CN104963687B - Method for recycling upper part residual coal and backfilling goaf by utilizing full-mechanized caving mining in extremely thick coal seam - Google Patents

Method for recycling upper part residual coal and backfilling goaf by utilizing full-mechanized caving mining in extremely thick coal seam Download PDF

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CN104963687B
CN104963687B CN201510401835.2A CN201510401835A CN104963687B CN 104963687 B CN104963687 B CN 104963687B CN 201510401835 A CN201510401835 A CN 201510401835A CN 104963687 B CN104963687 B CN 104963687B
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coal
residual
super
caving
seam
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CN104963687A (en
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冯国瑞
郭军
申辰
任鸿瑞
郭育霞
戚庭野
张玉江
李振
白锦文
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Taiyuan University of Technology
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for recycling upper part residual coal and backfilling a goaf by utilizing full-mechanized caving mining in an extremely thick coal seam, and belongs to the field of coal mining. The method is specific to the extremely thick coal seam and is a green method which can be used for recycling the residual coal effectively and specifically comprises the following step: on the premise of determining the height of a caving zone, combining the operations of repeatedly mining upper part abandoned coal or residual coal, preliminarily screening in a pit and backfilling the goaf with gangue. According to the method, residual coal resources are effectively recycled, and environmental pollution caused by transporting the gangue to the ground is avoided, and the problem of surface subsidence is effectively solved.

Description

The method that super high seam longwall top coal caving reclaims the residual coal in top backfilling goaf
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of method that green high-efficient reclaims residual coal, in specifically a kind of super high seam longwall top coal caving recovery The residual coal in portion the method for backfilling goaf, belong to coal mining field.
Background technology
In recent years, coal resources finiteness is increasingly notable with this contradiction of resource requirement unlimitedness, and residual coal second mining becomes new Problem.Abandoning mining coal seam and having the residual coal of considerable economic benefits of flood is generally comprised by the residual coal that historical reasons are formed Post, the second mining of this residual coal of two big types becomes primary study object, but is limited by technical conditions and economic factor, residual coal second mining Still in the tackling key problem stage.
With the continuous innovation of comprehensive mechanization Sub-Level Caving technology, the super high seam more than 20m for the thickness disposably produces into For may, and be used widely.On the one hand, because coal seam extraction thickness is big, roof strata is caving that scope is also larger, and it certainly will Cause more serious subsidence;On the other hand, above super high seam often there is substantial amounts of residual coal seam, top board in certain limit Be caving on a large scale and so that the residual coal in top is possibly realized to bottom work surface by let-down, bottom special thickness coal also occurred in production practices The phenomenon after layer caving, superjacent released.Therefore, it is caving the big feature of scope using super high seam longwall top coal caving overlying strata to return Receiving top residual coal seam becomes a new way of residual coal second mining, but this method will face the coal after superjacent is laid down again The problems such as cash sorts.
Content of the invention
The invention provides a kind of method that super high seam longwall top coal caving reclaims the residual coal in top backfilling goaf, dexterously While reclaiming the residual coal in top using the feature of super high seam longwall top coal caving, directly coal is provided with down-hole bastard coal sorting unit Source is reclaimed, and relies on filling support by the gangue refill of the spoil after separation and the generation of roadway opening process to goaf simultaneously.This Sample, both the coal resources of efficient recovery residual, turn avoid spoil and were transported to the environmental pollution that ground is caused, also effectively solved Determine subsidence problem.
Premised on the present invention is a kind of determination caving zone height, abandon coal or residual coal in conjunction with second mining top, down-hole tentatively sorts The method reclaiming residual coal with the green high-efficient in gangue refill goaf.For super high seam, the residual coal in top, down-hole bastard coal will be reclaimed Sorting, gangue refill goaf are combined together.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
A kind of method that super high seam longwall top coal caving reclaims the residual coal in top backfilling goaf, comprises the following steps:
A. it is based on super high seam fully mechanized coal face mining height, the residual coal of coal rock layer physico mechanical characteristic and top and bottom work surface Spacing, judges to residual coal recuperability;
B. callable safety evaluatio is carried out to the residual coal region possessing recuperability after judging, main consideration is residual The enrichment situation of coal area gas and water;
C. for can safe retrieving the residual coal in top, bottom work surface top coal is normal reclaim under the premise of, using special thickness coal Residual coal and interlayer rock stratum are fallen by layer longwall top coal caving from filling coal mining hydraulic support coal dropping port, and are divided using down-hole optical profile type bastard coal Screening device is tentatively sorted to bastard coal;
D., after preliminary sorting, coal is transported to ground coal preparation plant by scratch board conveyor and carries out secondary sorting, make simultaneously Spoil will be fallen with filling coal mining hydraulic support and rock retreats to the goaf in rear frame protection domain and carries out filling.
In said method, the residual coal recuperability of the top in described step A is whether to be in bottom special thickness coal according to residual coal The inbreak of layer longwall top coal caving brings judgement;Wherein, the caving zone of super high seam longwall top coal caving can be determined by below equation:
In formula:M is accumulative mining height, unit m;
A, b are constant, are determined by least square fitting;
Q is to revise constant;
According to the lithology of goaf overlying rock, overlying rock is divided into:Hard, in hard, the weak and weak four kinds of feelings of dead-soft Condition;A, b and the value revising constant q under different rock-layers situation are provided by matching according to big discharge observation data:
1. when overlying rock is hard, a=2.1, b=16, q=2.5;
When during 2. overlying rock being firmly, a=24.7, b=19, q=2.2;
3. when overlying rock is weak, a=3.2, b=32, q=1.5;
4. when overlying rock is that dead-soft is weak, a=7.0, b=63, q=1.2.
In said method, in described step B, the residual coal region possessing recuperability is carried out callable after judging Safety evaluatio, its objective is to verify particular location and the depth in top goaf, verifies the enrichment of gas and water in goaf Situation, concrete grammar is to take transient electromagnetic method, survey radon method, being used in combination of drilling method.
In said method, the down-hole optical profile type bastard coal sorting unit in described step C is optical profile type down-hole coal-gangue separation dress Put, this device is made up of disintegrating machine, optics sorting unit and blower fan.Its advantage is low cost, and low consumption saves water resource, Long service life, fuselage is suitable for the narrow environment in down-hole.
In said method, the support in described step C refers to filling coal mining hydraulic support, and this support includes coal dropping port, top Beam, base, column, push plate, described push plate is located at support side, and underground separation device is located at internal stent, is fixed on top Between beam and base, scratch board conveyor is located on base.
The method that the super high seam longwall top coal caving that the present invention provides reclaims the residual coal in top backfilling goaf, with prior art Compare, have the following advantages that and good effect:
(1) improve the rate of extraction of residual ground coal, liberated permanent dull reserves, fully excavate and release resource and dive Power, improves economic benefit, alleviates enterprise's pressure, extends the life-span in mine and whole mining area.
(2) effectively prevented and treated occupation of land and the problem of environmental pollution of hillock accumulation, controlled earth's surface deformation, reduce under earth's surface The impact on heavy opposite building (structures).
Brief description
Fig. 1 is super high seam advance of the face schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is filling coal mining hydraulic support.
In figure 1 abandons coal for flood, and 2 is abandoned coal pillar, and 3 is interlayer rock stratum, and 4 is super high seam, and 5 prop up for filling coal mining hydraulic pressure Frame, 6 is coal dropping port, and 7 is down-hole optical profile type bastard coal sorting unit, and 8 is scratch board conveyor, and 9 is push plate, and 10 is back timber, and 11 are Base, 12 is column;M is super high seam thickness, h2For super high seam face height, h1For Sub-Level Caving height, h3For two-layer coal Between thickness of interlayer, h4For the residual coal in top or abandon coal thickness, H is super high seam work surface caving zone height.
Specific embodiment
To further illustrate the present invention below by embodiment, but to be not limited to following examples.
Embodiment 1:
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, two kinds of situations that top girdle is likely to occur are:Flood abandons coal 1 or abandoned coal pillar 2, on It is interlayer rock stratum 3 below portion's girdle, the lower section of interlayer rock stratum 3 is super high seam 4, and M is super high seam face height, and H is The caving zone height being calculated by above-mentioned formula, h2For super high seam face height, h1For Sub-Level Caving height, h3For two-layer Thickness of interlayer between coal, h4For the residual coal in top or abandon coal thickness, work as h3+h4<H is it is believed that coal is abandoned on top or residual coal can pass through Method shown in the present invention produces.
Normally advance with super high seam Full-mechanized Mining Face, coal, interlayer rock stratum 3 and top are pushed up in super high seam 4 top Residual coal or abandon coal spontaneous and be caving, falls from the coal dropping port 6 of filling coal mining hydraulic support 5, enters down-hole optical profile type bastard coal sorting dress Put 7 tentatively to be sorted, the coal after sorting is transported to ground by scratch board conveyor 8 and carries out secondary sorting, sorts remaining spoil Spoil is pushed into rear goaf and carries out packing job by the push plate 9 being carried by filling coal mining hydraulic support.
Further illustrate the present invention below taking Datong Mine Area Tashan Mountain colliery 8106 work surface as a example:
For verifying particular location and the depth of No. 2 coal seam goafs, using survey radon method combine with transient electromagnetic method comprehensive Conjunction method delimited to the scope in goaf and depth, obtain goaf thickness h4.Using drilling method record No. 2 coal seams with Sandy Silt thickness h between 3~No. 5 coal seams3.
As shown in table 1,3~No. 5 coal thickness 14.47m, No. 2 coal thickness 4.92m, press from both sides Sandy Silt between two-layer coal, belong to hard top Plate, thick 3.70m.Bring above-mentioned formula into
Acquired results represent that caving zone is highly between 28.69m~33.69m.Illustrate that superjacent is in caving zone model Within enclosing, can be reclaimed using residual coal of the present invention and backfilling goaf method is exploited.
Table 1
In down-hole, No. 2 coal seam goaf hydrops and pneumatosis amount, first draining and injection nitrogen are detected using comprehensive survey mode Gas and fire retardant are carried out simultaneously, with displacement harmful gass;During pick lane, 30m is often dug using CT scan mode and detect goaf Water accumulating volume, every 50m arrange measurement harmful gass and temperature sensor, monitoring CO, the temperature of CO2, gas and coal body, sentence Coal resources oxidation and ignition state are left in disconnected goaf.
Normally advance with super high seam Full-mechanized Mining Face, 3~No. 5 coal seams top Sandy Silt and No. 2 coal seams are residual Coal spontaneous are caving, and fall from the coal dropping port of filling coal mining hydraulic support, enter down-hole bastard coal sorting unit and are tentatively sorted, point Coal after choosing is transported to ground by scratch board conveyor and carries out secondary sorting, sorts remaining spoil and passes through filling coal mining hydraulic support Spoil is pushed into rear goaf and carries out packing job by the push strut carrying.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of super high seam longwall top coal caving reclaim the residual coal in top backfilling goaf method it is characterised in that:Including following Step:
A. it is based between super high seam fully mechanized coal face mining height, the residual coal of coal rock layer physico mechanical characteristic and top and bottom work surface Away from judging to residual coal recuperability;
B. callable safety evaluatio is carried out to the residual coal region possessing recuperability after judging, main consideration Can Mei area The enrichment situation of gas and water;
C. for can safe retrieving the residual coal in top, bottom work surface top coal is normal reclaim under the premise of, using ultra thick coal bed fully mechanized Relieving is adopted and is fallen residual coal and interlayer rock stratum from filling coal mining hydraulic support coal dropping port, and using down-hole optical profile type bastard coal sorting dress Put and bastard coal is tentatively sorted;
D. after preliminary sorting, coal is transported to ground coal preparation plant by scratch board conveyor and carries out secondary sorting, simultaneously using filling Fill out coal mining hydraulic support and will fall spoil and rock retreats to the goaf in rear frame protection domain and carries out filling.
2. the method that super high seam longwall top coal caving according to claim 1 reclaims the residual coal in top backfilling goaf, it is special Levy and be:Top in described step A residual coal recuperability is whether to be in bottom super high seam longwall top coal caving according to residual coal Inbreak brings judgement;Wherein, the overlying rock caving zone height of super high seam longwall top coal caving can be determined by below equation:
In formula:M is accumulative mining height, unit m;
A, b are constant, are determined by least square fitting;
Q is to revise constant;
According to the lithology of goaf overlying rock, overlying rock is divided into:Hard, in hard, the weak and weak four kinds of situations of dead-soft;Root According to big discharge observation data, a, b and the value revising constant q under different rock-layers situation are provided by matching:
1. when overlying rock is hard, a=2.1, b=16, q=2.5;
When during 2. overlying rock being firmly, a=24.7, b=19, q=2.2;
3. when overlying rock is weak, a=3.2, b=32, q=1.5;
4. when overlying rock is that dead-soft is weak, a=7.0, b=63, q=1.2.
3. the method that super high seam longwall top coal caving according to claim 1 reclaims the residual coal in top backfilling goaf, it is special Levy and be:In described step B, callable safety evaluatio is carried out to the residual coal region possessing recuperability after judging, Specifically take transient electromagnetic method, survey radon method, the method for the combination of probing method, emphasis is grasped super high seam top residual coal body and assigned Deposit the enrichment state of water and gas in region, it is to avoid the water being likely to occur in caving removal process and Gas Outburst.
4. the method that super high seam longwall top coal caving according to claim 1 reclaims the residual coal in top backfilling goaf, it is special Levy and be:Down-hole optical profile type bastard coal sorting unit in described step C is optical profile type down-hole bastard coal segregation apparatuss, and this device is by breaking Broken machine, optics sorting unit and blower fan composition.
5. the method that super high seam longwall top coal caving according to claim 1 reclaims the residual coal in top backfilling goaf, it is special Levy and be:Support in described step C refers to filling coal mining hydraulic support, this support include coal dropping port, back timber, base, column, Push plate, described push plate is located at support side, and underground separation device is located at internal stent, is fixed between back timber and base, Scratch board conveyor is located on base.
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