CN104996127B - Ecology alleviates the cultivating method of crop of florescence Climatic regionalization - Google Patents

Ecology alleviates the cultivating method of crop of florescence Climatic regionalization Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN104996127B
CN104996127B CN201510370499.XA CN201510370499A CN104996127B CN 104996127 B CN104996127 B CN 104996127B CN 201510370499 A CN201510370499 A CN 201510370499A CN 104996127 B CN104996127 B CN 104996127B
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
corn
row
florescence
seed
crop
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
CN201510370499.XA
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN104996127A (en
Inventor
刘天学
段鹏飞
王宜伦
赵春玲
胡秀丽
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Henan Agricultural University
Original Assignee
Henan Agricultural University
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Henan Agricultural University filed Critical Henan Agricultural University
Priority to CN201510370499.XA priority Critical patent/CN104996127B/en
Publication of CN104996127A publication Critical patent/CN104996127A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN104996127B publication Critical patent/CN104996127B/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of ecological cultivating method of crop for alleviating florescence Climatic regionalization, it is intended to strengthen during corn growth to the tolerance of florescence high temperature, improve that pollen amount is few or pollination setting percentage of thermo-responsive kind, to alleviate adverse effect of the florescence Climatic regionalization to corn yield.It comprises the following steps:(1)Seed selection:Select the corn seed for two kinds that breeding time is consistent, pollen amount is complementary or florescence high temperature sensitivity is complementary;(2)The corn seed of selected two kinds is entered in the ranks to make or mix up, it is appropriate to irrigate after planting according to soil moisture content;(3)Field management;(4)Harvest.The present invention makees between using or mixes up technology, build double kind compound populations, to improve, pollen amount is few or pollination setting percentage of thermo-responsive kind, it is that a kind of simple and easy to do, ecological, environmental protective, effect significantly alleviate corn florescence Climatic regionalization implantation methods to alleviate the production loss that florescence high temperature is caused to corn.

Description

Ecology alleviates the cultivating method of crop of florescence Climatic regionalization
Technical field
The present invention relates to proportion of crop planting technical field, and in particular to a kind of ecology suitable for Huang-Huai-Hai summer corn producing region Alleviate the cultivating method of crop of florescence Climatic regionalization.
Background technology
Corn is China the first generalized grain crop, realizes the stable high yield of corn to ensureing that national food security has very Important meaning.Huang-Huai-Hai is China's summer corn main producing region, and yield accounts for the 40% of national total output, is ensureing national food peace Held the balance in complete.However, in the Huang-Huai-Hai summer corn season of growth, florescence high temperature is frequently run onto, and with Global climate change The big development trend of occurrence frequency height, duration length, heat evil degree is showed, the safety in production of summer corn is seriously threaten. Florescence is that corn reacts the most sensitive stage to high temperature stress.Under florescence high temperature stress, maize male ears Floret development is obstructed, and causes Pollen amount is reduced and Pollen Activity declines, so that cause pollination setting percentage to reduce and the underproduction, it is few and to florescence high temperature with pollen amount The sensitive kind underproduction is particularly acute.For example, in the continuous high temperature in 7-8 months in 2013, many corn variety tassel developments Abnormal, pollen amount is reduced, and Pollen Activity declines, and pollination setting percentage is remarkably decreased, and the underproduction is serious.Both at home and abroad to corn Climatic regionalization Basic research it is also extremely limited, especially corn Climatic regionalization defense technique research and development it is also very deficient, in production practices still There is not highly effective prevention and control measure.
The research of traditional defense technique on corn Climatic regionalization at present has:Plant high temperature resistant kind, adjustment date of seeding With line-spacing, water-fertilizer conditioning, artificial pollination etc..Wherein, plantation high temperature resistant kind is a kind of having for alleviation corn florescence Climatic regionalization Technological approaches is imitated, but China is with a vast territory at present, and not only heat-resisting but also high yield the variety source for being adapted to various regions plantation is also extremely limited, And with very big ecological limitation;Date of seeding is adjusted while it may be possible to the florescence of avoiding high temperature, but in Huang-Huai-Hai, summer corn is early Broadcasting can be limited by the first crop wheat ripe phase, and postpone date of seeding can because the effective accumulated temperature of breeding time is not enough and the underproduction, and each ground vapour Time variation abnormality also frequently results in high temperature and the uncertainty in period occurs;Adjust line-spacing it is possible that with existing agricultural machinery and implement operation Parameter conflicts, and is unfavorable for Mechanization sowing, management and harvest, so as to greatly increase production cost;Water-fertilizer conditioning may increase Manpower and fertilizers input and field management cost;Artificial pollination not only increases cost of labor, and lacks in current rural laborer Weary condition is difficult to carry out, while there is also the risk that heatstroke is operated under hot environment.Specifically, corn high temperature is prevented at present There is respective defect in the method for heat evil:1. it is limited from plantation not only heat-resisting but also high yield variety source;2. date of seeding is adjusted in Huang Huai-Hai summer corn area faces crops for rotation limitation and underproduction risk;3. adjustment line-spacing is difficult to realize with existing agricultural machinery and implement efficient mated;4. Water-fertilizer conditioning can increase production cost;5. artificial pollination not only increases cost of labor, the light simple Efficient Cultivation of corn is not met yet Current demand.Also there are studies have shown that exogenous chemical substances in addition(SA、BA、ABA)It can induce or improve with seedling stage high-temperature exercise The heat resistance of corn, but develop and can be applied to the product of production practices or the technology of implementation accordingly.
The content of the invention
The invention reside in traditional technology prejudice is overcome, a kind of ecological maize culture side for alleviating florescence Climatic regionalization is proposed Method, it is intended to strengthen the tolerance to florescence high temperature during corn growth, improves that pollen amount is few or pollination knot of thermo-responsive kind Real rate, to alleviate adverse effect of the florescence Climatic regionalization to corn yield.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the present invention is adopted the following technical scheme that:
According to long-term production practices, summarize and design a kind of ecological cultivating method of crop for alleviating florescence Climatic regionalization, Mainly comprise the following steps:
(1)Seed selection:Select the corn for two kinds that breeding time is consistent, pollen amount is complementary or florescence high temperature sensitivity is complementary Seed;
(2)Sowing:Using kind, the integrated simple grain machine of fertilizer sowed, fertilizer used is the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer of routine, is broadcast Dose when planting accounts for the 25~35% of total dose, and fertilizer is applied in the side-lower away from seed 3cm~5cm;By step(1)It is selected The corn seed of two kinds, which enters in the ranks, to be made or mixes up, and after planting according to soil moisture content, is irrigated in right amount according to a conventional method;
(3)Field management:
A. weeding:Chemical weed control is carried out in the leaf phase of corn seedling 3~5;
B. topdress:In the leaf phases of maize seedling 10~15, the deep ditches of 10cm~15cm are opened along plant side, remaining fertilizer is imposed, And irrigate in time;
C. the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is carried out according to conventional method, for example, according to disease pest situation, using biological, physics Integrated control pest and disease damage is combined with chemical method, seedling stage mainly prevents and treats frit fly, small brown rice planthopper, mythimna separata, 2 committee noctuid insect, thick contracting Disease etc.;Mid-term mainly prevents and treats corn borer, Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee;Later stage mainly prevents eliminating aphis, leaf spot etc.;
(4)Harvest:Treat that the corn ear of two kinds bract occurs and dried up, seed milk-line disappears, and black layer appearance is seed Grain completely physiological maturity when harvest.
It is preferred that, step(1)The breeding time of described two corn varieties differs≤5 days.
It is preferred that, step(1)Selected corresponding seed quality criteria is purity >=96%, cleanliness >=98%, germination percentage >=95%, contained Water rate≤13%, germinating energy are strong, drug coating, uniform in size.
It is preferred that, step(2)The intercropping system is sowed using wide-and narrow-row, and wherein wide row is 60cm~80cm row Away from the line-spacing that, narrow row is 30cm~50cm;It is for wide row between same kind between narrow row, different cultivars.
It is preferred that, step(2)It is described mix up mode using etc. line-spacing or wide-and narrow-row sowed, wherein, it is 50 to wait line-spacing Cm~60cm;The line-spacing that wide row is 60cm~80cm in wide-and narrow-row line-spacing, narrow row are 30cm~50cm.
It is preferred that, step(1)In the corn seed sizes of selected two kinds, seedling stage growing way and during consistent plant type, Using 1:1、2:2 or 2:4 intercropping system is sowed, or is sowed by the way of equivalent is mixed up.
It is preferred that, step(1)In the corn seed sizes of selected two corn varieties, seedling stage growing way and plant type it is inconsistent When, using 2:2 or 2:4 intercropping system is sowed.
It is preferred that, described 2:It is as banding pattern between 4:The more row of kind kind 2 of pollen amount, the less row of kind kind 4 of pollen amount; Or the higher row of kind kind 2 of plant type, the relatively low row of kind kind 4 of plant type;Or the loose row of kind kind 2 of plant type, plant type is compact The row of kind kind 4.
The advantageous effects of the inventive method are:
1. it is how many and to the difference of florescence sensitive degree according to the pollen amount based on different corn varieties for a long time, and tie Breeding time and Plant Growth Characters are closed, selection pollen amount or the complementary kind of heat resistance carry out reasonably combined;According to corn variety seeds The difference of size, seedling stage growing way and plant type, using row is made between different than pattern, seedling stage growing way and strain plant type, plant height are basic Consistent kind, makees between can using or equivalent mixes up pattern;Still mix up between either, existing seeder can be completed, and Do not increase production cost.
2. the present invention overcomes traditional technology prejudice(Single variety is planted), using making or mixing up technology, build double product Kind of complex ecological colony, to improve, pollen amount is few or pollination setting percentage of thermo-responsive kind, and corn is made with alleviating florescence high temperature Into production loss, be that a kind of simple and easy to do, ecological, environmental protective, effect significantly alleviate the plantation side of corn florescence Climatic regionalization Method, be particularly suitable for use in Huang-Huai-Hai summer corn producing region.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is 1 in the present invention:Make banding pattern schematic diagram between 1;
Fig. 2 is 2 in the present invention:Make banding pattern schematic diagram between 2;
Fig. 3 is 2 in the present invention:Make banding pattern schematic diagram between 4.
Embodiment
Illustrate the embodiment of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples, but following examples are used only in detail Describe the bright present invention in detail, the scope of the present invention is not limited in any way.Involved method in embodiment, such as nothing are especially said It is bright, it is conventional method, involved test material is commercially available unless otherwise instructed.
Embodiment 1:Using the ecological method for alleviating corn florescence Climatic regionalization of the invention, in Zhengzhou City Henan Province and Xuchang County, which has carried out different corn variety companion croppings, alleviates the experiment of florescence Climatic regionalization.
The kind used for:Zheng Dan 958(, pollen amount insensitive to florescence high temperature is big, plant type is relatively low, compact), first jade 335 (To florescence sensitive, pollen amount is few, plant type is higher, compact), dredge single 20(, pollen amount insensitive to florescence high temperature is big, plant type It is compact), in jade 309(, plant type big to florescence sensitive, pollen amount is compact), enlightening card 516(Pollen amount is few, plant type half is compact).
Cropping pattern is:Zheng Dan 958 compares 2 with first beautiful 335 row:Make between 2, Zheng Dan 958 335 mixes up with first jade, Zheng Dan 958 with The row of enlightening card 516 compares 1:Make between 1, dredge single 20 with comparing 1 in beautiful 309 row:Make between 1, dredge single 20 and compare 1 with enlightening card row:Make between 1, dredge single 20 Compare 1 with first beautiful 335 row:Make and each nonoculture of each kind between 1.
Two places result of the test is shown within 2013(Referring to table 1, table 2), between 4 kinds, mix up fringe grain than respective nonoculture Number and grain yield increase, and with first jade 335 and especially pronounced in the increase of jade 309, first beautiful 335 grain number per spike averagely increases by 11.7%, Grain yield increase by 10.5%;Averagely increase by 7.3% in beautiful 309 grain number per spike, grain yield averagely increases by 6.0%.Experiment knot in 2014 Really(Referring to table 3)Making grain number per spike and grain yield between display, 4 kinds has increase, with the effect of increasing production of enlightening card 516 the most Significantly.
Involved Cultivate administration method is general planting management method unless otherwise instructed in the embodiment above.
The present invention is described in detail above in conjunction with drawings and examples, still, those of skill in the art Member to the design parameter of each in above-described embodiment it is understood that on the premise of present inventive concept is not departed from, can also carry out Change, forms multiple specific embodiments, is the common excursion of the present invention, is no longer described in detail one by one herein.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of ecological cultivating method of crop for alleviating florescence Climatic regionalization, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1)Seed selection:Select two corn varieties that breeding time is consistent, pollen amount is complementary or florescence high temperature sensitivity is complementary;It is described The breeding time of two corn varieties differs≤5 days;The corresponding seed quality criteria of selected corn variety be purity >=96%, cleanliness >= 98%th, germination percentage >=95%, moisture content≤13%, germinating energy be strong, drug coating, uniform in size;
(2)Sowing:Using kind, the integrated simple grain machine of fertilizer sowed, fertilizer used is nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, accounts for total dose 25~35%, fertilizer is applied in the side-lower away from seed 3cm~5cm;By step(1)The corn seed of selected two kinds enters in the ranks Make or mix up, it is appropriate according to a conventional method to irrigate after planting according to soil moisture content;
The intercropping system is sowed using wide-and narrow-row, line-spacing that wherein wide row is 60cm~80cm, narrow row be 30cm~ 50cm line-spacing;It is for wide row between same kind between narrow row, different cultivars;
It is described mix up mode using etc. line-spacing or wide-and narrow-row sowed, wherein, wait line-spacing for 50 cm~60cm;In wide-and narrow-row The line-spacing that line-spacing that wide row is 60cm~80cm, narrow row are 30cm~50cm;
(3)Field management:
A. weeding:Chemical weed control is carried out in the leaf phase of corn seedling 3~5;
B. topdress:In the leaf phase of maize seedling 10~15, the deep ditches of 10cm~15cm are opened along plant side, remaining fertilizer is imposed, and and When irrigate;
C. the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is carried out according to conventional method;
(4)Harvest:Treat that the corn ear of two corn varieties bract occurs and dried up, middle part seed milk-line disappears, and black layer occurs I.e. seed complete physiological maturity when harvest.
2. the ecological cultivating method of crop for alleviating florescence Climatic regionalization according to claim 1, it is characterised in that step (1)In the corn seed sizes of selected two corn varieties, seedling stage growing way and during consistent plant type, using 1:1、2:2 or 2:4 Between make banding pattern and sowed, or sowed by the way of equivalent is mixed up.
3. the ecological cultivating method of crop for alleviating florescence Climatic regionalization according to claim 1, it is characterised in that step (1)In the corn seed sizes of selected two kinds, seedling stage growing way and during inconsistent plant type, using 2:2 or 2:Make band between 4 Type is sowed.
4. the ecological cultivating method of crop for alleviating florescence Climatic regionalization according to Claims 2 or 3, it is characterised in that institute State 2:It is as banding pattern between 4:The more row of kind kind 2 of pollen amount, the less row of kind kind 4 of pollen amount;Or the higher product of plant type A variety of 2 rows, the relatively low row of kind kind 4 of plant type;Or the loose row of kind kind 2 of plant type, the compact row of kind kind 4 of plant type.
CN201510370499.XA 2015-06-30 2015-06-30 Ecology alleviates the cultivating method of crop of florescence Climatic regionalization Expired - Fee Related CN104996127B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201510370499.XA CN104996127B (en) 2015-06-30 2015-06-30 Ecology alleviates the cultivating method of crop of florescence Climatic regionalization

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201510370499.XA CN104996127B (en) 2015-06-30 2015-06-30 Ecology alleviates the cultivating method of crop of florescence Climatic regionalization

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN104996127A CN104996127A (en) 2015-10-28
CN104996127B true CN104996127B (en) 2017-10-20

Family

ID=54369262

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201510370499.XA Expired - Fee Related CN104996127B (en) 2015-06-30 2015-06-30 Ecology alleviates the cultivating method of crop of florescence Climatic regionalization

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN104996127B (en)

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109197435B (en) * 2018-10-22 2020-09-04 河南农业大学 Method for improving fruit cluster setting rate through mixed cropping among different corn varieties
CN109588232A (en) * 2018-12-28 2019-04-09 山东省农业科学院玉米研究所(山东省农业科学院玉米工程技术研究中心) A kind of cultural method improving summer corn high temperature resistant plantation performance
CN109892184A (en) * 2019-04-15 2019-06-18 中国农业科学院作物科学研究所 A kind of method of difference corn variety intercropping plant

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101743827A (en) * 2009-09-16 2010-06-23 河南农业大学 Method for ecologically controlling southern rust

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2006025772A (en) * 2004-06-18 2006-02-02 Pioneer Ecoscience Kk Method for cultivating open-field crop using liquid fertilizer as basal fertilizer

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101743827A (en) * 2009-09-16 2010-06-23 河南农业大学 Method for ecologically controlling southern rust

Non-Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
不同基因型玉米间作对叶片衰老、籽粒产量和品质的影响;刘天学 等;《植物生态学报》;20081231;第32卷(第4期);第914-921页 *
不同基因型玉米间混作优势带型配置;赵亚丽 等;《生态学报》;20130630;第33卷(第12期);第3855-3864页 *
玉米花期高温响应的基因型差异及其生理机制;赵龙飞 等;《作物学报》;20121231;第38卷(第5期);第857-864页 *
玉米间混作 增产又减灾;张三坤 等;《河南农业》;20051231(第6期);第26页 *
花期前后高温对不同基因型玉米光合特性及产量和品质的影响;赵龙飞 等;《中国农业科学》;20121231;第45卷(第23期);第4947-4958页 *

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN104996127A (en) 2015-10-28

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN103609319B (en) The double-cropped leisure implantation methods of Wheat in North China, corn
CN104350991A (en) Semi-no-tillage machine ditching and broadcast sowing cultivation method of wheat following rice
CN102077747A (en) High-yield planting method of organic pasture
CN102771274A (en) High-yield and high-efficiency planting technology for Daba Shan buckwheat
CN103444407B (en) Annual double cropping efficient planting pattern of triticale and purple yam in Huang-Huai region
CN107821059A (en) A kind of mechanical cave direct seading rice light cultivation method
CN106489636A (en) A kind of live drip irrigation cultivation method of paddy rice in cold region
CN102948353A (en) Cultivation method of Yuanyou pawpaw trees
CN104996127B (en) Ecology alleviates the cultivating method of crop of florescence Climatic regionalization
CN108184577A (en) A kind of higher yield of crops rotation cropping method
CN106941907A (en) The method that full film double-furrow broadcasts corn regrowth hair zero tillage winter rape
Ambachew et al. Performance of mungbean under deficit irrigation application in the semi-arid highlands of Ethiopia
CN110915578A (en) Cultivation method suitable for autumn sowing and spring transplanting of chenopodium quinoa in coastal saline-alkali soil
CN108967095A (en) A kind of method that Radix Notoginseng is continuously cultivated
CN108124711A (en) Receive crops combination implantation methods five to two one seasons four
CN104012286B (en) The implantation methods that a kind of tuber of pinellia is emerged in advance
CN101233805B (en) Rosana western wheatgrass seeds production process
CN107771630B (en) A kind of tuber of pinellia ecological cultivation method
CN105103913A (en) Double-row staggered planting method for potato
CN103609275B (en) One two batches, wheat wheat cultivating method
CN104488516B (en) A kind of method of utilization Eupatorium adenophorum no-tillage and cover maize planting
CN108040768A (en) A kind of purple flowering stalk environmental health cultural method
CN107711021A (en) A kind of tomato high-yield planting method
CN107347412A (en) A kind of garlic and the implantation methods of early spring greenhouse watermelon intercropping and interplanting
CN106962005A (en) A kind of Winter paddy field Efficient utilization method and with sleeving intercropping precision seeder

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
C06 Publication
PB01 Publication
C10 Entry into substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
GR01 Patent grant
GR01 Patent grant
CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee

Granted publication date: 20171020

Termination date: 20180630

CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee