight Multiple step B, is again introduced into circulation and carries out calculating judgement；
Wherein,The influence of diagonal entry is excluded, v (v1) is the sum of surplus element.
Use the advantageous effects that as above technical scheme obtains for：
The present invention takes full advantage of the characteristics of Electronic Calibration part can be with storage information, and available standards are marked, without Hardware aspect is modified.
The present invention is calculated by calibrating device canonical measure, using the correlation for calibrating Electronic Calibration part standard, is calculated The weak standard of correlation is obtained to correlation matrix, and according to threshold value, can effectively avoid the phenomenon of " rule violations ", the mark of mark Standard is applied in calibration process, improves the speed and precision of calibration, and productibility is strong.
Standard selection course is after the calibration of Electronic Calibration part, it is only necessary to is calculated automatically by program according to calibration data, nothing It need to artificially participate in, be adapted to automated production.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is single port error model.
Fig. 2 is dualport electronic standard structure chart.
Fig. 3 is electronic standard part impedance plot.
Fig. 4 is the flow chart combined using selection standard come selection standard.
Embodiment
The embodiment of the present invention is described further with reference to accompanying drawing 4：
For the calibration standard choosing method of vector network analyzer Electronic Calibration part, it is characterised in that the calibration mark Quasi choosing method uses following steps：
Step 1, the scaled values (being typically real part imaginary numbers) of Electronic Calibration part are converted on Smith chart Numerical value, the scaled values number of Electronic Calibration part is n；
Step 2, the correlation values r (i, j) gone out using equation solution between various criterion scaled values；
Step 3, all correlation values obtained in step 2 are formed into matrix R；
Step 4, related tolerance threshold value z (0 is set<z<1)；
Step 5, combined using selection standard come selection standard；
Step 6, in Electronic Calibration part firmware program, the standard combination of the selection of markers step 5；
Step 7, when being calibrated using Electronic Calibration part, the standard of selected marker measures and carries out asking for single port error Solution；
Step 8, using single port error, transmission tracking, load matched error are obtained with reference to straightthrough measurement data.
In the step 2 correlation values between various criterion scaled values are solved using equation below：
Wherein：T is scaling point, and p is that scaling point is total, Γ_{it}For scaled values of ith of standard on scaling point t,For The average value of all scaled values of i standard, the correlation of r (i, j) expression ith of standard and jth of standard, and r (i, j)= r(j,i)。
Matrix R is in the step 3：
In the step 5 following steps are used using selection standard come selection standard combination：
A, the criterion numeral chosen is v, makes v=n；
B, if v≤3 (because forming least squares equation needs to meet that equation number is more than unknown number, meet that equation (2) is more than The requirement of 3 unknown numbers), then without satisfactory combination, exit computing；
If v>3, it is (a total of that v standard is chosen in n standardIndividual combination), obtained for each combination by step 3 Correlation matrix, and be denoted asTo R_{v1}Matrix element modulus value, then element is cumulative obtainsSimilarly matrixIt is calculatedFromIn find minimum value, be denoted as
C, it is rightWhether meet that the threshold requirement that step 4 is set is judged, judge whether to meet threshold requirement：If meeting this requirement, record is formedStandard, successfully exit；If being unsatisfactory for this requirement, v reduces 1, weight Multiple step B, is again introduced into circulation and carries out calculating judgement；
Wherein,The influence of diagonal entry is excluded, v (v1) is the sum of surplus element.
N is criterion numeral altogether, and by taking n=8 as an example, v is the criterion numeral chosen.When calculating beginning, v=n (=8) is made.Enter Enter Rule of judgment, if v≤3 (because forming least squares equation needs to meet that equation number is more than unknown number, meet that equation (2) is big In the requirement of 3 unknown numbers), then without satisfactory combination, exit computing.
v>3, it is (a total of that v standard is chosen in n standardIndividual combination), for each combination by formulaCorrelation matrix is calculated, and is denoted as(example as v=7, R_{v1}It is corresponding Standard be 1,2,3,4,5,6,7；R_{v2}Corresponding standard is 1,2,3,4,5,6,8；R_{v3}Corresponding standard is 1,2,3,4,5,7, 8；…).To R_{v1}Matrix element modulus value, then element is cumulative obtainsSimilarly matrixIt is calculatedFromIn find minimum value, be denoted as
Finally need pairThe threshold requirement for whether meeting to set before is judged.Because the master in correlation matrix Diagonal entry is 1, and (such as correlation matrix numerical value is in certain calculating), so first excluding diagonal The influence of line element, willThen again divided by surplus element total v (v1).Finally judge whether to meet that threshold value will Ask：If meeting this requirement, desired standard combination is obtained, is successfully exited.If being unsatisfactory for this requirement, v is reduced 1, it is again introduced into circulation and carries out calculating judgement.
Said process is the correlation analysis of whole frequency range.Find " rule violations " occur in lowfrequency range by Fig. 3 and test Probability it is relatively low, and highfrequency occur probability it is higher.So for the wider Electronic Calibration part of frequency coverage, take The mode of segmentation is handled.Such as 45M67G Electronic Calibration parts, it is divided into 45M15G, 15G30G, 30G45G, 45G67G tetra Individual section, carry out calculating processing.
Certainly, described above is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, and the present invention is not limited to enumerate abovedescribed embodiment, should When explanation, any those skilled in the art are all equivalent substitutes for being made, bright under the guidance of this specification Aobvious variant, all falls within the essential scope of this specification, ought to be protected by the present invention.
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Effective date of registration: 20190304 Address after: 266555 Xiangjiang 98, Huangdao District, Qingdao City, Shandong Province Patentee after: China Electronics Technology Instrument and Meter Co., Ltd. Address before: 266555 No. 98 Xiangjiang Road, Qingdao economic and Technological Development Zone, Shandong Patentee before: The 41st Institute of CETC 

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