CN104990656B - Method for nondestructive evaluation of residual stress of aluminum alloy pre-stretched plate by utilizing ultrasonic wave - Google Patents

Method for nondestructive evaluation of residual stress of aluminum alloy pre-stretched plate by utilizing ultrasonic wave Download PDF

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CN104990656B
CN104990656B CN201510336346.3A CN201510336346A CN104990656B CN 104990656 B CN104990656 B CN 104990656B CN 201510336346 A CN201510336346 A CN 201510336346A CN 104990656 B CN104990656 B CN 104990656B
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residual stress
aluminum alloy
plate
ultrasonic wave
ultrasonic
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CN201510336346.3A
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CN104990656A (en
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郑许
郑玉林
周文标
赵解扬
彭斐
张良军
何克准
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广西南南铝加工有限公司
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Abstract

The invention provides a method for nondestructive evaluation of a residual stress of an aluminum alloy pre-stretched plate by utilizing an ultrasonic wave. The method comprises the following steps: selecting an ultrasonic wave characteristic frequency, and then obtaining a characteristic attenuation coefficient under the characteristic frequency; obtaining a surface roughness compensation coefficient, determining a grain size compensation coefficient of a detected aluminum alloy pre-stretched plate, determining a loosening compensation coefficient value of the aluminum alloy pre-stretched plate, determining a constant, related to a material characteristic, of the detected aluminum alloy pre-stretched plate, and then obtaining a residual stress value equation; selecting an ultrasonic wave probe; performing calibration on a residual stress test block, and performing correction on a system gain compensation; performing ultrasonic wave scanning on the to-be-detected plate; and generating a residual stress field map. Through adoption of the technical scheme, an influence of surface roughness is reduced, an obtained quantitative value of the residual stress is more accurate, the method has a large thickness application scope, and interferences of plate loosening and plate grain size factors on residual stress detection precision are reduced.

Description

A kind of method of ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress

Technical field

The invention belongs to field of non destructive testing, more particularly to a kind of ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate remnants should The method of power.

Background technology

Direction of the modern Aviation manufacturing industry to the large-scale integration part manufacture of aircraft is developed.Exist in aluminum alloy plate materials Substantial amounts of residual stress will cause serious consequence.2XXX systems, the solution hardening technique of 7XXX line aluminium alloys are introduced into remnants The main cause of stress.But, in order to obtain more excellent combination property after Ageing Treatment, 2XXX systems, 7XXX line aluminium alloys Solution hardening operation is but requisite.Aluminum alloy pretensioning plate manufacturer is often pre-stretched machine to solid solution using large-tonnage Aluminum alloy plate materials after quenching are stretched, so that the stress redistribution in sheet material.In order to judge that stretching process is closed to aluminium The effect of golden plate stress reduction, aircraft industry is in the urgent need to a kind of nothing that is quick, inexpensive, intuitively characterizing sheet material residual stress Damage detection method.

At present, the lossless detection method such as physico-chemical method and ray diffraction method such as boring method, porous variance method, Crack Compliance Method The residual stress measurement of material is more maturely applied to, is also had increasing researcher to disclose and is measured using ultrasonic method The residual stress of material.As patent 98806517.7 discloses a kind of side of use ultrasonic measurement test button residual stress Method, incidence of the method in the cycle ripple of the ultrasonic incidence wave and a fundamental frequency of the incident gating time computation and measurement for selecting Convolution integral value.But the method is not used residual stress calibration block and is demarcated, therefore is only possible to produce residual stress distribution Collection of illustrative plates, but residual-stress value can not be carried out quantitatively;In addition, the method does not consider that rolled plate is loose and sheet material grain size is to residual The impact of residue stress detection.

Patent 201310533626.4 also discloses that a kind of aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress water logging ultrasonic method.Should Method is launched using a probe, the mode that another probe is received is detected.But the accuracy of detection of the method receives surface Unevenness affects larger, is only applicable to the residual stress detection of thin sheet surface;In addition, the residual stress test block profit that the method is used Residual stress is imported to residual stress test block with the method for interference fit, the sheet material of so each batch needs to prepare a remnants Stress test block, this process needs to expend substantial contribution and time, and cost is very high.

The content of the invention

For above technical problem, the invention provides a kind of ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress Method, reduce the impact of surface irregularity, so as to get residual stress quantitative values it is more accurate, and with bigger thickness The degree scope of application, and reduce that sheet material is loose and interference of the sheet material grain size factor to residual stress accuracy of detection.

In this regard, the present invention adopt technical scheme for:A kind of ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress Method, comprises the following steps:

Step S1:Ultrasonic wave characteristic frequency A is selected, the characteristic frequency A ultrasonic wave is obtained in tested aluminum alloy pre-stretching The feature attenuation coefficient α of round trip in plateA;The characteristic frequency A value is not less than 10MHz, no more than 40MHz;

Step S2:Feature attenuation coefficient is scaled into residual-stress value;Concrete grammar is:Table is obtained by ultrasonic method Face unevenness penalty coefficient η;The grain size of tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is obtained by Metallographic Analysis, determines that tested aluminium alloy is pre- The grain size penalty coefficient μ of drawing plate;The loose compensation of aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is determined by total rolling reduction ratio of process Coefficient ξ values;By comparing with XRD ray diffraction methods, it is determined that the constant a relevant with material behavior and constant b;Then according to step The feature attenuation coefficient α that S1 is obtainedA, obtain residual-stress value equation S=exp (the b α of tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plateA+a)×η ×μ×ξ;

Step S3:Select ultrasonic probe;

Step S4:Calibrated in residual stress test block;

Step S5:According to step S4 in the fixed residual stress numerical value of residual stress test block colonel's fiducial mark, system gain is mended Repay and be corrected;The system gain compensation refers to that in a calibration process discovery test block actual measured value is with test block nominal value not Fu Shi, adjusts apart from wave amplitude calibration curve, makes final test block actual measured value not true what is allowed with the deviation of test block nominal value In the range of fixed degree;

Step S6:Ultrasonic scanning is carried out to tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate;

Step S7:Generate residual stress field collection of illustrative plates.

The order of step S1~step S3 can be exchanged, and step S1 and step S2 can complete laggard in step S6 OK.Preferably, step S3, step S4, step S6 (completing to preserve the scan data for being detected sheet material during step S6) are first carried out, then The data processing of step S1 and step S2 is carried out to scan data, then execution step S7 generates residual stress field collection of illustrative plates.Simultaneously This scheme is also applied for the detection of the residual stress of other sheet metals.

In such scheme, the operational equation that feature attenuation coefficient is scaled residual-stress value can be built using actual experiment Vertical database is substituted, i.e., data are obtained by the way of actual experiment, by the feature decay system of aluminum alloy pretensioning plate Number corresponds with residual stress numerical value, forms complete database, in detection process, using database feature is completed The conversion of attenuation coefficient and residual-stress value.

This technical scheme calculates feature decay system uniquely using the data acquisition modes of characteristic frequency with the data Number, improves the sensitivity of residual stress detection.

It is further preferred that the method for the ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress is applied to aluminium conjunction The residual stress assessment of golden pretensioning plate.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the feature attenuation coefficient is scaled into residual-stress value to adopt with lower section Method:Surface irregularity penalty coefficient η is obtained by ultrasonic method;Tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is obtained by Metallographic Analysis Grain size, determines the grain size penalty coefficient μ of tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate;Determined by total rolling reduction ratio of process The loose penalty coefficient ξ values of aluminum alloy pretensioning plate;By comparing with XRD ray diffraction methods, tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is determined Constant a and constant b, the constant a and constant b it is relevant with the material behavior of tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate, every kind of alloy board Number constant a corresponding with alloy state is different with constant b, depending on needing actual measurement.Then the feature for being obtained according to step S1 declines Subtract factor alphaA, obtain residual-stress value equation S=exp (the b α of tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plateA+a)×η×μ×ξ。

The intensive defect that the ultrasonic attenuation of characteristic frequency A mainly exists with residual stress, grain size, material itself The unevenness on (such as loose) and surface etc. is relevant.The numerical value for obtaining residual stress exactly has been the technical scheme is that, The interference that surface irregularity, grain size, the loose residual stress to tested sheet material are detected is considered simultaneously, in residual-stress value side The impact that disturbing factor is caused is excluded in journey.And introduce that sheet material is loose and sheet material grain size penalty coefficient, reduce sheet material Loose and interference of the sheet material grain size factor to residual stress accuracy of detection.

In terms of comprehensive, technical scheme it is creative setting up database by way of, by surface irregularity, crystalline substance Granularity, loose influence factor are brought in the calculating formula of residual stress, reduce interference, improve the essence of residual stress detection Degree and the degree of accuracy.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the acquisition methods of the surface irregularity penalty coefficient η are:Gate will be tracked It is placed in detected material upper surface echo-signal, plate surface unevenness is obtained in being detected the scanning process of material Data, so as to calculate surface irregularity penalty coefficient η.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the loose penalty coefficient ξ values of aluminum alloy pretensioning plate are determined by always rolling reduction ratio Fixed, total rolling reduction ratio is more than or equal to 80%, and ξ is 1.0;It is 0.1~1.0 that total rolling reduction ratio is 60%~80%, ξ.

It is further preferred that the loose penalty coefficient ξ values of the aluminum alloy pretensioning plate by the first rolling pass drafts and Total rolling reduction ratio is comprehensively determined.When the first rolling pass drafts reaches more than 20mm, total rolling reduction ratio is more than or waits When 70%, ξ is 1.0.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the grain size of the tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is adopted in tested aluminium alloy The head and afterbody of pretensioning plate intercepts respectively sample and carries out Metallographic Analysis acquisition.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the grain size of the tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is examined using ultrasonic method Survey tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate to obtain.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the obtaining step of the feature attenuation coefficient is:In 10MHz~40MHz Characteristic frequency A is selected, ultrasonic scanning is carried out to tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate, obtain the characteristic frequency A ultrasonic wave to tested The first time upper surface ripple wave amplitude H of aluminum alloy pretensioning plate1With first time bottom ripple wave amplitude H2, and detected sheet metal thickness T is tested, Then according toIt is calculated feature attenuation coefficient αA

Existing measurement attenuation coefficient method is direct measurement first time upper surface echo wave amplitude and the first Bottom echo ripple Width, so as to calculate all-wave attenuation coefficient.But, the ultrasonic frequency launched due to ultrasonic probe is except nominal value Outside centre frequency, also launch the ultrasonic wave of other frequencies, due to the phase interaction of ultrasonic wave and the sheet material interior tissue of various frequencies With complexity, the data source detected as residual stress using all-wave attenuation coefficient will bring larger interference.In order to subtract as far as possible Few other frequency ultrasonic waves bring error to residual stress measurement, and the present invention is only using the ultrasonic wave of certain CF to remnants Stress is measured, and a specific value, referred to as characteristic frequency A are selected in 10MHz~40MHz.Characteristic frequency A is preferred A definite value between 15MHz~25MHz, more preferably 20MHz.Using the first time upper surface ripple of characteristic frequency A ultrasonic wave Wave amplitude and first time bottom ripple wave amplitude calculate the feature attenuation coefficient of characteristic frequency ultrasonic wave round trip in material is detected, So as to improve the sensitivity of residual stress detection.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the ultrasonic probe is that frequency is directly visited for the contact of 10MHz~40MHz Head or immersion type ultrasonic probe or phased-array ultrasonic probe.To characterize the preferable frequency range of residual stress, ultrasonic wave frequency Rate ranges preferably from 15MHz~25MHz.

As a further improvement on the present invention, when the thickness of the sheet material to be measured is 6~12mm, is focused on using immersion type and visited Head;When the thickness of the sheet material to be measured is more than 12mm, popped one's head in using immersion type flat probe or immersion type phased-array ultrasonic;Need When carrying instrument to Site Detection, using contact normal probe.Using this technical scheme, the residual-stress value for obtaining is more accurate Really.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the residual stress test block is pre- from the aluminium alloy that residual stress is 0~60MPa Intercept on stretching sheet material.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the residual stress test block is pre- from the aluminium alloy that residual stress is 0~20MPa Intercept on stretching sheet material.

The residual stress test block that above-mentioned technical proposal is used is nearly unstressed test block, and this test block should due to the remnants of itself Force value is very low, so materials behavior is more stable, it is not easy to occur creep, stress relaxation that high residual stress test block faces, should The problems such as power is corroded, the residual stress calibration value of measure is more stable, makes the quantitative more accurate of ultrasonic test residual stress, Reduce cost simultaneously.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the thickness of the residual stress test block is 6mm~250mm, and the remnants should The width of power test block is 100mm~1000mm, and length is 100mm~1000mm.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the residual stress test block is from 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy pre-stretching plates Upper intercepting, thickness is 76mm, and width is 200mm, and length is 200mm.

As a further improvement on the present invention, the residual-stress value of the residual stress test block is surveyed using XRD method Amount;At least use XRD method to measure the residual stress numerical value of the once residual stress test block every year, and re-start demarcation. It is further preferred that requiring that customization residual stress level is qualified critical residual stress test block according to Customer Standard, it is referred to as sentencing Surely residual stress test block is used.If the residual stress level for being detected aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is used higher than judgement in detection process Residual stress test block is then judged to unqualified;If the residual stress level for being detected aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is low in detection process It is qualified to be then judged in the test block of judgement residual stress.

As a further improvement on the present invention, step S6, when carrying out ultrasonic scanning to sheet material to be measured, ultrasonic wave water Away from for 50mm~120mm, LPF is 25~50MHz, and high-pass filtering is set to 5~15MHz, and scan method adopts step-by-step movement 100% scanning, ultrasonic wave acoustic beam covers more than 10%, and sweep speed is less than 300mm/s.Arteries and veins is arranged according to detected sheet metal thickness Repetition rate is rushed, need to ensure not producing phantom ripple in detection process.

As a further improvement on the present invention, it is 7 DEG C~37 as the temperature of the water of couplant when carrying out ultrasonic scanning DEG C, and in whole ultrasonic scanning detection process, the temperature fluctuation of water is less than ± 2 DEG C.Start just to be measured as coupling during detection The temperature of the water of mixture, it is ensured that the temperature is in 7 DEG C~37 DEG C scopes.Using this technical scheme, it is to avoid temperature fluctuation reduces residual The precision of residue stress detection.

As a further improvement on the present invention, in the residual stress field collection of illustrative plates, residual stress number is represented using warm colour point The big point of value, using cool colour point the little point of residual stress numerical value, and the mark of subsidiary respective color correspondence residual stress numerical value are represented Chi.Using this technical scheme, numerical value of the residual stress in each coordinate of aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is more intuitively represented.

Compared with prior art, beneficial effects of the present invention are:

First, technical scheme obtains the uneven degrees of data of monoblock sheet material in detection process, and using this not Pingdu data carry out the compensation of residual stress testing result, so as to reduce the shadow of residual stress precision of the surface irregularity to measuring Ring;

Second, technical scheme carries out ultrasonic scanning using the straight acoustic beam technology of pulse to sheet material to be measured, and it is received The restriction very little of sheet metal thickness, greatly reduces the influence factor of sheet metal thickness, with the bigger thickness scope of application;

3rd, technical scheme is calculated uniquely using the data acquisition modes of characteristic frequency with the data Feature attenuation coefficient, improves the sensitivity of residual stress detection;

4th, introduce that sheet material is loose and sheet material grain size penalty coefficient, reduce that sheet material is loose and sheet material grain size factor pair The interference of residual stress accuracy of detection;

5th, technical scheme considers surface irregularity, grain size, the loose remnants to tested sheet material simultaneously The interference of stress mornitoring, it is creative setting up database by way of, by surface irregularity, grain size, loose impact because Element is brought in the calculating formula of residual stress, improves precision and the degree of accuracy of residual stress detection;For the assessment of residual stress There is provided a kind of new design;

6th, the residual stress test block that technical scheme is used is nearly unstressed test block, and this test block is due to certainly The residual-stress value of body is very low, so materials behavior is more stable, it is not easy to occur creep that high residual stress test block faces, should Power is lax, stress corrosion the problems such as, the residual stress calibration value of measure is more stable, makes the quantitative of ultrasonic test residual stress More accurately, while reducing cost.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram that sheet material is imported the embodiment of the present invention 1 residual stress by manual method;

Fig. 2 is the residual stress collection of illustrative plates that the embodiment of the present invention 1 is generated;

Fig. 3 is the residual stress 3D view that the embodiment of the present invention 1 is generated;

Fig. 4 is the spectrogram frequency of the ultrasonic probe that the medium frequency of the embodiment of the present invention 2 is 15MHz;

Fig. 5 is the residual stress field collection of illustrative plates that the embodiment of the present invention 2 is generated;

Fig. 6 is the residual stress field 3D views that the embodiment of the present invention 2 is generated.

Mark in figure:1-7075 sheet materials;2- supports;3- cold water;4- water pipes.

Specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, the preferably embodiment of the present invention is described in further detail.

Embodiment 1

Detected sheet material be 7075 aluminum alloy plate materials, specification be thickness 20mm, width 200mm, length 300mm.Remnants should Power test block is intercepted from 7075 aluminum alloy pre-stretching plates, specification be thickness 20mm, width 150mm, length 150mm.Using XRD Diffraction is measured to the residual stress test block, and the residual-stress value for measuring the residual stress test block is 20MPa, and demarcated in residual stress test block.

Detected sheet material imports residual stress by manual method, as shown in Figure 1,7075 sheet material 1 is placed on into heating furnace In be warming up to 475 DEG C, be incubated 4 hours.Then 7075 sheet materials 1 are transferred quickly on hanging support 2.At the center of support 2 Fix a water pipe 4 with nozzle.Cold water 3 is sprayed to the surface of 7075 sheet materials 1 by water pipe 4, makes 7075 sheet materials 1 with uneven Cooling velocity be quickly cooled to room temperature.Because the only one point of 7075 sheet material 1 is quickly cooled down, cause to be stayed on 7075 sheet materials 1 Under higher residual stress.

7075 sheet materials that the single-point quenches are carried out with analysis of Residual Stress, concrete operations step using the method for the invention It is rapid as follows:

(1) operation program of feature attenuation coefficient is set up:

Test is detected sheet metal thickness, obtains being detected sheet metal thickness T;Sync gate and upper surface ripple gate are placed on On upper surface echo of detected sheet material first time.Bottom surface ripple gate is placed on first time Bottom echo.Signal is adopted simultaneously Integrate the ultrasonic signal for being set to only frequency acquisition as 20MHz.Select in the Fourier space of first time upper surface echo special Levy frequency 20MHz and recording feature wave amplitude H1;Select characteristic frequency in the Fourier space of first time Bottom echo simultaneously 20MHz and recording feature wave amplitude H2.By H1And H2Substitute into equationCalculate feature attenuation coefficient. Wherein, T is to be detected sheet metal thickness;α20MHzIt is feature attenuation coefficient.

(2) operation program that feature attenuation coefficient is scaled residual-stress value is set up:

Surface irregularity penalty coefficient η is obtained by ultrasonic method.Specific embodiment is to be placed at tracking gate In the echo-signal of detected sheet material upper surface.Plate surface unevenness can be obtained in aluminum alloy pretensioning plate scanning process Data simultaneously generate C-scan figure, and by the transition time numerical computations on C-scan figure the surface irregularity compensation of each coordinate points is gone out Coefficient η;

Metallographic Analysis is carried out sample is intercepted respectively by the head and afterbody of aluminum alloy pretensioning plate, grain size is one Level, so that it is determined that grain size penalty coefficient μ;

In the hot rolling the first rolling pass drafts is 20mm to detected sheet material, and total rolling reduction ratio is 80%.Make Determine loose penalty coefficient ξ values with this 2 data;

For 7075 aluminum alloy plate materials, its constant a and constant b are respectively 32.02 and 1.24, by a, b, α for obtaining20MHz、 η, μ and ξ value substitutes into residual-stress value equation S=exp (b αA+ a) in × η × μ × ξ, obtain residual stress equation.

(3) it is 15MHz by frequency, the immersion type ultrasonic wave flat probe of a diameter of 12.7mm is installed on ultrasonic equipment.

(4) calibrated in residual stress test block.Residual stress show value is 15MPa.

(5) adjusting system gain compensation makes residual stress show value be equal to the nominal value 20MPa in residual stress test block.

(6) ultrasonic scanning of 100% covering is carried out to being detected sheet material, ultrasonic wave water distance is 70mm;LPF sets 40MHz is set to, high-pass filtering is set to 5MHz, and scanning stepping is 2mm, so as to ensure that sheet material 100% is scanned;Pulse repeats frequency Rate is set to 500Hz, and sweep speed is 100mm/s, and the temperature in detection process as the water of couplant is 25 ± 2 DEG C.

(7) residual stress field collection of illustrative plates is generated:

The A sweep data of the entire plate that step (6) is obtained, that is, the all-wave scan data for obtaining is imported at exclusive data Reason software, the exclusive data processing software package obtains being detected the residual of sheet material containing step (1) and step (2) operation program Residue stress field collection of illustrative plates is as shown in Fig. 2 3D views such as Fig. 3 of residual stress field.

Embodiment 2

Detected sheet material is 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy plate materials, and detected 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy plate materials are using stretching Rate be 2.5% tensile stress abatement operation, specification be thickness 76mm, width 260mm, length 260mm.Residual stress test block from On 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy plate materials intercept, specification be thickness 76mm, width 200mm, length 200mm.Using XRD x ray diffractions It is 18MPa that method measures the residual-stress value of residual stress test block, and is demarcated in residual stress test block.To tested drafting board Material carries out residual stress measurement, and step is as follows:

(1) it is 15MHz by frequency, the immersion type ultrasonic wave flat probe of a diameter of 12.7mm is installed on ultrasonic equipment, The frequency is as shown in Figure 4 for the spectrogram of the ultrasonic probe of 15MHz.

(2) calibrated in residual stress test block.Residual stress show value is 22MPa.

(3) adjusting system gain compensation makes residual stress show value be equal to the nominal value 18MPa in residual stress test block.

(4) ultrasonic scanning of 100% covering is carried out to being detected sheet material.Ultrasonic system data acquiring and recording pattern sets It is set to record A sweep.It can be appreciated that ultrasonic system is arranged to record all-wave scan data in scanning process, so as to After the end of scan data are processed using special-purpose software.Ultrasonic wave water distance is 75mm, and LPF is set to 35MHz, High-pass filtering is set to 5MHz;Scanning stepping is 2mm, so as to ensure that sheet material 100% is scanned;Pulse recurrence frequency is set to 400Hz;Sweep speed is 80mm/s;Temperature in detection process as the water of couplant is 25 ± 2 DEG C.

(5) operation program of feature attenuation coefficient is set up.Test is detected sheet metal thickness, obtains being detected sheet metal thickness T. Then sync gate and upper surface ripple gate are placed on upper surface echo of detected sheet material first time, bottom surface ripple gate is put Put on first time Bottom echo.Simultaneously signals collecting is set to into the ultrasonic signal that only frequency acquisition is 15MHz.First Characteristic frequency 15MHz and recording feature wave amplitude H are selected in the Fourier space of secondary upper surface echo1;Simultaneously in first time bottom surface Characteristic frequency 15MHz and recording feature wave amplitude H are selected in the Fourier space of echo2.By H1And H2Substitute into equationCalculate feature attenuation coefficient.Wherein, T is to be detected sheet metal thickness;α15MHzIt is feature decay system Number.

(6) operation program that feature attenuation coefficient is scaled residual-stress value is set up:

Surface irregularity penalty coefficient η is obtained by ultrasonic method.Specific embodiment is to be placed at tracking gate In the echo-signal of detected sheet material upper surface.Plate surface unevenness can be obtained in aluminum alloy pretensioning plate scanning process Data simultaneously generate C-scan figure, and by the transition time numerical computations on C-scan figure the surface irregularity compensation of each coordinate points is gone out Coefficient η;

Metallographic Analysis is carried out sample is intercepted respectively by the head and afterbody of aluminum alloy pretensioning plate, grain size is one Level, so that it is determined that grain size penalty coefficient μ;

In the hot rolling the first rolling pass drafts is 15mm to detected sheet material, and total rolling reduction ratio is 75%.Make Determine loose penalty coefficient ξ values with this 2 data;

For 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy plate materials, wherein constant a and constant b is respectively 29.23 and 1.32, by a for obtaining, b、α20MHz, η, μ and ξ value substitute into residual-stress value equation by feature attenuation coefficient α15MHzValue substitute into residual-stress value equation Formula S=exp (b αA+a)×η×μ×ξ。

(7) residual stress field collection of illustrative plates is generated:

The A sweep data of the entire plate that step (4) is obtained, the all-wave scan data that will be obtained imports exclusive data Process software.The exclusive data processing software package is containing step (5) and step (6) operation program.Execution step (7) obtain by The residual stress field collection of illustrative plates of detection sheet material is as shown in figure 5, the 3D views of residual stress field are as shown in Figure 6.

Above content is to combine specific preferred embodiment further description made for the present invention, it is impossible to assert The present invention be embodied as be confined to these explanations.For general technical staff of the technical field of the invention, On the premise of without departing from present inventive concept, some simple deduction or replace can also be made, should all be considered as belonging to the present invention's Protection domain.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of method of ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
Step S1:Ultrasonic wave characteristic frequency A is selected, the acquisition characteristic frequency A ultrasonic wave is in tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate The feature attenuation coefficient α of round tripA;Wherein, the characteristic frequency A value is not less than 10MHz, no more than 40MHz;
Step S2:Feature attenuation coefficient is scaled into residual-stress value, concrete grammar is:Surface is obtained not by ultrasonic method Pingdu penalty coefficient η;The grain size of tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is obtained by Metallographic Analysis, tested aluminum alloy pre-stretching is determined The grain size penalty coefficient μ of plate;The loose penalty coefficient ξ of aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is determined by total rolling reduction ratio of process Value;It is determined that the constant a relevant with tested aluminum alloy pre-stretching plate material characteristic and constant b;Then the spy for being obtained according to step S1 Levy attenuation coefficient αA, obtain residual-stress value equation S=exp (the b α of tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plateA+a)×η×μ×ξ;
Step S3:Select ultrasonic probe;
Step S4:Calibrated in residual stress test block;
Step S5:According to step S4 in the fixed residual stress numerical value of residual stress test block colonel's fiducial mark, and system gain is compensated It is corrected;
Step S6:Ultrasonic scanning is carried out to tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate;
Step S7:Generate residual stress field collection of illustrative plates.
2. the method for ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress according to claim 1, its feature exists In the acquisition methods of the surface irregularity penalty coefficient η are:Tracking gate is placed on into detected material upper surface echo letter On number, plate surface injustice degrees of data is obtained in being detected the scanning process of material, mended so as to calculate surface irregularity Repay coefficient η;The loose penalty coefficient ξ values of the aluminum alloy pretensioning plate are determined by always rolling reduction ratio, always roll reduction ratio and be more than Or equal to 80%, ξ be 1.0;It is 0.1~1.0 that total rolling reduction ratio is 60%~80%, ξ.
3. the method for ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress according to claim 1, its feature exists In:The grain size of the tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is intercepted respectively using the head and afterbody in tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate Sample carries out Metallographic Analysis acquisition;The grain size of the tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate detects that tested aluminium is closed using ultrasonic method Golden pretensioning plate is obtained.
4. the method for ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress according to claim 1, its feature exists In:The obtaining step of the feature attenuation coefficient is:Characteristic frequency A is selected in 10MHz~40MHz, it is pre- to tested aluminium alloy Drawing plate carries out ultrasonic scanning, obtains first time upper surface of the characteristic frequency A ultrasonic wave to tested aluminum alloy pretensioning plate Ripple wave amplitude H1With first time bottom ripple wave amplitude H2, and detected sheet metal thickness T is tested, then according toCalculate To feature attenuation coefficient αA
5. the method for ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress according to claim 1, its feature exists In:The ultrasonic probe is the contact normal probe that frequency is 10MHz~30MHz, or frequency is the water of 10MHz~30MHz Immersion ultrasonic probe, or frequency is the phased-array ultrasonic probe of 10MHz~30MHz;The thickness of the aluminum alloy pretensioning plate Spend for 6~12mm when, using immersion type focusing probe;When the thickness of the aluminum alloy pretensioning plate is more than 12mm, using water logging Formula flat probe or immersion type phased-array ultrasonic are popped one's head in;When needing to carry instrument to Site Detection, using contact normal probe.
6. the side of the ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress according to Claims 1 to 5 any one Method, it is characterised in that:The residual stress test block is to intercept on the aluminum alloy pre-stretching plate of 0~60MPa from residual stress.
7. the method for ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress according to claim 6, its feature exists In:The residual stress test block is to intercept on the aluminum alloy pre-stretching plate of 0~20MPa from residual stress.
8. the method for ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress according to claim 6, its feature exists In:The thickness of the residual stress test block is 6mm~250mm, and the width of the residual stress test block is 100mm~1000mm, Length is 100mm~1000mm;The residual-stress value of the residual stress test block is measured using XRD method;It is at least annual The residual stress numerical value of the once residual stress test block is measured using XRD method, and re-starts demarcation.
9. the side of the ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress according to Claims 1 to 5 any one Method, it is characterised in that:Step S6, carries out immersion type ultrasonic scanning to sheet material to be measured, ultrasonic wave water distance be 50mm~ 120mm, LPF is 25~50MHz, and high-pass filtering is set to 5~15MHz, and scan method is scanned using step-by-step movement 100%, Ultrasonic wave acoustic beam covers more than 10%, and sweep speed is less than 300mm/s.
10. the method for ultrasonic wave nondestructive evaluation aluminum alloy pretensioning plate residual stress according to claim 9, its feature exists In:It is 7 DEG C~37 DEG C as the temperature of the water of couplant when carrying out ultrasonic scanning, and detected in whole ultrasonic scanning Cheng Zhong, the temperature fluctuation of water is less than ± 2 DEG C.
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