CN104969854A - High pollination rate biological pollination method adopting megachilid attractant - Google Patents

High pollination rate biological pollination method adopting megachilid attractant Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104969854A
CN104969854A CN201510345760.0A CN201510345760A CN104969854A CN 104969854 A CN104969854 A CN 104969854A CN 201510345760 A CN201510345760 A CN 201510345760A CN 104969854 A CN104969854 A CN 104969854A
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megachilid
attractant
megachilid attractant
pollination
honeycomb
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CN201510345760.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王胜
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潍坊友容实业有限公司
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Priority to CN201510345760.0A priority Critical patent/CN104969854A/en
Publication of CN104969854A publication Critical patent/CN104969854A/en

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Abstract

The invention provides a high pollination rate biological pollination method adopting a megachilid attractant. The high pollination rate biological pollination method is characterized by comprising the following steps: establishing a honeycomb, put the honeycomb in a planting area and atomizing the megachilid attractant, wherein the megachilid attractant in the atomized megachilid attractant comprises the compounds in parts by weight: 5-7 parts of clover blossom extractive, 3-4 parts of ethyl vanillin, 1.2-1.5 parts of malt wort, 5-8 parts of honey, 2-3 parts of gamma-Nonylactone and 10-15 parts of 25-50% ethyl alcohol. By adopting the megachilid attractant provided by the invention for pollination, the pollination rate is obviously improved, and the pollination rate of Schisandra chinensis reaches 96.1-97.8%; and by adopting the megachilid attractant provided by the invention for pollination, the amount of megachilid in the planting area during pollination is obviously improved, and the amount of megachilid in the planting area during pollination of Schisandra chinensis reaches 1.415-1.687 pieces per square meter.

Description

A kind of high pollination rate biology pollinating method adopting megachilid attractant

Technical field

The invention belongs to biological pollination technique field, relate to a kind of method adopting the biology of attractant to pollinate, be specifically related to a kind of high pollination rate biology pollinating method adopting megachilid attractant.

Background technology

First flower is opened when gathering by megachilid, creep into again in flower and gather, at this moment pollen grain sticks on fine hair taking wiping to wipe by megachilid belly, when it interviews other flower, gather in the same way, just the pollen of front 1 flower is passed on column cap of other flower, thus passed powder for plant.Megachilid happiness temperature higher than 20 DEG C, fine day that is dry, that have sunlight is movable.

Megachilid is adopted powder speed and is exceedingly fast, according to observations the 11-25 piece that picks flowers per minute, and Pollination Efficiency is high, and be far from other kind of honeybee institute energy ratio, what use in alfalfa cultivation is more.

But under nature, the flower of a lot of plant cannot attract megachilid to be its pollination, or traffic attraction is very little, needs artificial back work to help plant to attract more megachilid to adopt powder, megachilid attractant is used to be a kind of supplementary pollination method preferably.

There is following defect in existing megachilid pollination technique: the draw honeybee amount of growing area to megachilid is very little, and the pollination rate of plant is lower, and plant percentage of fertile fruit is not high, and the single plant yield of plant is not high.

Summary of the invention

The present invention is directed to above deficiency, provide a kind of and adopt the biological pollinating method of the high pollination rate of megachilid attractant, realize following goal of the invention:

(1) adopt megachilid attractant of the present invention pollination, significantly improve pollination rate;

(2) adopt megachilid attractant of the present invention to pollinate, growing area when significantly improving pollination draws honeybee amount;

(3) adopt megachilid attractant of the present invention pollination, significantly improve percentage of fertile fruit;

(4) adopt megachilid attractant of the present invention pollination, significantly improve single plant yield;

For solving the problems of the technologies described above, by the following technical solutions:

Adopt the biological pollinating method of the high pollination rate of megachilid attractant, it is characterized in that: comprise set up honeycomb, growing area put into by honeycomb, spraying megachilid attractant step.

Below the further improvement to technique scheme:

The component of the megachilid attractant in described spraying megachilid attractant step comprises honeysuckle extract, Ethyl vanillin, brewer's wort, honey, third nonalactone, 25-50% ethanol.

The weight portion of the component of described megachilid attractant is: honeysuckle extract 5-7 part, Ethyl vanillin 3-4 part, brewer's wort 1.2-1.5 part, honey 5-8 part, third nonalactone 2-3 part, 25-50% ethanol 10-15 part.

The preparation method of described megachilid attractant comprises and prepares brewer's wort, and described prepares brewer's wort: cleaned by Fructus Hordei Germinatus, steams 20-30 minute, pulverizes, puts into water, and at the temperature bottom fermentation of about 60 DEG C, squeeze juice, 80 order gauzes filter.

The preparation method of described megachilid attractant also comprises preparation honeysuckle extract, described honeysuckle extract: containing 20% alfalfa saponin.

Described preparation honeysuckle extract: pulverized by honeysuckle, put into 60% ethanol, ethanol weight is 10 times of honeysuckle, soaks 12-13 hour, and 80 order gauzes filter, and 8000 rpm are centrifugal obtains supernatant.

The preparation method of described megachilid attractant also comprises obtained megachilid attractant; described obtained megachilid attractant: get honeysuckle extract and join in 25-50% ethanol; 4-8 minute is stirred with agitator; rotating speed 300 rpm; after stirring, add Ethyl vanillin, honey, third nonalactone, stirring and dissolving at 60 DEG C; after cool to room temperature, add brewer's wort and mix.

The described honeycomb set up in honeycomb: be placed with honeybee pipe in nest, 300-400 honeybee pipe placed by each honeycomb.

Described honeybee pipe: internal diameter 5-9 millimeter, long 13-15 centimetre.

Growing area put into by described honeycomb: place 5-6 honeycomb for every 667 square metres, honeycomb is 15-20cm overhead;

Each spray amount is 3.0 L every mu; Bloom 3 days time, the adult honeybee that each honeycomb is applicable to pollinating accounts for the 65-75% of bee colony.

The present invention compared with prior art, has following beneficial effect:

(1) adopt megachilid attractant of the present invention pollination, significantly improve pollination rate, Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS pollination rate reaches 96.1-97.8%;

(2) adopt megachilid attractant of the present invention to pollinate, growing area when significantly improving pollination draws honeybee amount, and during Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS pollination, growing area draws honeybee amount and reaches 1.415-1.687 Zhi/㎡;

(3) adopt megachilid attractant of the present invention pollination, significantly improve percentage of fertile fruit, Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS percentage of fertile fruit is 95.0-95.9%;

(4) adopt megachilid attractant of the present invention pollination, significantly improve single plant yield, Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS single plant yield reaches 7.4-8kg;

(5) adopt megachilid attractant of the present invention pollination, improve the quality of Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS, fresh fruit average diameter is 7-8mm, and commodity fruit rate is 91.2-92.6%, and schizandrin content is 0.6-0.8%.

Embodiment

Embodiment 1 one kinds of megachilid attractants

Megachilid attractant comprises the component of following weight portion:

Honeysuckle extract 5 parts, Ethyl vanillin 3 parts, brewer's wort 1.2 parts, honey 5 parts, third nonalactone 2 parts, 25-50% ethanol 10 parts.

Embodiment 2 one kinds of megachilid attractants

Megachilid attractant comprises the component of following weight portion:

Honeysuckle extract 6 parts, Ethyl vanillin 4 parts, brewer's wort 1.3 parts, honey 6 parts, third nonalactone 2 parts, 25-50% ethanol 13 parts.

Embodiment 3 one kinds of megachilid attractants

Megachilid attractant comprises the component of following weight portion:

Honeysuckle extract 7 parts, Ethyl vanillin 4 parts, brewer's wort 1.5 parts, honey 8 parts, third nonalactone 3 parts, 25-50% ethanol 15 parts.

The preparation method of embodiment 4 one kinds of megachilid attractants

(1) brewer's wort is prepared

Get fresh Fructus Hordei Germinatus, clean, steam 20-30 minute, pulverize, at the temperature bottom fermentation of about 60 DEG C after the water putting into 3 times stirs evenly, behind about to 7 ~ 10 hour, through squeezer squeeze juice, it is brewer's wort that 80 order gauzes filter the clarified juice obtained, for subsequent use.

(2) honeysuckle extract is prepared

Get vigorous honeysuckle in full bloom, pulverize, put into 60% ethanol, ethanol weight is 10 times of honeysuckle, soaks 12-13 hour, and 80 order gauzes filter, and 8000 rpm are centrifugal, and obtaining supernatant is honeysuckle extract, containing 20% alfalfa saponin.

(3) obtained megachilid attractant

Getting honeysuckle extract joins in 25-50% ethanol, stirs 4-8 minute, rotating speed 300 rpm with agitator; after stirring, add Ethyl vanillin, honey, third nonalactone, stirring and dissolving at 60 DEG C; after cool to room temperature, add brewer's wort and mix, obtained megachilid attractant.

Embodiment 5 one kinds adopts the application of the biological pollinating method of the high pollination rate of megachilid attractant in the plantation of Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS saline land

Step 1, seed selection

Carry out Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS seed selection between harvest time in the fall, select fruit grain fruit ear that is large, uniformity to plant, dry and keeping separately.Can dry or dry in the shade, put aeration-drying place storage.

Step 2, seed treatment

By the fruit to be elected to be kind, rub with the hands when being dipped to pulp rising with clear water and remove pulp.The blighted grain of Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS is a lot.Go out kind of rate about 60%, the blighted grain floated on the surface can be removed while stranding pulp.The seed rubbing with the hands after pulp soaks 5-7 days with clear water again, changes a water every three days.Pull out after immersion to control to do and mix with 2-3 times of damp sands to seed, put into the hole of outdoor ready dark about 0.5 meter, cover the fine earth of 10-15 centimetres above, then cover faggot or woven straw, carry out low temperature treatment.5-June of next year can breach sowing.High and dry place will be selected in disposal field, in order to avoid the rotten kind of water logging.

Step 3, seeding and seedling raising

Fertile humus soil or sand loam are selected in nursery field.Nursery is using bed as good, and the height of bed 15 cm, bedside 1.2 meters, bed is long depending on physical features.Bed soil will be harrowed carefully, and removal of contamination, executes decomposed dung 5-10 kilograms for every square metre, stir with bed soil, and hugging level bed face can sow.

Treated seed is sowed, drilling or broadcast sowing in the first tenday period of a month in May to mid-June.Drill spacing 10 centimetres, earthing 1.5-3 centimetres.Every square metre of seeding quantity is about 30 grams.

After planting, take the frame of 1-1.5 meters high, shade with straw screen or mat or reed curtain etc. above, water during soil drought, make soil moisture remain on 30%-40%, can the curtain that shades be removed when seedling grows 2-3 true leaves.Spring in next year gets final product transplant planting.

Step 4, seedling planting

Growing area saline land: 0-40cm soil layer salt content is 1.2-1.3%, pH is 8.3-8.5, basicity 10-12% is sprinkled into soil conditioner 250kg/ mu to growing area, and leveling rake is carefully for subsequent use.

The first tenday period of a month in May transplant, distance between rows and hills 120 cm x 80 centimetres, for making distance between rows and hills even, can determine cave by stay cord, the position in cave is done a mark, and then scrape out dark 30-35 centimetres, the cave of diameter 30 centimetres, every cave plants a strain.Root system will be made during cultivation to unfold, steady and sure after planting, fill with sufficient water, after water has oozed, use grave cave.

Step 5, biological pollination

Pollination period, adopt megachilid to pollinate to Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS, concrete steps are as follows:

(1) honeycomb is set up

Honeycomb is similar to the pattern of bookshelf, places honeybee pipe in honeycomb, and 300-400 honeybee pipe placed by each honeycomb, puts into megachilid honeybee cocoon, each honeybee Guan Fangyi honeybee cocoon in honeybee pipe.Described honeybee pipe is by internal diameter 5-9 millimeter, and the rose spray of long 13-15 centimetre is made.

(2) growing area put into by honeycomb

3-4 days before blooming, megachilid honeycomb is placed into growing area center, and honeycomb is 15-20cm overhead, have no occluder within the scope of first 1 meter of honeycomb.Place 5-6 honeycomb for every 667 square metres.

(3) spraying megachilid attractant

3-4 days before the flowers are in blossom, is sprayed on petal by megachilid attractant, after the flowers are in blossom, every other day, and an attractant of spraying.As the rainy day, stop spraying, after rain stops, recover spraying again.Each spray amount is 3.0 L every mu.

(4) pollinate

Every day bee pollination, bloom 3 days time, the adult honeybee that each honeycomb is applicable to pollinating accounts for the 65-75% of bee colony.After pollination period terminates, withdraw from megachilid in time.

Step 6. disease and control thereof

Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS fruiting period is easy to get insect pest, and primary pest is black suede scarab beetle, tortrix moth.The present invention adopts biological deinsectization mode to prevent and treat, and concrete steps are as follows:

(1) attractant is made: cumin alkene 15-18 part, α-curcumene 10-15 part, phthalic acid terpene alcohol ester 17-20 part, driffractive ring lactone iridoid 10-13 part, cedrol 5-8 part, 4-terpineol 4-6 part, trans-2,4-certain herbaceous plants with big flowers two olefine aldehydr 4-6 part, 2-methyl-3-(4-tolyl)-2-acrolein 1-3 part, 2-(1,1-dimethyl)-cyclohexanol 1-3 part, 1,4-butanediol dipropionate 1-4 part, n-propyl gallate 5-7 part, phenylpropyl alcohol triazole 4-8 part, mentioned component mixes, and makes attractant.

(2) making of core is lured: adopt rubber or fiber to make as material and lure core carrier, the addition of attractant is the 16-20% luring core carrier gross mass, core carrier will be lured to soak in attractant liquid after 220-230 minute take out, natural-draft drying, obtains luring core.

(3) using method: core will be lured to be loaded in slowly-releasing bottle, then by bottled for slowly-releasing on trapper, trapper is evenly suspended on the surrounding of growing area, trapper overhead 1m bottom.

Step 7, field management

Pregnant flower bud yields positive results the phase, except the enough moisture of needs, also needs a large amount of nutrient.Topdress every year 1-2 times, first time carries out at leaf stretching period, and second time is carried out at Post flowering.General every strain can impose 5-10 kilograms, the semi supplied manure become thoroughly decomposed.Imposing method, can apart from open 15-20 centimetres of dark annular grooves around root 30-50 centimetres, apply earthing after fertilizer.

Beta pruning Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS branch spring, summer, Qiu Sanji all can prune.

Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS growing period will loosen the soil in time, weeding, keeps loosing soil without weeds, will avoid root system of damaging, carry out tree dish at Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS base portion, be convenient to pour water when loosening the soil.

Earth up into before the winter Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS base portion ridging, Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS safe overwintering can be protected.

Step 8, harvesting

Gethering and processing late August gathered to early October, with ripe with adopting.To handle with care during harvesting, to ensure commercial quality.

Control group: the implantation methods adopting embodiment 5, only changes the pollination of step 5 biology: do not use megachilid attractant, carries out the experiment of plantation Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS.

Experimental group: the implantation methods adopting embodiment 5, adopts the megachilid attractant of embodiment 1-3, carries out the experiment of plantation Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS.

Experimental result is in table 1:

The experimental result of table 1 control group and experimental group

From table 1, embodiment 2 is preferred embodiment.

Adopt pollinating method of the present invention, the honeybee amount of drawing of Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS is larger, pollination evenly, completely, significantly improve the pollination rate of Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS, percentage of fertile fruit, improve the quality of fruit, commodity fruit rate is higher, and schizandrin content is higher, significantly improves single plant yield.

Adopt the implantation methods plantation Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS of embodiment 4 after 1 year, growing area soil structure improves, and 0-40cm soil layer salt content is 1.2-1.3%, pH is 8.3-8.5, basicity 10-12%.Between planting season, without the need to spraying insecticide, Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS well-grown, dead rate is zero, and the Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et WilS quality better of plantation, non agricultural chemical residuum, active constituent content is high.

Last it is noted that the foregoing is only the preferred embodiments of the present invention, be not limited to the present invention, although with reference to previous embodiment to invention has been detailed description, for a person skilled in the art, it still can be modified to the technical scheme described in foregoing embodiments, or carries out equivalent replacement to wherein portion of techniques feature.Within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment done, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. adopt the biological pollinating method of the high pollination rate of megachilid attractant, it is characterized in that: comprise set up honeycomb, growing area put into by honeycomb, spraying megachilid attractant.
2. according to claim 1ly a kind ofly adopt the biological pollinating method of the high pollination rate of megachilid attractant, it is characterized in that: the megachilid attractant in described spraying megachilid attractant comprises the component of following weight portion: honeysuckle extract 5-7 part, Ethyl vanillin 3-4 part, brewer's wort 1.2-1.5 part, honey 5-8 part, third nonalactone 2-3 part, 25-50% ethanol 10-15 part.
3. a kind of high pollination rate biology pollinating method adopting megachilid attractant according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the preparation method of described megachilid attractant comprises and prepares brewer's wort, described prepares brewer's wort: cleaned by Fructus Hordei Germinatus, steam 20-30 minute, pulverize, put into water, at the temperature bottom fermentation of about 60 DEG C, squeeze juice, 80 order gauzes filter.
4. a kind of high pollination rate biology pollinating method adopting megachilid attractant according to claim 2; it is characterized in that: the preparation method of described megachilid attractant also comprises preparation honeysuckle extract, described honeysuckle extract: containing 20% alfalfa saponin.
5. a kind of high pollination rate biology pollinating method adopting megachilid attractant according to claim 4; it is characterized in that: described preparation honeysuckle extract: honeysuckle is pulverized; put into 60% ethanol; ethanol weight is 10 times of honeysuckle; soak 12-13 hour; 80 order gauzes filter, and 8000 rpm are centrifugal obtains supernatant.
6. a kind of high pollination rate biology pollinating method adopting megachilid attractant according to claim 2; it is characterized in that: the preparation method of described megachilid attractant also comprises obtained megachilid attractant; described obtained megachilid attractant: get honeysuckle extract and join in 25-50% ethanol; 4-8 minute is stirred with agitator; rotating speed 300 rpm; after stirring; add Ethyl vanillin, honey, third nonalactone; stirring and dissolving at 60 DEG C; after cool to room temperature, add brewer's wort and mix.
7. a kind of high pollination rate biology pollinating method adopting megachilid attractant according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the described honeycomb set up in honeycomb: be placed with honeybee pipe in nest, 300-400 honeybee pipe placed by each honeycomb.
8. a kind of high pollination rate biology pollinating method adopting megachilid attractant according to claim 7, is characterized in that: described honeybee pipe: internal diameter 5-9 millimeter, long 13-15 centimetre.
9. a kind of high pollination rate biology pollinating method adopting megachilid attractant according to claim 1, is characterized in that: growing area put into by described honeycomb: place 5-6 honeycomb for every 667 square metres, honeycomb is 15-20cm overhead.
10. a kind of high pollination rate biology pollinating method adopting megachilid attractant according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described spraying megachilid attractant: each spray amount is 3.0 L every mu; Bloom 3 days time, the adult honeybee that each honeycomb is applicable to pollinating accounts for the 65-75% of bee colony.
CN201510345760.0A 2015-06-23 2015-06-23 High pollination rate biological pollination method adopting megachilid attractant CN104969854A (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105557504A (en) * 2015-12-30 2016-05-11 重庆市畜牧科学院 Method for pollinating greenhouse capsicum by using honeybees
CN105638435A (en) * 2015-12-30 2016-06-08 重庆市畜牧科学院 Method for pollinating greenhouse tomatoes by utilizing bees

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CN103270944A (en) * 2013-06-20 2013-09-04 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所 Rapid propagation method of radish breeding material
CN103270943A (en) * 2013-05-20 2013-09-04 杨健 Attractant capable of promoting cross pollination of fruit trees and improving fruit set percentage of fruit trees
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CN105557504A (en) * 2015-12-30 2016-05-11 重庆市畜牧科学院 Method for pollinating greenhouse capsicum by using honeybees
CN105638435A (en) * 2015-12-30 2016-06-08 重庆市畜牧科学院 Method for pollinating greenhouse tomatoes by utilizing bees
CN105638435B (en) * 2015-12-30 2018-03-27 重庆市畜牧科学院 Utilize the method that honeybee is Crops ' pollination

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Application publication date: 20151014