CN104932560A - Solar dual-axis tracking system based on multi-source information fusion - Google Patents

Solar dual-axis tracking system based on multi-source information fusion Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104932560A
CN104932560A CN201510362212.9A CN201510362212A CN104932560A CN 104932560 A CN104932560 A CN 104932560A CN 201510362212 A CN201510362212 A CN 201510362212A CN 104932560 A CN104932560 A CN 104932560A
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China
Prior art keywords
angle
motor
reducing motor
chip microcomputer
tracking
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Pending
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CN201510362212.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
聂晓华
聂昊瑶
曾俊杰
雷振华
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Nanchang University
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Nanchang University
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Priority to CN201510362212.9A priority Critical patent/CN104932560A/en
Publication of CN104932560A publication Critical patent/CN104932560A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Abstract

The invention relates to a solar dual-axis tracking system based on multi-source information fusion, which comprises a solar cell panel, a speed reducing motor, a photosensitive sensor, a clock circuit, a power supply module, a single-chip microcomputer controller, wherein the photosensitive sensor and the clock circuit are each connected to the single-chip microcomputer controller, the power supply module provides required power for the speed reducing motor, the photosensitive sensor, the clock circuit and single-chip microcomputer controller, the single-chip microcomputer controller is connected to the speed reducing motor, and the speed reducing motor is connected to the solar cell panel. The solar dual-axis tracking system based on multi-source information fusion integrates the advantages of both photoelectric detection tracking method and sun apparent motion trajectory tracking method, and combines the two tracking methods subtly so that the system is more accurate and stable; and the solar dual-axis tracking system is simple in operation and high in practicality, can be put into operation in few steps, and is especially suitable for tracking the sun on a mobile platform.

Description

A kind of solar biaxial tracker based on Multi-source Information Fusion
Technical field
The invention belongs to solar energy power generating application, particularly relate to the photovoltaic generation tracker of the accurate tracking sun.
Background technology
At present, solar tracking mode is a lot, such as looks daily motion trajectory track device and Photoelectric Detection follow-up mechanism.Still normally can work under cloudy weather depending on daily motion trajectory track device, but there are cumulative errors, and self can not eliminate.The tracking means of clock type and program control also exists cumulative errors and can not automatically eliminate; Photoelectric Detection follow-up mechanism is more accurate, and principle is simple, easily realizes, but can not follow the tracks of solar motion continuously under cloudy, rainy weather.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is the defect for prior art and deficiency, propose a kind of solar biaxial tracker based on Multi-source Information Fusion.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions.
A kind of solar biaxial tracker based on Multi-source Information Fusion of the present invention, comprises solar panel, reducing motor, light sensor, clock circuit, power module, singlechip controller.Light sensor, clock circuit are connected to singlechip controller respectively, power module provides the power supply needed for reducing motor, light sensor, clock circuit, power module and singlechip controller, singlechip controller is connected to reducing motor, and reducing motor is connected to solar panel.System global structure block diagram, as shown in Figure 1.
After system starts, first being read the local time by clock module and judged is daytime or evening, if daytime, then through the sunny elevation angle of program computation and the position angle of setting, thus calculate the angle that motor needs to rotate, then time angle gauge being counted as electric machine rotation sends drive motor and rotates and allow the solar panel rough alignment sun.And then enable photoelectric tracking pattern, collection intensity signal at that time, after single-chip microcomputer process relatively, sends drive singal and makes electric machine rotation complete correction, makes solar panel more exactly facing to sunshine.Realize sun angle and follow the tracks of the tracking mode combined with photoelectric tracking pattern.Based on light sensor to elevation angle motor, azimuth motor control strategy process flow diagram, as shown in Figure 2.
The feature of this control strategy is: the elevation angle in (1) moment renewal single-chip microcomputer storer and position angle; (2) whether photoelectric sensor moment detection solar panel is vertical with incident ray.
Step 1: start;
Step 2: read local longitude and latitude and current time;
Step 3: calculate the sun altitude that current time is corresponding, position angle;
Step 4: the elevation angle of current time, a upper moment elevation angle in position angle and single-chip microcomputer storer (Flash), poor intercept △ gama, angle of cut △ afa is asked at position angle;
Step 5: conversion number of degrees intercept △ gama, angle of cut △ afa being converted into corresponding control elevation angle motor and azimuth motor;
Step 6: drive azimuth motor, elevation angle motor is to corresponding position;
Step 7: upgrade the inner elevation angle of single-chip microcomputer storer (Flash) and position angle;
Step 8: whether vertically judge that light sensor detects current solar panel;
Step 9: if not vertical, then detect photoelectricity deviation by light sensor, and drive azimuth motor and the fine setting of elevation angle motor, until reach vertical;
Step 10: if vertical, then return.
Solar biaxial tracker has a vertical shaft and a transverse axis, whole solar panel is supported by a root post, solar panel both can follow the tracks of the position angle of the sun around vertical shaft, follow the tracks of the elevation angle of the sun around transverse axis simultaneously, solar azimuth is followed the tracks of on its Complete Infinite system ground, plays the usefulness of tracker to greatest extent.Tracker primarily of: module mounting bracket, transverse axis, horizontal power head, electric pushrod, column, to day tracking probe, the composition such as tracking control unit.
The actual mechanical process of the solar biaxial tracker based on Multi-source Information Fusion of the present invention is:
The first step, is placed on smooth open position and conveniently receives sun power by device.
Second step, support is roughly placed in Due South to.
3rd step, start master switch, arrange solar opto-electronic board initial position towards due east, perpendicular to ground, system just can start automatic operation.
Native system can run by automatic monitoring shoot the sun, reduces human input to greatest extent, at utmost realizes robotization, when system maintenance, repeats above step after only part need being replaced.
The present invention combines the advantage that Photoelectric Detection is followed the trail of and looked daily motion trajectory track two kinds of modes, two kinds of trace modes is combined cleverly, makes system more accurately with stable.Native system is simple to operate, practical, only needs short a few step just can put into operation.Be particluarly suitable for mobile platform is followed the trail of the sun.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is present system general structure block diagram.
Fig. 2 is motor control strategy process flow diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is single chip machine controlling circuit of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is driving circuit of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is analog to digital conversion circuit of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is frequency dividing circuit of the present invention.
Fig. 7 is present system power supply.
Fig. 8 is clock circuit of the present invention.
Embodiment
The present invention will be described further by following examples.
Embodiment.
(1) singlechip controller of the present embodiment is AT89S52.AT89S52 is a kind of low-power consumption, high-performance CMOS 8 8-digit microcontroller, has 8K in-system programmable components flash storage.Use the manufacture of Atmel company high-density nonvolatile memory technology, with the instruction of industrial 80C51 product and pin completely compatible.On sheet, Flash allows program storage in-system programmable components, is also suitable for conventional programming device.On a single chip, have 8 dexterous bit CPUs and in-system programmable components Flash, height is flexible, the solution of super efficient for numerous embedded Control application system provides to make AT89S52.In addition, AT89S52 can be down to the operation of 0Hz static logic, supports that 2 kinds of software-selectable select energy-saving mode.Under idle pulley, CPU quits work, and permission RAM, timer/counter, serial ports, interruption work on.Under power down protection mode, RAM content is saved, and oscillator is frozen, and all work of single-chip microcomputer stop, and interrupt or hardware reset until next.8 8-digit microcontroller 8K byte in-system programmable components Flash AT89S52 pins.
P0 mouth: P0 mouth is the two-way I/O mouth of 8 open-drain.As delivery outlet, every potential energy drives 8 TTL logic levels.During to P0 port one writing, pin is used as high impedance input.When accessing external program and data-carrier store, P0 mouth is also by multiplexing as least-significant byte address/data.In such a mode, P0 does not have internal pull-up resistor.When flash programmes, P0 mouth is also used for receiving command byte; When program ver-ify, output order byte.During program ver-ify, need external pull-up resistor.
P1 mouth: P1 mouth is 8 two-way I/O mouths with internal pull-up resistor, and p1 output buffer can drive 4 TTL logic levels.During to P1 port one writing, internal pull-up resistor draws high port, now can use as input port.When using as input, the pin dragged down by outside due to internal resistance, by output current (IIL).In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 does external counting input (P1.0/T2) of timer/counter 2 and triggering input (P1.1/T2EX) of timer/counter 2 respectively, shown in table specific as follows.When flash programming and verification, P1 mouth receives least-significant byte address byte.Pin number second function P1.0T2 (the external counting input of timer/counter T2), clock exports P1.1T2EX (seizure/heavily loaded trigger pip of timer/counter T2 and direction controlling), P1.5MOSI (in-system programming is used), P1.6MISO (in-system programming is used), P1.7SCK (in-system programming is used).
P2 mouth: P2 mouth is 8 two-way I/O mouths with internal pull-up resistor, and P2 output buffer can drive 4 TTL logic levels.During to P2 port one writing, internal pull-up resistor draws high port, now can use as input port.When using as input, the pin dragged down by outside due to internal resistance, by output current (IIL).When accessing external program memory or with 16 bit address reading external data storer (such as performing MOVXDPTR), P2 mouth sends high eight-bit address.In this applications, P2 mouth uses very strong inside pull-up to send 1.
P3 mouth: P3 mouth is 8 two-way I/O mouths with internal pull-up resistor, and P3 output buffer can drive 4 TTL logic levels.During to P3 port one writing, internal pull-up resistor draws high port, now can use as input port.When using as input, the pin dragged down by outside due to internal resistance, by output current (IIL).P mouth also uses as AT89S52 specific function (the second function).When flash programming and verification, P3 mouth also receives number control signal.Port pinout second function P3.0RXD (serial input mouth), P3.1TXD (Serial output mouth), P3.2INTO (interrupting 0 outward), P3.3INT1 (interrupting 1 outward), P3.4TO (Timer/Counter 0), P3.5T1 (Timer/Counter 1), P3.6WR (external data memory write gate), P3.7RD (external data memory read gate). in addition, P3 mouth also receives some control signals for FLASH flash memory programming and program ver-ify.
RST: reset input. when oscillator operation, RST pin occurs that two machine cycle above high level will be monolithic processor resettings.
ALE/PROG: when accessing external program memory or data-carrier store, ALE (address latch permission) exports the least-significant byte byte that pulse is used for latch address.Generally, ALE still exports fixing pulse signal with 1/6 of oscillation frequency clock, and therefore it can external output clock or for the timing object (frequency of operation of the ADC0809 of native system.
PSEN: program storage permission (PSEN) output is the read strobe signal of external program memory, when AT89S52 is by external program memory instruction fetch (or data), each machine cycle, twice PSEN was effective, namely two pulses are exported, during this period, when access external data storer, twice PSEN signal will be skipped.
EA/VPP: external reference allows, and makes CPU only access external program memory (address is 0000H-FFFFH), EA end must keep low level (ground connection).
XTAL1: the input end of oscillator inverting amplifier and internal clocking circuit for generating.XTAL2: the output terminal of oscillator inverting amplifier.
The present embodiment occupies the P0 of AT89S52, and P1, P2, P3 mouth is used for the expansion of data transmission interface, as shown in Figure 3.System power supply provides stable operating voltage to respectively the work of the chip of single chip machine controlling circuit, analog to digital conversion circuit, frequency dividing circuit, driving circuit.The function of analog to digital conversion part is that simulating signal sun light intensity being converted to corresponding voltage changes into the manageable digital signal of single-chip microcomputer.Frequency dividing circuit is to provide suitable frequency of operation to analog-to-digital conversion module.Driving circuit carrys out drive motor by the direction specified and rotation speed operation according to the instruction of single-chip microcomputer.
(2) the reducing motor driving chip L298N of the present embodiment is the product of SGS (Tongbiao Standard Technology Service Co., Ltd) company, and be the L298N that 15 pin Multiwatt encapsulate, inside comprises 4 channel logic driving circuits.Be the special purpose driver of a kind of two-phase and four phase motors, the high-voltage large current namely including two H bridges is enjoyed a double blessing bridge driver, receives standard TTL logic level signal, can drive the motor of 46V, below 2A.
The pin 9 of L298N is logic supply voltage.Pin 4 is SUPPLY VOLTAGE Vs, i.e. drive part input voltage.Vss voltage request input minimum voltage is 4.5V, maximumly reaches 36V; Vs voltage max is also 36V, but passes through my experiment, and Vs voltage should be higher than Vss voltage, otherwise occur out-of-control phenomenon sometimes.Its pin 2,3,13,14 is input to the output terminal of motor for L298N chip, and wherein pin 2 and 3 can control two-phase induction motor, for direct current motor, can control a motor.In like manner, pin 13 and 14 also can control a direct current motor.Pin 6 and 11 pin is the enable wiring pin of motor.Pin 5,7,10,12 are input to the input pin of L298N chip for single-chip microcomputer, are connected respectively to P0.0, P0.1, P0.2, P0.3 pin of singlechip controller AT89S52, as shown in Figure 4.
Enable control pin ENA or ENB just can realize the adjustment of PWM pulsewidth speed.1 pin and 15 pin can draw separately connection current sampling resistor, form current sensing signal, also can direct ground connection.Just by they direct ground connection in can designing.Pin 8 is the grounding pin of chip, and the heat radiator of it and L298N chip links together.Because the working current of this chip is larger, thermal value is also larger, so be connected to again one block of aluminium alloy on the heat radiator of this chip, to increase its area of dissipation.
(3) the modulus conversion chip ADC0809 of the present embodiment is sampling resolution is 8, carry out the device of mould-number conversion with Approach by inchmeal principle.There are 8 passage multi-way switchs its inside, and it can latch the signal after decoding according to address code, and one in the analog input signal of gating 8 road is carried out A/D conversion.
The course of work of ADC0809: first input 3 bit address, and make ALE=1, by address stored in address latch.Comparer is arrived through one of decoding gating 8 tunnel analog input in this address.Successive approximation register resets by START rising edge.Negative edge starts A/D conversion, and EOC outputs signal step-down afterwards, and instruction conversion is carried out.Until A/D converts, EOC becomes high level, instruction A/D EOC, and result data is stored in latch, and this signal can be used as interrupting application.When OE input high level, export triple gate and open, the digital output of transformation result is on data bus.The data obtained after the transmission A/D conversion of translation data should send single-chip microcomputer in time to and process.The key issue that data transmit is completing of how confirming that A/D changes, because after only having confirmation to complete, just can transmit, ADC0809 and AT89S52 single board computer wiring relation are as shown in Figure 5.
(4) the 74LS74 frequency divider of the present embodiment is the work scope 10KHZ---1280KHZ frequently due to ADC0809, and when frequency is 500KHZ, its slewing rate is 128us.The 30th pin output frequency of AT 89S52 is that after the 30th pin of 1MHZ, AT89S52 is connected with 74LS74, after carrying out 2 frequency divisions, the clock signal obtaining 500KHZ passes to ADC0809, and wiring relation as shown in Figure 6.
(5) power supply that these works use is powered to whole device by 12V lead accumulator, exports 5V to motor module, one-chip computer module and clock module for power supply, as shown in Figure 7 by voltage stabilizing after LM78L05ACZ conversion.
(6) the DS1302 clock chip of the present embodiment be DALLAS company of the U.S. release a kind of high-performance, low-power consumption, band RAM real time clock circuit, it can to year, month, day, week, time, minute, second carries out timing, there is leap year compensate function, this chip wiring is simple, consume energy low, clock alignment ratio is easier to.Its major function comprises the static RAM (SRAM) of real-time clock/calendar and 31B through a simple serial interface and single chip communication, real-time clock provide year, month, day, hour, min and second etc. information, date for the end of month being less than 31 days adjusts, and the operation of clock can adopt 24h or 12h form.The RAM composition of DS1302 inner structure shift register, steering logic, oscillator, real-time clock and 31B, when starting data transmission, must be set to high level RST, and providing 8 of address and command information to be encased in shift register.When carrying out the transmission of any data to DS1302, first data byte must be command byte.The mode of synchronous serial can be adopted between DS1302 with single-chip microcomputer simply to communicate, only need to use three mouth lines: 5 pin RES reset, 6 pin I/O data lines, 7 pin SCLK serial clocks.The read/write data of clock/RAM communicates in the character group mode of a byte or nearly 31 bytes.AT89S52 the 33rd, 32,29 pins are connected respectively to 5,6,7 pins of DS1302, wiring relation is as shown in Figure 8.

Claims (1)

1., based on a solar biaxial tracker for Multi-source Information Fusion, it is characterized in that comprising solar panel, reducing motor, light sensor, clock circuit, power module, singlechip controller; Light sensor, clock circuit are connected to singlechip controller respectively, power module provides the power supply needed for reducing motor, light sensor, clock circuit, power module and singlechip controller, singlechip controller is connected to reducing motor, and reducing motor is connected to solar panel; Its rate-determining steps is:
Step 1: start;
Step 2: read local longitude and latitude and current time;
Step 3: calculate the sun altitude that current time is corresponding, position angle;
Step 4: the elevation angle of current time, a upper moment elevation angle in position angle and single-chip microcomputer storer, poor intercept △ gama, angle of cut △ afa is asked at position angle;
Step 5: conversion number of degrees intercept △ gama, angle of cut △ afa being converted into corresponding control elevation angle motor and azimuth motor;
Step 6: drive azimuth motor, elevation angle motor is to corresponding position;
Step 7: upgrade the elevation angle in single-chip microcomputer storer and position angle;
Step 8: whether vertically judge that light sensor detects current solar panel;
Step 9: if not vertical, then detect photoelectricity deviation by light sensor, and drive azimuth motor and the fine setting of elevation angle motor, until reach vertical;
Step 10: if vertical, then return.
CN201510362212.9A 2015-06-26 2015-06-26 Solar dual-axis tracking system based on multi-source information fusion Pending CN104932560A (en)

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CN108566123A (en) * 2018-05-23 2018-09-21 江苏中信博新能源科技股份有限公司 A kind of multi-mode operation method and system of motor group

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105302165A (en) * 2015-11-27 2016-02-03 胡国旺 Photovoltaic power generation automatic tracking system
CN108566123A (en) * 2018-05-23 2018-09-21 江苏中信博新能源科技股份有限公司 A kind of multi-mode operation method and system of motor group

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Application publication date: 20150923