CN105042578A - Coal and tobacco stem multi-fuel-fired boiler and contaminant control method thereof - Google Patents

Coal and tobacco stem multi-fuel-fired boiler and contaminant control method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105042578A
CN105042578A CN201510499433.0A CN201510499433A CN105042578A CN 105042578 A CN105042578 A CN 105042578A CN 201510499433 A CN201510499433 A CN 201510499433A CN 105042578 A CN105042578 A CN 105042578A
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China
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air
bed
high speed
speed bed
communicated
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CN105042578B (en
Inventor
杨恒
别如山
张建忠
张其龙
雷放鸣
李录良
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Hunan Bomao Energy Saving Environmental Protection Science & Technology Co Ltd
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Hunan Bomao Energy Saving Environmental Protection Science & Technology Co Ltd
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C10/00Fluidised bed combustion apparatus
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C10/00Fluidised bed combustion apparatus
    • F23C10/18Details; Accessories
    • F23C10/20Inlets for fluidisation air, e.g. grids; Bottoms
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C10/00Fluidised bed combustion apparatus
    • F23C10/18Details; Accessories
    • F23C10/22Fuel feeders specially adapted for fluidised bed combustion apparatus
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C10/00Fluidised bed combustion apparatus
    • F23C10/18Details; Accessories
    • F23C10/24Devices for removal of material from the bed
    • F23C10/26Devices for removal of material from the bed combined with devices for partial reintroduction of material into the bed, e.g. after separation of agglomerated parts
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes

Abstract

The invention discloses a coal and tobacco stem multi-fuel-fired boiler and a contaminant control method thereof, and belongs to the field of coal and tobacco stem waste multi-fuel-fired biomass boilers. The problems of slag-bonding, coking and ash depositing in multi-fuel combustion of coals and tobacco stems are solved. A combustion chamber outlet is formed in the upper part of a fluidized bed combustion chamber; first and second cooling chambers are sequentially arranged behind the combustion chamber outlet; the two cooling chambers are separated by a middle film type water-cooling wall partition wall; the lower end of the middle film type water-cooling wall partition wall is communicated with a lower header by a lower steam drum; the lower header is connected with a U-shaped slot separator; a smoke gas outlet of the second cooling chamber is communicated with a first convection tube bank; the first convection tube bank is communicated with a second convection tube bank; the second convection tube bank is communicated with a tail smoke gas channel; the tail smoke gas channel is provided with a coal economizer as well as a primary air pre-heater and a secondary air pre-heater; lower-end outlets of the two cooling chambers are communicated with an ash return tube; the ash return tube is communicated with a fluidized bed dense-phase zone; and the tail smoke gas channel is communicated with a semidry-method desulfurizing tower and a bag dust collector. The boiler disclosed by the invention is used for multi-fuel combustion of coals and tobacco stems.

Description

Coal and offal multi-fuel fired boiler and pollutant catabolic gene method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to coal-fired and offal cofiring burning boiler, belong to coal and tobacco stem waste multifuel combustion biomass boiler field.
Background technology
Offal the like waste is the accessory substance of tobacco industry, is the primary raw material producing false smoke, and national policy requires to destroy.Redrying enterprise taked the mode such as landfill or burning to make Disposal more in the past, easily caused severe contamination, welding to the air of periphery, water, soil, and formed the leak in great potential safety hazard and tobacco monopolization supervision.Tobacco redrying processing needs to consume a large amount of fuel, causes production cost to increase, if adopt offal to provide steam required for production as fuel to redrying enterprise, develops a circular economy, be vast redrying enterprise must in the face of and be badly in need of the problem of solution.Some redrying enterprises adopt mode chain furnace combustion offal for this reason, found that the offal incomplete combustion on fire grate, in black, inboard wall of burner hearth dust stratification, salification are extremely serious, and reason is that the offal moisture absorption is very competent, after placing a period of time in the open, moisture content reaches 23 ~ 25%, at the offal ignition of stoker surface, and missing of ignition below, cause burning not to the utmost; In addition, containing a large amount of potassium and chlorine (potassium application is caused) in offal, a large amount of KCl(fusing point 776 DEG C in combustion process, is generated), serious at burner hearth and back-end surfaces salification, dust stratification.Some enterprises adopt first gasifies offal in gasification furnace, and then combustion gasification gas, and found that offal gasification produces a large amount of tar, blocking pipe and burner nozzle, finally lead to the failure.So; people contemplate and adopt CFBC offal to be perhaps a kind of feasible way; the patent No. is that the utility model patent of ZL201420555405.7 discloses a kind of offal fluidized-bed combustion boiler; this boiler comprises body of heater, cyclone separator and smoke exhaust pipe, and body of heater is divided into again main chamber and subsidiary combustion chamber; primary combustor chamber exit connects subsidiary combustion chamber; subsidiary combustion chamber is connected with cyclone separator, in main chamber except the First air under air distribution plate, also arranges secondary air channel and coal-water slurry nozzle.Following table 1, table 2 are a kind of ash component and ash fusion point analysis data of offal.
The ash component analysis of table 1 offal
K 2O CaO Cl SO 3 Fe 2O 3 MgO SiO 2 Na 2O Al 2O 3 MnO 2 P 2O 5
45.8 17.27 15.03 6.23 1.16 5.83 2.32 0.75 0.98 0.21 4.42
The ash fusion point of table 2 offal
Deformation temperature DT Softening temperature ST Hemispherical fusion temperature ST Flowing temperature FT
729 738 761 780
From above-mentioned table 1, table 2, K in the ash component of offal 2it is 15.03% that O content reaches 45.8%, Cl content, and in ash fusion point, softening temperature is 738 DEG C, so offal is very easy to slagging scorification, coking and dust stratification in combustion.The chain furnace run and the operation result of fluidized-bed combustion boiler demonstrate this point.So can infer, disclosed in above-mentioned utility model patent, offal fluidized-bed combustion boiler will exist following problem: easily coking in (1) separator, because temperature far exceedes the softening temperature of ash in separator; (2) return material valve for separator returns ash difficulty, because arrange the 3rd air inlet on dipleg, grey temperature is raised, and viscosity strengthens, and causes back ash difficulty; (3) easily coking, slagging scorification in burner hearth.Because arrange cool water mixture burning nozzle in main chamber, water coal slurry burner flame kernel temperature, generally between 1200 ~ 1300 DEG C, has far exceeded the flowing temperature of offal ash fusion point, and ash erosion, coking are inevitable.
Application number 201410296765.4, publication No. are that the application for a patent for invention of CN104033884.A discloses " a kind of living beings are offal boiler particularly ", and this offal boiler adopts three burner hearths, multi units tube to shield and multiple material returning device device.The CFBB of the burning smoke stalk designed by this patent application, is auxiliary fuel with coal, in actual application, finds to there is following problem:
1) because offal ash fusion point is low, the grey viscosity of returning charge causes greatly loopback not smooth, returning charge passage often blocks;
2) due to revert system cisco unity malfunction, emulsion zone carry heat is only out controlled bed temperature by First air by lower furnace portion emulsion zone temperature, and cause emulsion zone temperature to raise, very difficult control in the reasonable scope;
3) when bed temperature is more than 900 DEG C, be no more than 20 hours running time, emulsion zone just serious coking in stove, dilute-phase zone water-cooling wall Serious Slagging, needs blowing out to clear up;
4) afterbody dust stratification is serious, and boiler runs under 35% load, and exhaust gas temperature reaches 140 DEG C, and illustrate that afterbody dust stratification is abnormal serious, boiler thermal output significantly reduces;
5) boiler feeding point is zone of positive pressure, needs, by air-introduced machine, feeding point is pulled into negative pressure, otherwise will outwards smolder, during actual motion, under 35% load, furnace outlet negative pressure is-438Pa, if oepration at full load, furnace outlet will reach-800Pa ~-1000Pa, increase air-introduced machine power consumption.
From above-mentioned table 2, the ash fusion point of offal is very low, wants to make boiler safety stable operation, must adopt an effective measure and improve the ash fusion point of offal, ignition temperature controlled in lower temperature range, otherwise it be impossible for will realizing safe and stable operation simultaneously.Because fluid bed running temperature is generally low than the softening temperature of fuel ash fusing point 200 DEG C, and the softening temperature of offal ash only has 738 DEG C, by this principle, boiler should run at 538 DEG C, and this can not realize.For this reason, must add suitable additive to improve the ash fusion point of offal, in addition, the design principle of coal and offal multi-fuel fired boiler how to control the dust stratification problem of lower furnace portion combustion zone temperature, furnace exit temperature and back-end surfaces well.
Because what single fire offal can not meet Redrying Factory uses vapour demand, so current way provides whole process steams by coal and offal multifuel combustion, boiler steam capacity being greater than to more than 10t/h can obtain environmental protection examination & approval.Employing coal is auxiliary fuel, and advantage is that (1) operating cost is low, and the ash (2) after coal combustion can be expected as bed, does not need additionally to add bed material; But need to solve the problems such as the coking of bed material, afterbody dust stratification and desulfurization.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of coal and offal multi-fuel fired boiler and pollutant catabolic gene method thereof, to solve the problem that coal and offal multifuel combustion exist slagging scorification, coking, dust stratification.
Realize above-mentioned purpose, technical scheme of the present invention is:
Coal of the present invention and offal multi-fuel fired boiler, comprise fluidized bed combustion chamber, fluid bed dilute-phase zone, fluid bed emulsion zone, many pipe layings, high speed bed air distribution plate, two low speed bed air distribution plates, high speed bed air compartment, low speed bed air compartment, slag-drip opening, multiple overfiren air port, left and right wall fin panel casing, front-back wall fin panel casing, combustor exit, first cooling chamber, U-type groove separator, middle fin panel casing partition wall, second cooling chamber, exhanst gas outlet, steamdrum, water drum, first convection calandria, convection calandria dividing wall, second convection calandria, tail flue gas passage, multiple pulse soot blower, economizer, First air air preheater, air preheater of secondary air, feed back nozzle, ash returning tube, material inlet, semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower, sack cleaner, recirculation blower, air-introduced machine, chimney, lower header,
Described fluidized bed combustion indoor are divided into fluid bed dilute-phase zone and fluid bed emulsion zone from top to bottom, the middle part of described fluid bed emulsion zone is high speed bed, be positioned at high speed bed in fluid bed emulsion zone be each side one low speed bed, described high speed bed air distribution plate is laid in bottom high speed bed, described two low speed bed air distribution plates are laid in two low speed bed bottoms, the enclosed cavity of high speed bed air distribution plate bottom is high speed bed air compartment, the enclosed cavity of two low speed bed air distribution plate bottoms is two low speed bed air compartments, described many pipe layings be laid in low speed bed in, the upper end of slag-drip opening communicates with high speed bed through high speed bed air distribution plate, described multiple overfiren air port is arranged on fluid bed dilute-phase zone bottom, fluid bed dilute-phase zone is provided with left and right wall fin panel casing and front-back wall fin panel casing, the top of fluidized bed combustion chamber is provided with combustor exit, the first cooling chamber and the second cooling chamber is provided with successively after combustor exit, described combustor exit communicates with the first cooling chamber, described first cooling chamber and the second cooling chamber are separated by middle fin panel casing partition wall, the upper end of described middle fin panel casing partition wall is communicated with steamdrum, the lower end of middle fin panel casing partition wall is communicated with lower header, described lower header communicates with water drum, lower header is connected with U-type groove separator simultaneously, the lower end of middle fin panel casing partition wall is connected with U-type groove separator, described second cooling chamber top is provided with exhanst gas outlet, the top of described left and right wall fin panel casing and front-back wall fin panel casing is all communicated with steamdrum, the bottom of left and right wall fin panel casing and front-back wall fin panel casing is all communicated with water drum, described exhanst gas outlet communicates with the first convection calandria entrance point, the port of export of described first convection calandria communicates with the entrance point of the second convection calandria, described first convection calandria and the second convection calandria are separated by convection calandria dividing wall, the port of export of described second convection calandria communicates with the arrival end of tail flue gas passage, economizer is disposed with from top to bottom in described tail flue gas passage, First air air preheater and air preheater of secondary air, in top and the bottom of the first convection calandria and the second convection calandria, economizer, the porch of First air air preheater and air preheater of secondary air arranges multiple pulse soot blower respectively, first cooling chamber communicates with the second cooling chamber lower end, first cooling chamber communicates with ash returning tube with the conjoint outlet of the second cooling chamber lower end, the entrance point of described ash returning tube is provided with feed back nozzle, the port of export of ash returning tube communicates with fluid bed emulsion zone, described material inlet communicates with high speed bed and arranges, the port of export of tail flue gas passage is communicated with the arrival end of semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower through flue, the port of export of described semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower is communicated with sack cleaner arrival end, the port of export of described sack cleaner is communicated with recirculation blower arrival end with air-introduced machine respectively by flue, the port of export of described air-introduced machine is communicated with chimney, the port of export of described recirculation blower is communicated with high speed bed air compartment and feed back nozzle by flue.
The method utilizing coal and offal multi-fuel fired boiler to realize pollutant catabolic gene of the present invention, described method comprises the steps:
Step one: the kaolin additive of coal and offal and diameter≤2mm enters the high speed bed combustion of described fluid bed emulsion zone by gravity through material inlet, the heat that burning produces by be laid in fluidized bed combustion chamber low speed bed in many imbedded pipe heat-exchangings after control the high speed bed of fluid bed emulsion zone and low speed bed temperature between 800 ~ 850 DEG C; Meanwhile, First air enters in high speed bed air compartment after the preheating of First air air preheater, enters the burning of high speed bed through high speed bed air distribution plate; Secondary Air is after air preheater of secondary air preheating, and a part is sent into low speed bed air compartment and entered low speed bed participation burning through low speed bed air distribution plate, and the remainder of Secondary Air enters fluid bed dilute-phase zone by multiple overfiren air port and participates in burning;
Step 2: the flue gas that burning produces is after being arranged on left and right wall fin panel casing in fluid bed dilute-phase zone and front-back wall fin panel casing radiation heat transfer, at combustor exit place, flue-gas temperature is down to less than 650 DEG C, flue gas enters the first cooling chamber afterwards, through U-type groove separator, imperfect combustion offal and carbonaceous particles are separated, and burnt away in ash returning tube feeding fluid bed emulsion zone by feed back nozzle;
Step 3: the flue gas after U-type groove separator is separated enters the second cooling chamber, enter the first convection calandria and the second convection calandria by the exhanst gas outlet being arranged on the second cooling chamber top below cigarette temperature drop to 500 DEG C, separated by convection calandria dividing wall between the first convection calandria and the second convection calandria, flue gas enters back-end ductwork afterwards, and successively after economizer and First air air preheater and air preheater of secondary air heat exchange, under declared working condition, flue-gas temperature enters in semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower after being down to 130 ~ 150 DEG C, enter afterwards in sack cleaner, flue gas after dedusting wind is sent in high speed bed air compartment and feed back nozzle by circulating fan, realize flue gas recirculation, control fluid bed emulsion zone temperature between 800 ~ 850 DEG C, the oxygen concentration of control combustion room outlet is simultaneously between 3 ~ 4%, remainder flue gas after dedusting is sent into chimney through air-introduced machine and is entered in air.
The present invention relative to the beneficial effect of prior art is:
1, offal is sent in high speed bed and is burnt by the present invention together with coal and kaolin, at low speed bed interior layout pipe laying, absorbs the heat that the burning of high speed bed produces, and controls fluid bed emulsion zone temperature in 800 ~ 850 DEG C; Because low speed bed speed is low, wearing and tearing significantly alleviate, and pipe laying reaches more than 30,000 hours service life.
2, adopt First air and Secondary Air fractional combustion and flue gas recirculation, NOx(is with NO 2meter, O 2=9%) concentration of emission is lower than 100mg/m 3, far below the emission request of up-to-date environmental emission standard GB13271-2014.
3, use flue gas cooling chamber, the flue-gas temperature entering convection calandria is reduced to less than 500 DEG C, and make the dust stratification of convection calandria and back-end surfaces be loose dust stratification, pulse soot blower is easy to removing and gets off.
4, the present invention adopts kaolin as additive, and addition is 3 ~ 10% of offal weight, the ash fusion point of offal can be brought up to more than 1100 DEG C, thoroughly solves offal burning bed material coking problem at 800 ~ 850 DEG C.
5, before sack cleaner, arrange semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower, desulfuration efficiency reaches more than 80%, meets SO 2concentration of emission reaches 100mg/m 3following requirement.
To sum up, the present invention take coal as auxiliary fuel, adopts kaolin (Al simultaneously 2o 3nSiO 2) as additive, the KCl produced after kaolin and offal burn reacts and generates K (AlSi 3o 8) (potassic feldspar), its fusing point reaches more than 1100 DEG C, thoroughly solves a fluid bed emulsion zone coking difficult problem; In order to ensure that back-end surfaces dust stratification is loose dust stratification, 13 temperature must be exported below 650 DEG C in control combustion room, after cooling chamber heat exchange cooling, before entering afterbody waste heat boiler, cigarette temperature is lower than 500 DEG C, and such back-end surfaces well can remove the dust stratification on pipe under impulse soot blowing effect.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is overall structure front view of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the N-N sectional view in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is the K-K sectional view in Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is the L-L sectional view in Fig. 2.
In figure: fluidized bed combustion chamber 1, fluid bed dilute-phase zone 2, fluid bed emulsion zone 3, pipe laying 4, high speed bed air distribution plate 5, low speed bed air distribution plate 6, high speed bed air compartment 7, low speed bed air compartment 8, slag-drip opening 9, overfiren air port 10, left and right wall fin panel casing 11, front-back wall fin panel casing 12, combustor exit 13, first cooling chamber 14, U-type groove separator 15, middle fin panel casing partition wall 16, second cooling chamber 17, exhanst gas outlet 18, steamdrum 19, water drum 20, first convection calandria 21, convection calandria dividing wall 22, second convection calandria 23, tail flue gas passage 24, pulse soot blower 25, economizer 26, First air air preheater 27-1, air preheater of secondary air 27-2, feed back nozzle 28, ash returning tube 29, material inlet 30, semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower 31, sack cleaner 32, recirculation blower 33, air-introduced machine 34, chimney 35, lower header 36, controllable register 37.
Detailed description of the invention
Detailed description of the invention one: as shown in Fig. 1 ~ Fig. 4, coal and offal multi-fuel fired boiler, comprise fluidized bed combustion chamber 1, fluid bed dilute-phase zone 2, fluid bed emulsion zone 3, many pipe layings 4, high speed bed air distribution plate 5, two low speed bed air distribution plates 6, high speed bed air compartment 7, low speed bed air compartment 8, slag-drip opening 9, multiple overfiren air port 10, left and right wall fin panel casing 11, front-back wall fin panel casing 12, combustor exit 13, first cooling chamber 14, U-type groove separator 15, middle fin panel casing partition wall 16, second cooling chamber 17, exhanst gas outlet 18, steamdrum 19, water drum 20, first convection calandria 21, convection calandria dividing wall (employing membrane wall) 22, second convection calandria 23, tail flue gas passage 24, multiple pulse soot blower 25, economizer 26, First air air preheater 27-1, air preheater of secondary air 27-2, feed back nozzle 28, ash returning tube 29, material inlet 30, semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower 31, sack cleaner 32, recirculation blower 33, air-introduced machine 34, chimney 35, lower header 36, it is characterized in that:
Fluid bed dilute-phase zone 2 and fluid bed emulsion zone 3 is divided into from top to bottom in described fluidized bed combustion chamber 1, the middle part of described fluid bed emulsion zone 3 is high speed bed, be positioned at high speed bed in fluid bed emulsion zone 3 be each side one low speed bed, described high speed bed air distribution plate 5 is laid in bottom high speed bed, described two low speed bed air distribution plates 6 are laid in two low speed bed bottoms, the enclosed cavity of high speed bed air distribution plate 5 bottom is high speed bed air compartment 7, the enclosed cavity of two low speed bed air distribution plate 6 bottoms is two low speed bed air compartments 8, described many pipe layings 4 be laid in low speed bed in, the upper end of slag-drip opening 9 communicates with high speed bed through high speed bed air distribution plate 5, described multiple overfiren air port 10 is arranged on fluid bed dilute-phase zone 2 bottom (being positioned at the top of pipe laying 4), fluid bed dilute-phase zone 2 is provided with left and right wall fin panel casing 11 and front-back wall fin panel casing 12, the top of fluidized bed combustion chamber 1 is provided with combustor exit 13, the first cooling chamber 14 and the second cooling chamber 17 is provided with successively after combustor exit 13, described combustor exit 13 communicates with the first cooling chamber 14, described first cooling chamber 14 and the second cooling chamber 17 are separated by middle fin panel casing partition wall 16, the upper end of described middle fin panel casing partition wall 16 is communicated with steamdrum 19, the lower end of middle fin panel casing partition wall 16 is communicated with lower header 36, described lower header 36 communicates with water drum 20, lower header 36 is connected with U-type groove separator 15 simultaneously, described second cooling chamber 17 top is provided with exhanst gas outlet 18, the top of described left and right wall fin panel casing 11 and front-back wall fin panel casing 12 is all communicated with steamdrum 19, the bottom of left and right wall fin panel casing 11 and front-back wall fin panel casing 12 is all communicated with water drum 20, described exhanst gas outlet 18 communicates with the first convection calandria 21 entrance point, the port of export of described first convection calandria 21 communicates with the entrance point of the second convection calandria 23, described first convection calandria 21 and the second convection calandria 23 adopt membrane wall by convection calandria dividing wall 22() separate, the port of export of described second convection calandria 23 communicates with the arrival end of tail flue gas passage 24, economizer 26 is disposed with from top to bottom in described tail flue gas passage 24, First air air preheater 27-1 and air preheater of secondary air 27-2, in top and the bottom of the first convection calandria 21 and the second convection calandria 23, economizer 26, the porch of First air air preheater 27-1 and air preheater of secondary air 27-2 arranges that multiple pulse soot blower 25(is for removing the loose dust stratification on heating surface in time respectively, ensure that exhaust gas temperature is between 130 ~ 150 DEG C), first cooling chamber 14 communicates with the second cooling chamber 17 lower end, first cooling chamber 14 communicates with ash returning tube 29 with the conjoint outlet of the second cooling chamber 17 lower end, the entrance point of described ash returning tube 29 is provided with feed back nozzle 28, feedback air is from recirculation blower 33, the port of export of ash returning tube 29 communicates with fluid bed emulsion zone 3, described material inlet 30 communicates with high speed bed and arranges, the port of export of tail flue gas passage 24 is communicated with through the arrival end of flue with semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower 31, the port of export of described semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower 31 is communicated with sack cleaner 32 arrival end, the port of export of described sack cleaner 32 is communicated with recirculation blower 33 arrival end with air-introduced machine 34 respectively by flue, the port of export of described air-introduced machine 34 is communicated with chimney 35, the port of export of described recirculation blower 33 is communicated with high speed bed air compartment 7 and feed back nozzle 28 by flue.
Detailed description of the invention two: as shown in Figure 1; coal described in detailed description of the invention one and offal multi-fuel fired boiler; the flue be communicated with the arrival end of described recirculation blower 33 and the port of export of sack cleaner 32 is provided with controllable register 37, for regulating amount of circulating gas.
Detailed description of the invention three: as shown in Fig. 1 ~ Fig. 4, utilize coal and offal multi-fuel fired boiler described in detailed description of the invention one or two realize the method for pollutant catabolic gene, and described method comprises the steps:
Step one: the kaolin (additive) of coal and offal and diameter≤2mm enters the high speed bed combustion of described fluid bed emulsion zone 3 (owing to being negative pressure feed through material inlet 30 by gravity, material inlet 30 is tiny structure, can not outside flame, when combustor exit 13 negative pressure just can realize negative pressure feed for during-150Pa left and right), the heat that burning produces is by controlling the high speed bed of fluid bed emulsion zone 3 and low speed bed temperature after being laid in low speed bed interior many pipe layings 4 heat exchange of fluidized bed combustion chamber 1 between 800 ~ 850 DEG C; Meanwhile, First air enters in high speed bed air compartment 7 after First air air preheater 27-1 preheating, enters the burning of high speed bed through high speed bed air distribution plate 5; Secondary Air is after air preheater of secondary air 27-2 preheating, a part is sent into low speed bed air compartment 8 and is entered low speed bed participation burning through low speed bed air distribution plate 6, the remainder of Secondary Air by multiple overfiren air port 10 enter fluid bed dilute-phase zone 2 participate in burning (mode of this fractional combustion for the discharge of control NOx, about high speed bed and low speed bed structure and operational factor publication number be CN102901212B, publication date is disclose in the patent of invention " a kind of fire the low circulation fluidized bed hot-water boiler of inferior fuel and combustion method thereof " of on 03 11st, 2015);
In order to solve offal burning coking problem, selecting suitable additive very crucial, being found by research, kaolin (Al 2o 3.nSiO 2) ash fusion point of living beings can be improved, its principle is Al 2o 3.nSiO 2can react with KCl and generate high-melting-point substances K (AlSi 3o 8) (potassic feldspar), fusing point reaches 1100 DEG C, therefore solves the coking problem of bed material, so select the kaolin of diameter≤2mm to do additive, bed temperature controls between 800 ~ 850 DEG C, practice shows, kaolin can solve a difficult problem for offal burning bed material coking well.
Because bed material and offal density difference are very large, mixing of materials is evenly very important; The speed of high speed bed is high, it is generally low speed bed more than 2 times, high speed bed material translate into low speed bed on, low speed bed material is got back to again in high speed bed under fluidisation wind action, make it high speed bed and low speed bed between form strong material Inner eycle, thus it is very even to cause offal to mix with bed material.
The ash produced after coal and offal burn and kaolin react and form high-melting-point substances, cause bed material to be grown up gradually, and form spheric granules, when particle diameter is grown up to more than 8mm, due to spheric granules, (main component is Al 2o 3and SiO 2) density is large, just there will be fluidisation difficulty, at this moment need bulky grain to be discharged by slag-drip opening 9, ensure fluid bed emulsion zone 3 active fluidization.Due to self-assembling formation bed material after coal combustion, so, need not additionally add bed material.
In order to the concentration of emission of control NOx is lower than the discharge standard of GB13271-2014, while adopting First air, Secondary Air fractional combustion, also adopting flue gas recirculating technique to control fluid bed emulsion zone 3 temperature is 800 ~ 850 DEG C, and the oxygen concentration of combustor exit 13, between 3 ~ 4%, makes NOx(with NO 2meter, O 2=9%) concentration of emission is lower than 100mg/m 3.
Step 2: the flue gas that burning produces is after being arranged on left and right wall fin panel casing 11 in fluid bed dilute-phase zone 2 and front-back wall fin panel casing 12 radiation heat transfer, at combustor exit 13 place, flue-gas temperature is down to less than 650 DEG C, flue gas enters the first cooling chamber 14(surrounding is afterwards membrane wall), through U-type groove separator 15, imperfect combustion offal and carbonaceous particles are separated, and sent in fluid bed emulsion zone 3 burn away (raising efficiency of combustion) through ash returning tube 29 by feed back nozzle 28;
Step 3: it is membrane wall that the flue gas after U-type groove separator 15 is separated enters the second cooling chamber 17(surrounding), below cigarette temperature drop to 500 DEG C and enter the first convection calandria 21 by the exhanst gas outlet 18 being arranged on the second cooling chamber 17 top and between the second convection calandria 23, first convection calandria 21 and the second convection calandria 23 by convection calandria dividing wall 22(fin panel casing 22) separate, flue gas enters back-end ductwork 24 afterwards, and successively after economizer 26 and First air air preheater 27-1 and air preheater of secondary air 27-2 heat exchange, under declared working condition, flue-gas temperature enters after being down to 130 ~ 150 DEG C in semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower 31, enter in sack cleaner 32 afterwards, flue gas after dedusting wind is sent in high speed bed air compartment 7 and feed back nozzle 28 by circulating fan 33, realize flue gas recirculation, control fluid bed emulsion zone 3 temperature between 800 ~ 850 DEG C, the oxygen concentration of control combustion room outlet simultaneously 13 is between 3 ~ 4%, can ensure that NOx(is with NO like this 2meter, O 2=9%) concentration of emission is lower than 100mg/m 3, remainder flue gas after dedusting is sent into chimney 35 through air-introduced machine 34 and is entered in air.
Send in high speed bed air compartment 7 and feed back nozzle 28, realize flue gas recirculation, control fluid bed emulsion zone 3 temperature between 800 ~ 850 DEG C, the oxygen concentration of control combustion room outlet simultaneously 13, between 3 ~ 4%, can ensure that NOx(is with NO like this 2meter, O 2=9%) concentration of emission is lower than 100mg/m 3; Remainder flue gas after dedusting is sent into chimney 35 through air-introduced machine 34 and is entered in air.
Detailed description of the invention four: the method for the pollutant catabolic gene described in detailed description of the invention three, in step, adopt the low-sulfur coal of S content < 0.5% as auxiliary fuel, the addition of described low-sulfur coal accounts for 10 ~ 20% of offal weight, and described kaolinic addition accounts for 3 ~ 10% of offal weight.
Due to original SO 2concentration of emission is approximately 400 ~ 500mg/m 3, higher than the 300mg/m that GB13271-2014 requires 3discharge standard, so need further desulfurization in semi-dry desulphurization tower 31, current semi-dry desulphurization is mature technology, can remove the SO of more than 80% 2, such SO 2concentration of emission≤100mg/m 3, far below the 300mg/m that GB13271-2014 requires 3discharge standard.Adopt sack cleaner 32, smoke dust discharge concentration is lower than 30mg/m 3, also lower than the 50mg/m that GB13271-2014 requires 3discharge standard.
Above detailed description of the invention is only embodiment first of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all make within spirit of the present invention and principle any amendment, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., within the protection domain that all should be included in this creation.

Claims (4)

1. coal and an offal multi-fuel fired boiler, comprises fluidized bed combustion chamber (1), fluid bed dilute-phase zone (2), fluid bed emulsion zone (3), many pipe layings (4), high speed bed air distribution plate (5), two low speed bed air distribution plates (6), high speed bed air compartment (7), low speed bed air compartment (8), slag-drip opening (9), multiple overfiren air port (10), left and right wall fin panel casing (11), front-back wall fin panel casing (12), combustor exit (13), first cooling chamber (14), U-type groove separator (15), middle fin panel casing partition wall (16), second cooling chamber (17), exhanst gas outlet (18), steamdrum (19), water drum (20), first convection calandria (21), convection calandria dividing wall (22), second convection calandria (23), tail flue gas passage (24), multiple pulse soot blower (25), economizer (26), First air air preheater (27-1), air preheater of secondary air (27-2), feed back nozzle (28), ash returning tube (29), material inlet (30), semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower (31), sack cleaner (32), recirculation blower (33), air-introduced machine (34), chimney (35), lower header (36), it is characterized in that:
Fluid bed dilute-phase zone (2) and fluid bed emulsion zone (3) is divided into from top to bottom in described fluidized bed combustion chamber (1), the middle part of described fluid bed emulsion zone (3) is high speed bed, be positioned at high speed bed in fluid bed emulsion zone (3) be each side one low speed bed, described high speed bed air distribution plate (5) is laid in bottom high speed bed, described two low speed bed air distribution plates (6) are laid in two low speed bed bottoms, the enclosed cavity of high speed bed air distribution plate (5) bottom is high speed bed air compartment (7), the enclosed cavity of two low speed bed air distribution plate (6) bottoms is two low speed bed air compartments (8), described many pipe layings (4) be laid in low speed bed in, the upper end of slag-drip opening (9) communicates with high speed bed through high speed bed air distribution plate (5), described multiple overfiren air port (10) is arranged on fluid bed dilute-phase zone (2) bottom, fluid bed dilute-phase zone (2) is provided with left and right wall fin panel casing (11) and front-back wall fin panel casing (12), the top of fluidized bed combustion chamber (1) is provided with combustor exit (13), the first cooling chamber (14) and the second cooling chamber (17) is provided with successively after combustor exit (13), described combustor exit (13) communicates with the first cooling chamber (14), described first cooling chamber (14) and the second cooling chamber (17) are separated by middle fin panel casing partition wall (16), the upper end of described middle fin panel casing partition wall (16) is communicated with steamdrum (19), the lower end of middle fin panel casing partition wall (16) is communicated with lower header (36), described lower header (36) communicates with water drum (20), lower header (36) is connected with U-type groove separator (15) simultaneously, described second cooling chamber (17) top is provided with exhanst gas outlet (18), the top of described left and right wall fin panel casing (11) and front-back wall fin panel casing (12) is all communicated with steamdrum (19), the bottom of left and right wall fin panel casing (11) and front-back wall fin panel casing (12) is all communicated with water drum (20), described exhanst gas outlet (18) communicates with the first convection calandria (21) entrance point, the port of export of described first convection calandria (21) communicates with the entrance point of the second convection calandria (23), described first convection calandria (21) and the second convection calandria (23) are separated by convection calandria dividing wall (22), the port of export of described second convection calandria (23) communicates with the arrival end of tail flue gas passage (24), economizer (26) is disposed with from top to bottom in described tail flue gas passage (24), First air air preheater (27-1) and air preheater of secondary air (27-2), in top and the bottom of the first convection calandria (21) and the second convection calandria (23), economizer (26), the porch of First air air preheater (27-1) and air preheater of secondary air (27-2) arranges multiple pulse soot blower (25) respectively, first cooling chamber (14) communicates with the second cooling chamber (17) lower end, first cooling chamber (14) communicates with ash returning tube (29) with the conjoint outlet of the second cooling chamber (17) lower end, the entrance point of described ash returning tube (29) is provided with feed back nozzle (28), the port of export of ash returning tube (29) communicates with fluid bed emulsion zone (3), described material inlet (30) communicates with high speed bed and arranges, the port of export of tail flue gas passage (24) is communicated with through the arrival end of flue with semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower (31), the port of export of described semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower (31) is communicated with sack cleaner (32) arrival end, the port of export of described sack cleaner (32) is communicated with recirculation blower (33) arrival end with air-introduced machine (34) respectively by flue, the port of export of described air-introduced machine (34) is communicated with chimney (35), the port of export of described recirculation blower (33) is communicated with high speed bed air compartment (7) and feed back nozzle (28) by flue.
2. coal according to claim 1 and offal multi-fuel fired boiler, is characterized in that: the flue be communicated with the arrival end of described recirculation blower (33) and the port of export of sack cleaner (32) is provided with controllable register (37).
3. utilize the coal described in claim 1 or 2 and offal multi-fuel fired boiler to realize a method for pollutant catabolic gene, it is characterized in that: described method comprises the steps:
Step one: the kaolin additive of coal and offal and diameter≤2mm enters the high speed bed combustion of described fluid bed emulsion zone (3) by gravity through material inlet (30), the heat that burning produces by be laid in fluidized bed combustion chamber (1) low speed bed in many pipe layings (4) heat exchange after control the high speed bed of fluid bed emulsion zone (3) and low speed bed temperature between 800 ~ 850 DEG C; Meanwhile, First air enters in high speed bed air compartment (7) after First air air preheater (27-1) preheating, enters the burning of high speed bed through high speed bed air distribution plate (5); Secondary Air is after air preheater of secondary air (27-2) preheating, a part is sent into low speed bed air compartment (8) and is entered low speed bed participation burning through low speed bed air distribution plate (6), and the remainder of Secondary Air enters fluid bed dilute-phase zone (2) by multiple overfiren air port (10) and participates in burning;
Step 2: the flue gas that burning produces is after being arranged on left and right wall fin panel casing (11) in fluid bed dilute-phase zone (2) and front-back wall fin panel casing (12) radiation heat transfer, at combustor exit (13) place, flue-gas temperature is down to less than 650 DEG C, flue gas enters the first cooling chamber (14) afterwards, through U-type groove separator (15), imperfect combustion offal and carbonaceous particles are separated, and burnt away in ash returning tube (29) feeding fluid bed emulsion zone (3) by feed back nozzle (28);
Step 3: the flue gas after U-type groove separator (15) is separated enters the second cooling chamber (17), enter the first convection calandria (21) and the second convection calandria (23) by the exhanst gas outlet (18) being arranged on the second cooling chamber (17) top below cigarette temperature drop to 500 DEG C, separated by convection calandria dividing wall (22) between the first convection calandria (21) and the second convection calandria (23), flue gas enters back-end ductwork (24) afterwards, and successively after economizer (26) and First air air preheater (27-1) and air preheater of secondary air (27-2) heat exchange, under declared working condition, flue-gas temperature enters in semi-dry process flue gas desulphurization tower (31) after being down to 130 ~ 150 DEG C, enter in sack cleaner (32) afterwards, flue gas after dedusting wind is sent in high speed bed air compartment (7) and feed back nozzle (28) by circulating fan (33), realize flue gas recirculation, control fluid bed emulsion zone (3) temperature between 800 ~ 850 DEG C, the oxygen concentration of control combustion room outlet (13) is between 3 ~ 4% simultaneously, remainder flue gas after dedusting is sent into chimney (35) through air-introduced machine (34) and is entered in air.
4. the method for pollutant catabolic gene according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: in step one, adopt the low-sulfur coal of S content < 0.5% as auxiliary fuel, the addition of described low-sulfur coal accounts for 10 ~ 20% of offal weight, and described kaolinic addition accounts for 3 ~ 10% of offal weight.
CN201510499433.0A 2015-08-15 2015-08-15 Coal and offal multi-fuel fired boiler and its pollutant catabolic gene method Expired - Fee Related CN105042578B (en)

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