CN104904531A - Biological control method for aphids adopting horsebean seedlings and aphis medicaginis koch as storage carriers - Google Patents

Biological control method for aphids adopting horsebean seedlings and aphis medicaginis koch as storage carriers Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104904531A
CN104904531A CN201510377215.XA CN201510377215A CN104904531A CN 104904531 A CN104904531 A CN 104904531A CN 201510377215 A CN201510377215 A CN 201510377215A CN 104904531 A CN104904531 A CN 104904531A
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aphid
seedling
broad bean
cultivating tray
bean seedling
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CN201510377215.XA
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CN104904531B (en
Inventor
陈若霞
孙梅梅
谌江华
柴伟纲
姚红燕
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Ningbo Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Ningbo Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants

Abstract

The invention discloses a biological control method for aphids adopting horsebean seedlings and aphis medicaginis koch as storage carriers in order to breed aphidius avenae. The biological control method comprises following steps: (A) reproduction of seedlings: sterilization and deinsectization of broadbean seeds and then reproduction of horsebean seedlings by utilization of cultivation medium; (B) reproduction of aphis medicaginis koch: collecting aphis medicaginis koch and grating aphides into the horsebean seedlings with folded cotyledons for culture and expanding propagation; (C) inoculation of aphidius avenae: collecting and throwing aphidius avenae into horsebean seedlings with bred aphides; (D) field releasing: putting the horsebean seedlings with bred aphides into crop rows; (E) maintenance and replacement of banker plants: timely supplementing moisture and proper replacing with aphidius avenae seedlings. The biological control method for aphids adopting horsebean seedlings and aphis medicaginis koch as storage carriers is easily and conveniently operated at low cost and has obvious effect.

Description

A kind of with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier
Technical field
The present invention relates to extermination of disease and insect pest field, particularly relate to a kind of with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier.
Background technology
Aphid belongs to Homoptera Aphidiadae, is the insect of sucking mouth parts, is often clustered in the positions such as blade, tender stem, bud, terminal bud, and thorn inhales juice, makes leaf-shrinkage, curling, lopsided, causes the even whole strain of die back dead time serious.The aphid process that causes harm also can spread disease viral disease, causes crop failure or disease to be died.Further, aphid can be secreted into plant surface honeydew while taking food, and can cause ant infestations and bring out the diseases such as sooty mould.
Current production mainly relies on chemical insecticide to the control of aphid, and the medicament of employing is based on the Imidacloprid of anabasine, Acetamiprid etc.Also use is had to ward off the medicaments such as aphid mist missible oil, omethoate emulsifiable solution.Because the Growth season of aphid is long, generating capacity is large, pesticide resistance is strong, need regular, a large amount of medication in crop production process, not only can increase means of agricultural production cost, also have considerable influence to agricultural product quality and safety and ecotope.
Current production mainly adopts the means such as highdensity insect protected grenadine is isolated, silver gray keeps away the application of worm mulch film, suspension silvery reflection bar to the non-pesticide control of aphid, and mainly as ancillary method, control efficiency is not ideal enough.
(1) chemical control shortcoming has four aspects:
One is that the frequency of utilization of chemical pesticide is high, consumption large, can improve agriculture production cost;
Two is that a large amount of, frequent use agricultural chemicals can cause pest resistance to insecticide constantly to increase, and control efficiency progressively declines;
Three be chemical pesticide in a large number use can kill the natural enemy of various insect, cause aphid and other pest generating capacity to increase, cause harm and increase the weight of;
Four is chemical pesticide residual is matters of utmost importance of food security, is also the main cause of widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area.
(2) physical control shortcoming has two aspects:
One is that input cost is large: the cost that the isolation of use insect protected grenadine, application silver gray keep away the measures such as worm mulch film drops into all higher, the price of keeping away worm mulch film as silver gray is higher than normal transparent mulch film by more than 10%, the price of insect protected grenadine up to every square metre about 1 yuan especially;
Two is that effect is not good enough: be isolated into example with insect protected grenadine, because aphid individuality is less, the following grenadine of 20 order must be used just to play buffer action, but such grenadine can affect field and ventilate after using, increase humidity and temperature between plant, cause the generation of plant disease, affect crop yield and agricultural product quality; Though silver gray keeps away worm mulch film can play certain avoidance effect to aphid, the use of chemical pesticide cannot be substituted.Meanwhile, this mulch film can not increase low temperature by printing opacity as hyaline membrane, again cannot as the insulation of unregistered land film control grass, the general not very willing use of peasant.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention be to provide a kind of easy and simple to handle, with low cost, Be very effective with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier.
With broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving a Biological control of aphid method for vector propagation aphid parasite, comprise the steps:
(A) broad bean seedling breeding: breed broad bean seedling with cultivation matrix by after Broad Bean Seeds sterilization and disinfestation;
(B) aphis craccivora breeding: gather aphis craccivora, kind of aphid is linked in the broad bean seedling that cotyledon just opens up cultivate expand numerous;
(C) aphid parasite inoculation: gather aphid parasite, throws in the broad bean seedling being extremely bred as aphid and cultivates;
(D) field adaptability: the plastic casing broad bean seedling with aphid parasite being put into special structure, then be placed between crop row;
(E) vector plant is safeguarded and is replaced: timing keeps the skin wet and carries out the replacement of broad bean seedling in good time.
Of the present invention with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, wherein, step (A) specifically comprises the steps: to select the large Broad Bean Seeds of health, not worm in spite of illness, one day is evenly tedded in sowing in the last week, before broadcasting with 30 DEG C, 1% limewash soaks seed 8 hours, with sterilization and disinfestation; In seedling-cultivating tray, fill and be made up of 70% humus soil, 20% careless carbon, 10% vermiculite, the cultivation matrix of moisture 65%, to the 4cm degree of depth; Thickness of sowing is 5cm × 5cm, seed covers the cultivation matrix of 0.5cm, and light pressure is floating; Cultivate on the illumination box or indoor culturing rack of room temperature 20 DEG C, air humidity 60% and emerge.
Of the present invention with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, wherein, the black plastic that described seedling-cultivating tray is 0.05-0.08cm by thickness is made, comprise base plate and 4 seedling-cultivating tray sidewalls, described base plate is rectangle, and the specification of described seedling-cultivating tray is long 30cm, wide 18cm, high 6cm, described 4 seedling-cultivating tray sidewalls are corrugated type structure, and the straight stripe direction of described corrugated type structure is perpendicular to described base plate; It is semicircular seedling-cultivating tray edge that the top of described seedling-cultivating tray sidewall has cross section, and Open Side Down at described seedling-cultivating tray edge, and one end and described seedling-cultivating tray sidewall link into an integrated entity structure, and the other end is in the outside of described seedling-cultivating tray.The surrounding of described base plate and the position of described base plate length and wide medium line are provided with the drain ditch that width is 1.5cm, dark 0.5cm, the corner of described base plate and the position at center are provided with the osculum that diameter is 0.5cm.
Of the present invention with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, wherein, step (B) specifically comprises the steps: that described aphis craccivora is picked up from the kind aphid in the local broad bean ground of cultivation naturally or introduces a fine variety from R&D institution, broad bean seedling grows to that cotyledon is just opened up, more than height of seedling 4cm time, seedling-cultivating tray is put into long 80cm, wide 35cm, in the grenadine account of high 35cm, access kind of aphid, continues to cultivate on the illumination box or indoor culturing rack of room temperature 20 DEG C, air humidity 60%; After first generation aphid colony sets up, then the mode that the company's of employing broad bean seedling is thrown in expands numerous further, and a dish expands numerous 6-8 dish.
Of the present invention with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, wherein, step (C) specifically comprises the steps: that the first generation aphid parasite for inoculating picks up from the stiff aphid on the melon of field self-sow, dish, putting 10-15 stiff aphid to often coiling the broad bean seedling being bred as aphid, continuing to cultivate extremely stiff aphid incidence more than 10% and namely can be used for field adaptability.
Of the present invention with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, wherein, step (D) specifically comprises the steps:
Field adaptability method:
I. for leguminous plant control of aphids:
To the broad bean seedling-cultivating tray of also having bred stiff aphid be bred as, after covering nursery disk cover, directly be positioned over target crop in the ranks;
The transparent plastic that described nursery disk cover is 0.05-0.08cm by thickness is made, comprise top board and 4 nursery disk cover sidewalls, described top board is rectangle, the specification of described nursery disk cover is long 30cm, wide 18cm, high 6cm, described 4 nursery disk cover sidewalls are corrugated type structure, and the straight stripe direction of described corrugated type structure is perpendicular to described top board; Described top board is provided with two long 12cm, the grenadine ventilating opening of wide 8cm, described grenadine ventilating opening is installed with 10 order × 30 object grenadine sheets; It is semicircular nursery disk cover edge that the bottom of described nursery disk cover sidewall has the cross section matched with described seedling-cultivating tray edge, Open Side Down at described nursery disk cover edge, one end and described nursery disk cover sidewall link into an integrated entity structure, and the other end is in the outside of described nursery disk cover;
II. for non-leguminous plant control of aphids
The broad bean seedling planting plate of also having bred stiff aphid will be bred as and directly be positioned over target crop in the ranks;
III. density is discharged
For the crop of plant height at below 50cm, be directly positioned between crop row by the broad bean seedling-cultivating tray of the aphid containing stiff aphid incidence more than 10% be bred as, require to adopt and place 1 row every furrow, dish spacing is 8-10m;
For the crop of plant height more than 50cm, adopt support to be fixed on by broad bean seedling-cultivating tray lower than 30cm place, plant top between crop row, require to adopt and place 1 row every furrow, dish spacing is 4-6m.
Of the present invention with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, wherein, step (E) specifically comprises the steps: that broad bean seedling-cultivating tray is positioned in back, field 4 days, when cultivation matrix surface is dry, water content lower than 50% time, need keep the skin wet in time, to ensure that broad bean seedling normally survives, and promote that aphid parasite adapts to field conditions; Stop during 5-7 days supplying water, suppress the growth of broad bean seedling and carrier aphid, impel aphid parasite to the aphid transfer in target crop; As still in rising trend in the aphid colony amount in target crop after 7 days, need replace with new band aphid parasite broad bean seedling, and Continuous Observation, repeat release, until the aphid in target crop is controlled.The present invention with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for the Biological control of aphid method difference from prior art of saving carrier is: the present invention is with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for the Biological control of aphid method of saving carrier utilizes variety classes aphid to the selectivity parasitic character of host plant, and the natural enemy of aphid such as aphid parasite is to the non-selective wide spectrum parasitic character of host aphid.Research and development are a kind of with broad bean seedling breeding aphis craccivora, and the parasitic wasps such as aphid parasite are inoculated on aphis craccivora, then connecting the aphis craccivora that broad bean seedling band is vaccinated with the parasitic wasps such as aphid parasite is together positioned in pulse family or non-leguminous vegetable planting greenhouse, for the parasitic vegetable-crop pest-insect of the parasitic wasps such as aphid parasite provides natural enemy source and vector plant, realize the high-performance bio control of aphid.
Below in conjunction with concrete accompanying drawing to of the present invention with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for the Biological control of aphid method of saving carrier is described further.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation under seedling-cultivating tray of the present invention and the nursery disk cover that matches with it are in open mode;
Fig. 2 is the structural representation under seedling-cultivating tray of the present invention and the nursery disk cover that matches with it are in closure state.
Embodiment
With broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving a Biological control of aphid method for carrier, it comprises the steps:
(A) broad bean seedling breeding: the large Broad Bean Seeds selecting health, not worm in spite of illness, evenly teds one day within sowing the last week, before broadcasting with 30 DEG C, 1% limewash soaks seed 8 hours, with sterilization and disinfestation; In seedling-cultivating tray, fill and be made up of 70% humus soil, 20% careless carbon, 10% vermiculite, the cultivation matrix of moisture 65%, to the 4cm degree of depth; Thickness of sowing is 5cm × 5cm, seed covers the cultivation matrix of 0.5cm, and light pressure is floating; Cultivate on the illumination box or indoor culturing rack of room temperature 20 DEG C, air humidity 60% and emerge.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, the black plastic that seedling-cultivating tray is 0.05-0.08cm by thickness is made, comprise base plate 1 and 4 seedling-cultivating tray sidewalls 2, base plate 1 is rectangle, the specification of seedling-cultivating tray is long 30cm, wide 18cm, high 6cm, 4 seedling-cultivating tray sidewalls 2 are corrugated type structure, and the straight stripe direction of corrugated type structure is perpendicular to base plate 1; It is semicircular seedling-cultivating tray edge 4 that the top of seedling-cultivating tray sidewall 2 has cross section, and Open Side Down at seedling-cultivating tray edge 4, and one end and seedling-cultivating tray sidewall 2 link into an integrated entity structure, and the other end is in the outside of seedling-cultivating tray.It is 1.5cm that the surrounding of base plate 1 and the position of base plate 1 length and wide medium line are provided with width, the drain ditch 5 of dark 0.5cm, i.e. drain ditch 5 distribution in sphere of movements for the elephants shape on base plate 1, is provided with in the corner of base plate 1 and the position at center the osculum 3 that diameter is 0.5cm.
(B) aphis craccivora breeding: aphis craccivora is picked up from the kind aphid in the local broad bean ground of cultivation naturally or introduces a fine variety from R&D institution, broad bean seedling grows to that cotyledon is just opened up, more than height of seedling 4cm time, seedling-cultivating tray is put into long 80cm, wide 35cm, in the grenadine account of high 35cm, access kind of aphid, continues to cultivate on the illumination box or indoor culturing rack of room temperature 20 DEG C, air humidity 60%; After first generation aphid colony sets up, then the mode that the company's of employing broad bean seedling is thrown in expands numerous further, and a dish expands numerous 6-8 dish.
(C) aphid parasite inoculation: the first generation aphid parasite for inoculating picks up from the stiff aphid on the melon of field self-sow, dish, putting 10-15 stiff aphid to often coiling the broad bean seedling being bred as aphid, continuing to cultivate extremely stiff aphid incidence more than 10% and namely can be used for field adaptability.
(D) field adaptability:
I. for leguminous plant control of aphids:
To the broad bean seedling-cultivating tray of also having bred stiff aphid be bred as, after covering nursery disk cover, directly be positioned over target crop in the ranks;
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, the transparent plastic that nursery disk cover is 0.05-0.08cm by thickness is made, comprise top board 10 and 4 nursery disk cover sidewalls 6, top board 10 is rectangle, the specification of nursery disk cover is long 30cm, wide 18cm, high 6cm, 4 nursery disk cover sidewalls 6 are corrugated type structure, and the straight stripe direction of corrugated type structure is perpendicular to top board 10; Top board 10 is provided with two long 12cm, the grenadine ventilating opening 7 of wide 8cm, grenadine ventilating opening 7 is installed with 10 order × 30 object grenadine sheets 8; It is semicircular nursery disk cover edge 9 that the bottom of nursery disk cover sidewall 6 has the cross section matched with seedling-cultivating tray edge 4, and Open Side Down at nursery disk cover edge 9, and one end and nursery disk cover sidewall 6 link into an integrated entity structure, and the other end is in the outside of nursery disk cover;
II. for non-leguminous plant control of aphids
The broad bean seedling planting plate of also having bred stiff aphid will be bred as and directly be positioned over target crop in the ranks;
III. density is discharged
For the crop of plant height at below 50cm, be directly positioned between crop row by the broad bean seedling-cultivating tray of the aphid containing stiff aphid incidence more than 10% be bred as, require to adopt and place 1 row every furrow, dish spacing is 8-10m;
For the crop of plant height more than 50cm, adopt support to be fixed on by broad bean seedling-cultivating tray lower than 30cm place, plant top between crop row, require to adopt and place 1 row every furrow, dish spacing is 4-6m.
(E) vector plant is safeguarded and is replaced: broad bean seedling-cultivating tray is positioned in back, field 4 days, when cultivation matrix surface is dry, water content lower than 50% time, need keep the skin wet in time, to ensure that broad bean seedling normally survives, and promote that aphid parasite adapts to field conditions; Stop during 5-7 days supplying water, suppress the growth of broad bean seedling and carrier aphid, impel aphid parasite to the aphid transfer in target crop; As still in rising trend in the aphid colony amount in target crop after 7 days, need replace with new band aphid parasite broad bean seedling, and Continuous Observation, repeat release, until the aphid in target crop is controlled.
Above embodiment is only be described the preferred embodiment of the present invention; not scope of the present invention is limited; under not departing from the present invention and designing the prerequisite of spirit; the various distortion that those of ordinary skill in the art make technical scheme of the present invention and improvement, all should fall in protection domain that claims of the present invention determines.

Claims (7)

1. with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving a Biological control of aphid method for vector propagation aphid parasite, it is characterized in that: comprise the steps:
(A) broad bean seedling breeding: breed broad bean seedling with cultivation matrix by after Broad Bean Seeds sterilization and disinfestation;
(B) aphis craccivora breeding: gather aphis craccivora, kind of aphid is linked in the broad bean seedling that cotyledon just opens up cultivate expand numerous;
(C) aphid parasite inoculation: gather aphid parasite, throws in the broad bean seedling being extremely bred as aphid and cultivates;
(D) field adaptability: the plastic casing broad bean seedling with aphid parasite being put into special structure, then be placed between crop row;
(E) vector plant is safeguarded and is replaced: timing keeps the skin wet and carries out the replacement of broad bean seedling in good time.
2. according to claim 1 with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, it is characterized in that: step (A) specifically comprises the steps: to select the large Broad Bean Seeds of health, not worm in spite of illness, one day is evenly tedded in sowing in the last week, before broadcasting with 30 DEG C, 1% limewash soaks seed 8 hours, with sterilization and disinfestation; In seedling-cultivating tray, fill and be made up of 70% humus soil, 20% careless carbon, 10% vermiculite, the cultivation matrix of moisture 65%, to the 4cm degree of depth; Thickness of sowing is 5cm × 5cm, seed covers the cultivation matrix of 0.5cm, and light pressure is floating; Cultivate on the illumination box or indoor culturing rack of room temperature 20 DEG C, air humidity 60% and emerge.
3. according to claim 2 with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, it is characterized in that: the black plastic that described seedling-cultivating tray is 0.05-0.08cm by thickness is made, comprise base plate (1) and 4 seedling-cultivating tray sidewalls (2), described base plate (1) is rectangle, the specification of described seedling-cultivating tray is long 30cm, wide 18cm, high 6cm, described 4 seedling-cultivating tray sidewalls (2) are corrugated type structure, and the straight stripe direction of described corrugated type structure is perpendicular to described base plate (1); Described base plate (1) is provided with the osculum (3) that 4 diameters are 0.5cm; It is semicircular seedling-cultivating tray edge (4) that the top of described seedling-cultivating tray sidewall (2) has cross section, Open Side Down for described seedling-cultivating tray edge (4), one end and described seedling-cultivating tray sidewall (2) link into an integrated entity structure, and the other end is in the outside of described seedling-cultivating tray; It is 1.5cm that the surrounding of described base plate (1) and the position of described base plate (1) length and wide medium line are provided with width, the drain ditch (5) of dark 0.5cm, is provided with in the corner of described base plate (1) and the position at center the osculum (3) that diameter is 0.5cm.
4. according to claim 3 with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, it is characterized in that: step (B) specifically comprises the steps: that described aphis craccivora is picked up from the kind aphid in the local broad bean ground of cultivation naturally or introduces a fine variety from R&D institution, broad bean seedling grows to that cotyledon is just opened up, more than height of seedling 4cm time, seedling-cultivating tray is put into long 80cm, wide 35cm, in the grenadine account of high 35cm, access kind of aphid, continues to cultivate on the illumination box or indoor culturing rack of room temperature 20 DEG C, air humidity 60%; After first generation aphid colony sets up, then the mode that the company's of employing broad bean seedling is thrown in expands numerous further, and a dish expands numerous 6-8 dish.
5. according to claim 4 with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, it is characterized in that: step (C) specifically comprises the steps: that the first generation aphid parasite for inoculating picks up from the stiff aphid on the melon of field self-sow, dish, putting 10-15 stiff aphid to often coiling the broad bean seedling being bred as aphid, continuing to cultivate extremely stiff aphid incidence more than 10% and namely can be used for field adaptability.
6. according to claim 5 with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, it is characterized in that: step (D) specifically comprises the steps:
Field adaptability method:
I. for leguminous plant control of aphids:
To the broad bean seedling-cultivating tray of also having bred stiff aphid be bred as, after covering nursery disk cover, directly be positioned over target crop in the ranks;
The transparent plastic that described nursery disk cover is 0.05-0.08cm by thickness is made, comprise top board (10) and 4 nursery disk cover sidewalls (6), described top board (10) is rectangle, the specification of described nursery disk cover is long 30cm, wide 18cm, high 6cm, described 4 nursery disk cover sidewalls (6) are corrugated type structure, and the straight stripe direction of described corrugated type structure is perpendicular to described top board (10); Described top board (10) is provided with two long 12cm, the grenadine ventilating opening (7) of wide 8cm, described grenadine ventilating opening (7) is installed with 10 order × 30 object grenadine sheet (8); It is semicircular nursery disk cover edge (9) that the bottom of described nursery disk cover sidewall (6) has the cross section matched with described seedling-cultivating tray edge (4), Open Side Down for described nursery disk cover edge (9), one end and described nursery disk cover sidewall (6) link into an integrated entity structure, and the other end is in the outside of described nursery disk cover;
II. for non-leguminous plant control of aphids
The broad bean seedling planting plate of also having bred stiff aphid will be bred as and directly be positioned over target crop in the ranks;
III. density is discharged
For the crop of plant height at below 50cm, be directly positioned between crop row by the broad bean seedling-cultivating tray of the aphid containing stiff aphid incidence more than 10% be bred as, require to adopt and place 1 row every furrow, dish spacing is 8-10m;
For the crop of plant height more than 50cm, adopt support to be fixed on by broad bean seedling-cultivating tray lower than 30cm place, plant top between crop row, require to adopt and place 1 row every furrow, dish spacing is 4-6m.
7. according to claim 6 with broad bean seedling and aphis craccivora for saving the Biological control of aphid method of carrier, it is characterized in that: step (E) specifically comprises the steps: that broad bean seedling-cultivating tray is positioned in back, field 4 days, when cultivation matrix surface is dry, water content lower than 50% time, need keep the skin wet in time, to ensure that broad bean seedling normally survives, and promote that aphid parasite adapts to field conditions; Stop during 5-7 days supplying water, suppress the growth of broad bean seedling and carrier aphid, impel aphid parasite to the aphid transfer in target crop; As still in rising trend in the aphid colony amount in target crop after 7 days, need replace with new band aphid parasite broad bean seedling, and Continuous Observation, repeat release, until the aphid in target crop is controlled.
CN201510377215.XA 2015-06-29 2015-06-29 A kind of take semen viciae fabae seedling and aphis craccivora as the Biological control of aphid method of savings carrier Active CN104904531B (en)

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