CN104896466A - Combustion method and combustion device for solid fuel - Google Patents

Combustion method and combustion device for solid fuel Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104896466A
CN104896466A CN201410079185.XA CN201410079185A CN104896466A CN 104896466 A CN104896466 A CN 104896466A CN 201410079185 A CN201410079185 A CN 201410079185A CN 104896466 A CN104896466 A CN 104896466A
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China
Prior art keywords
combustion
solid
fuelled
bed
burner hearth
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CN201410079185.XA
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Chinese (zh)
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车战斌
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车战斌
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Priority to CN201410079185.XA priority Critical patent/CN104896466A/en
Publication of CN104896466A publication Critical patent/CN104896466A/en
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B50/00Combustion apparatus in which the fuel is fed into or through the combustion zone by gravity, e.g. from a fuel storage situated above the combustion zone
    • F23B50/02Combustion apparatus in which the fuel is fed into or through the combustion zone by gravity, e.g. from a fuel storage situated above the combustion zone the fuel forming a column, stack or thick layer with the combustion zone at its bottom
    • F23B50/04Combustion apparatus in which the fuel is fed into or through the combustion zone by gravity, e.g. from a fuel storage situated above the combustion zone the fuel forming a column, stack or thick layer with the combustion zone at its bottom the movement of combustion air and flue gases being substantially transverse to the movement of the fuel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B10/00Combustion apparatus characterised by the combination of two or more combustion chambers
    • F23B10/02Combustion apparatus characterised by the combination of two or more combustion chambers including separate secondary combustion chambers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B50/00Combustion apparatus in which the fuel is fed into or through the combustion zone by gravity, e.g. from a fuel storage situated above the combustion zone
    • F23B50/02Combustion apparatus in which the fuel is fed into or through the combustion zone by gravity, e.g. from a fuel storage situated above the combustion zone the fuel forming a column, stack or thick layer with the combustion zone at its bottom
    • F23B50/06Combustion apparatus in which the fuel is fed into or through the combustion zone by gravity, e.g. from a fuel storage situated above the combustion zone the fuel forming a column, stack or thick layer with the combustion zone at its bottom the flue gases being removed downwards through one or more openings in the fuel-supporting surface
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B80/00Combustion apparatus characterised by means creating a distinct flow path for flue gases or for non-combusted gases given off by the fuel
    • F23B80/04Combustion apparatus characterised by means creating a distinct flow path for flue gases or for non-combusted gases given off by the fuel by means for guiding the flow of flue gases, e.g. baffles
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23MCASINGS, LININGS, WALLS OR DOORS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, e.g. FIREBRIDGES; DEVICES FOR DEFLECTING AIR, FLAMES OR COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN COMBUSTION CHAMBERS; SAFETY ARRANGEMENTS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR COMBUSTION APPARATUS; DETAILS OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F23M9/00Baffles or deflectors for air or combustion products; Flame shields
    • F23M9/06Baffles or deflectors for air or combustion products; Flame shields in fire-boxes

Abstract

The invention provides a combustion method and combustion device for solid fuel. According to the combustion method, a material stacking layer is formed in a hearth, an air inlet side is formed in the part, above a furnace grate, of the hearth and on one side of the material stacking layer, and a combustion side is formed in the side opposite to the air inlet side; the air inlet side and the combustion side are separated by the material stacking layer, and a heat accumulator is arranged on the flowing path of volatile matter air flow of the combustion side; in the combustion process, the fuel combusts to generate combustion flames and heat the heat accumulator, then volatile matter of the fuel is separated out by heating the fuel, wind penetrates through a fuel layer transversely and carries the separated-out volatile matter and the combustion flames to penetrate out of the combustion side and flow towards a combustion cavity, and the volatile matter is ignited when flowing through the heat accumulator and the combustion flames and then enters the combustion cavity to be combusted. According to the invention, sufficient combustion of the volatile matter can be guaranteed, natural matching between automatic and ordered feeding and the combustion speed can be achieved, the ash melting problem can be solved, and stable and continuous combustion can be guaranteed.

Description

Solid-fuelled combustion method and burner
Technical field
The present invention relates to solid fuel ignition field, specifically, have about the solid-fuelled combustion method of one and burner.
Background technology
From fuel grade angle, solid fuel, because of aboundresources, use safety, is modern humans's the most widely used a kind of incendiary material, particularly coal.In addition, along with the increase of demand of mineral solids fuel, the minimizing of resource that take coal as representative, and the expansion of global new forms of energy motion, reproducible biomass combustion material, as straw, straw, timber, wood chip, deadwood etc. obtain the great attention of people.
The direct ignition combustion of major way of current use biomass combustion material, this mode efficiency of combustion is very low, and produces a large amount of black smokes, causes environmental pollution.
All the time, a lot of people attempts to adopt existing coal stove to carry out firing biomass fuel.Because the combustion characteristics of the higher mineral matter incendiary material of biomass combustion material and fixed carbon content has larger difference, existing combustion stove can not adapt to the solid-fuelled burning be made up of reproducible biological material, cause efficiency of combustion low, there is the problems such as exhaust emission, thus constrain the application of biomass combustion material.In addition, a large amount of coal used is all the high-rank coal that fixed carbon comparision contents is high, such as anthracite, bituminous coal etc. now, some grizzles, such as brown coal, mud coal etc., utilize existing burner, there is efficiency of combustion too low, the problems such as over-emitting black exhaust, be not therefore also used widely at present.
The present inventor finds after carefully studying, biomass combustion material and grizzle (such as brown coal, mud coal etc.) are compared with high-rank coal, main difference is, the fixed carbon content of high-rank coal is very high (generally more than 90%), therefore the mainly fixed carbon combustion system when burning; And the fixed carbon comparision contents of biomass combustion material and grizzle is low, and volatile content higher (probably at 50%-70%).The solid fuel that this volatile content is high, main exist two features: 1) fugitive constituent Precipitation Temperature is lower than fugitive constituent burning-point; 2) burning-point of fugitive constituent is higher than ash fusion point.
Current combustion furnace is generally divided into forward combustion stove and trans combustion furnace two kinds, because biomass fuel and grizzle exist These characteristics, adopts these two kinds of combustion furnaces all cannot realize lasting efficient burning.
When adopting the burning of existing forward combustion stove, there are the following problems:
1) efficiency of combustion is low.When burning, because the Precipitation Temperature of fugitive constituent is lower than the burning-point of fugitive constituent, first fugitive constituent is separated out and is discharged in air in the mode of black smoke, remaining fixed carbon part is burnt again, so only make use of the heat that fixed carbon burning wherein produces, not only efficiency of combustion is lower, and there is exhaust emission.
2) can not sustained combustion.Existing burner is generally by fire grate air intake, the solid fuel on fire grate is made to carry out high-temp combustion, because ash fusion point is lower than the burning-point of fugitive constituent and fixed carbon, under the hot environment of fixed carbon burning on fire grate, ashes after burning are in thick molten condition, can stick with paste on fire grate, normally cannot be discharged by fire grate or other ash exhauster (such as gray moving rod), the ashes making this thick are blended in the fuel burnt, and greatly have impact on the efficiency of combustion of fuel.Further, these thick ashes are bonded on fire grate, plug the air intake passage on fire grate, fire grate can be stuck with paste dead, combustion furnace cannot be worked on after a period of time.
The feature of trans combustion furnace is, crater is lower than fire grate, and the flame that burning is produced arrives crater again back through after fire grate.This combustion system is compared with forward combustion, and the fugitive constituent of precipitation can when passing through fire grate by flame ignition, and efficiency of combustion is improved.But be positioned at fire grate position due to thermal-flame, this also makes the temperature of fire grate position very high, in high temperature environments, ashes after burning are in thick molten condition, can stick with paste on fire grate, plug the gas channel of fire grate, fire grate will soon be stuck with paste dead, combustion furnace cannot be worked on.
The patent No. be 01220213695.8 Chinese utility model patent propose one and can be used for the clean-burning hot-blast stove 900 of various solid combustible clean-burning multiple spot air distribution burned.As shown in Figure 2, this hot-blast stove comprises body of heater, is respectively equipped with upper combustion chamber 92 and lower combustion chamber 93 in body of heater, and the bottom of upper combustion chamber 92 and lower combustion chamber 93 is respectively equipped with upper furnace grate 94 and lower fire grate 95, the below of lower fire grate 95 is dedusting chamber 96, and the body of heater of lower combustion chamber 93 is provided with outlet flue 98.Top is provided with and inboard wall of furnace body is integrated in upper combustion chamber 92, bottom undergauge is the funnel-form combustion bin 910 of cylinder, the lower port of funnel-form Bunker 910 is positioned on upper furnace grate 94, the center of funnel-form Bunker 910 is longitudinally provided with the cylindric fireworks channel 911 of lower ending opening, annular upper air duct 912 is formed between the outer wall of funnel-form Bunker 910 bottom and the inwall of body of heater 91, the outer wall of funnel-form Bunker 910 bottom cylinder evenly offers multiple fresh air inlet 913, the outer wall of body of heater 91 offers two air inlets be connected with annular passage 914, air inlet 914 place is connected with air duct 915.
This hot-blast stove examination way is combined by burned solves forward combustion and trans burning Problems existing, but this hot-blast stove 900 is in use, has following defect and cannot continue to use:
1) owing to being separated by upper furnace grate 94 between upper combustion chamber 92 and lower combustion chamber 93, in combustion, in upper combustion chamber 92, unburnt fuel requirement drops into lower combustion chamber 93 and burns away, if the burning velocity falling into unburnt fuel in lower combustion chamber 93 can not match by the speed of upper furnace grate 94 to lower combustion chamber 93 blanking, in lower combustion chamber 93, the unburnt fuel of heap gets more and more, after a period of time, outlet flue 98 in lower combustion chamber 93 can be blocked, not only cannot burn away, and the combustion gas in combustion chamber can be emerged from air inlet, security incident may be caused.But there is difference due to the burning velocity of different fuel, in actual use, be difficult to ensure that the burning velocity of upper lower combustion chamber is mated completely, when this hot-blast stove is used, there is hidden danger.
2) fuel burns in upper combustion chamber 92, flame needs to enter into lower combustion chamber through upper furnace grate, thus make the temperature of upper furnace grate position still very high, upper furnace grate still exists molten grey problem, and after burning a period of time, the fuel on upper furnace grate is bonded together by the ashes of upper furnace grate melting, cannot by upper furnace grate to lower combustion chamber's blanking, fuel can only burn in upper combustion chamber, and on upper furnace grate, upper furnace grate is finally stuck with paste by ashes completely, thus causes hot-blast stove cannot continuous firing.
3) as shown in Figure 2, this hot-blast stove is for improving efficiency of combustion, from a large amount of air distribution of lower fire grate 95 leeward bottom lower combustion chamber 93, cause the temperature of lower fire grate 95 position too high, and the ash fusion point of some solid biomass fuels (as stalk) is lower, thus this hot-blast stove is produced when burning solid biomass fuel melt grey phenomenon, the ash that making burns produces is in the molten condition of thickness, and bonds on lower fire grate 95.Like this after this hot-blast stove work a period of time, the gap of lower fire grate 95 is melted ash and is pasted over, cannot effectively ash discharge, thus causes this hot-blast stove cannot continuous firing.
Therefore, be necessary the solid fuel combustion furnace that the solid fuel (such as biomass fuel) providing a kind of applicable volatile content high burns, overcome the above-mentioned defect that existing combustion furnace exists, realize solid-fuelled orderly controlled burning.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to, a kind of solid-fuelled combustion method and burner are provided, not only can make the fugitive constituent Thorough combustion in solid fuel, and solve molten grey problem, and in combustion, realize the Natural matching of burning velocity, automatic order charging can be carried out along with what burn, ensure that the sustained combustion of fuel.
For achieving the above object, the invention provides a kind of solid-fuelled combustion method, charging aperture is provided with at roof of the furnace, in burner hearth, corresponding charging aperture is provided with the fire grate accepting the fuel entered from charging aperture, the fuel entered from charging aperture forms the heap bed of material at fire grate, burner hearth above this fire grate is formed as inlet side in the side of the heap bed of material, and the opposite side relative with this inlet side is formed as combustion side; Inlet side and combustion side keep apart by this heap bed of material, are made up of the slider of isolation inlet side and combustion side this heap bed of material; Be provided with the combustion chamber being communicated in offgas outlet at the combustion side of burner hearth, the flowing through on path of fugitive constituent air-flow of combustion side is provided with heat storage.Wherein, when burning, light this heap bed of material, from the inlet side air intake of the heap bed of material, wind is horizontally through the heap bed of material, pass from the combustion side of the heap bed of material, the combustion flame of the heap bed of material burns towards combustion chamber, and heat storage is heated by the flame, and fuel moves down gradually along with smaller volume, fresh fuel under gravity automatic makeup is charged on the heap bed of material, separates out fugitive constituent after being heated; Wind with separate out fugitive constituent from heap the bed of material combustion side pass and towards combustion chamber flowing, fugitive constituent is lighted by heat storage and combustion flame, enter combustion chamber burning, combustion tail gas is discharged from offgas outlet; Meanwhile, the fixed carbon fuel of separating out after fugitive constituent is lighted, and carries out carbon burning, produces new combustion flame, and the ashes that the afterburnt produces are discharged by the fire grate bottom the heap bed of material, along with the carrying out of burning, on the heap bed of material that fresh fuel constantly supplements, forms burn cycle.
Present invention also offers a kind of solid-fuelled burner, comprise burner hearth, burner hearth is provided with air inlet, at roof of the furnace, there is solid fuel charging aperture, in burner hearth, corresponding described charging aperture is provided with the solid-fuelled fire grate accepted and enter from charging aperture, solid fuel forms the heap bed of material between charging aperture and fire grate, and the burner hearth above this fire grate is formed as inlet side in the wherein side of the heap bed of material, and the opposite side relative with this inlet side is formed as combustion side; The slider between inlet side and combustion side is formed by this heap bed of material; Conducting is formed with in the combustion chamber of offgas outlet at described combustion side, flowing through on path of combustion side fugitive constituent air-flow is provided with heat storage, thus the primary air that the wind entering burner hearth produces enters combustion chamber through warp after the heap bed of material by heat storage by inlet side is substantial transverse, finally discharges from offgas outlet.
Adopt above-mentioned combustion method of the present invention and burner, due in combustion, separate out fugitive constituent at fuel and be fixed carbon burning all at the heap bed of material, along with the carrying out of burning, smaller volume after fuel precipitation fugitive constituent, automatically move down under gravity, and lighted by lower floor's combustion flame gradually, fresh fuel is added into the heap bed of material from charging aperture automatically, the fixed carbon burning of lower-layer fuel is separated out for upper strata fresh fuel fugitive constituent again and is provided required heat, the supplementary speed of fresh fuel depends on the burning velocity of lower-layer fuel, thus naturally achieve upper strata fugitive constituent and separate out and the mating of fixed carbon fuel combustion speed, efficiently solve the security hidden trouble that existing hot-blast stove exists because burning velocity is not mated.
Simultaneously, in combustion, the fuel newly adding to the heap bed of material fugitive constituent of being separated out by the heating of lower floor fixed carbon fuel flows towards combustion chamber along with air-flow, and lower floor's fixed carbon fuel combustion generation flame also burns towards combustion chamber under air-flow drives, when fugitive constituent is via heat storage and combustion flame, lighted by the high temperature that heat storage and combustion flame produce.And, because burner of the present invention can utilize the charging of gravity automatic order along with the carrying out of burning, combustion furnace can be made to be in unattended running status, not only save manpower, and be in dynamic balance state owing to piling the bed of material, under making fixed carbon burning and fugitive constituent precipitation be in the fired state of continous-stable, effectively ensure that the Thorough combustion of fugitive constituent always, improve efficiency of combustion, achieve the orderly controlled burning of combustion furnace.
In addition, because the present invention is from the side air intake of the heap bed of material, the combustion side relative with inlet side at the heap bed of material arranges combustion chamber.Like this, under the drive of air-flow, the thermal-flame of lower floor's fixed carbon burning passes from the combustion side of the heap bed of material, thermal-flame district is formed at combustion side, required hot environment is lighted for fugitive constituent provides, and pile the bed of material in fire grate position, bottom and almost do not have air-flow to pass through, thus there is not high temperature grate in fire grate position, bottom.And, along with the carrying out of burning, the fixed carbon fuel of smaller volume progressively moves down, burning time, longer fixed carbon fuel was positioned at more downward position, make the more downward temperature of fixed carbon burning zone of bottom lower, the ashes produced that burn also move down in process at fixed carbon fuel, are discharged in the grey room of bottom under gravity by bottom fire grate, efficiently solve the molten grey problem that existing combustion furnace exists, ensure that the continued stable combustion of combustion furnace.
Further, because the heap bed of material of the present invention forms the slider of inlet side and combustion side, make the wind of inlet side have to pass through the heap bed of material and just can enter combustion side, thus the effective supply that the wind achieving inlet side burns to fuel combustion and fugitive constituent.
In an optional example of the present invention, the two relative side of the described heap bed of material between inlet side and combustion side connects with inboard wall of burner hearth, thus is isolated in inlet side and combustion side.
In an optional example, the side wall surface of this two opposite sides inwall of the burner hearth above fire grate between inlet side and combustion side, with the heap two sides of the bed of material between inlet side and combustion side can be formed naturally to stack the gradient consistent or be positioned at this and naturally stack inside the gradient, thus make to pile the two side walls of the bed of material between inlet side with combustion side and connect with inboard wall of burner hearth.
In an optional example, this two opposite sides inwall between inlet side and combustion side of the burner hearth above fire grate is upright side walls.
In an optional example, this two opposite sides inwall between inlet side and combustion side of the burner hearth above fire grate is sloped sidewall.
In an optional example of the present invention, this heat storage can be heated to above the temperature of fugitive constituent burning-point by the flame that stockpiling area burning produces.
In an optional example of the present invention, described heat storage can be arranged along fugitive constituent airflow direction, thus flows through at fugitive constituent and lighted by during this heat storage.
In another optional example of the present invention, described heat storage can be arranged along the direction of barrier air, and this heat storage can be the accumulation of heat orifice plate with through hole, and fugitive constituent, being lighted through during accumulation of heat orifice plate, enters into combustion chamber burning.
In an optional example of the present invention, be formed as outside the side that the described heap bed of material is positioned at combustion side not to the Open architecture that heap bed of material side view limits.
In another optional example of the present invention, outside the side that the described heap bed of material is positioned at combustion side, be formed with the sidewall with opening or pore structure.
In an optional example of the present invention, described charging aperture projected area in the horizontal plane can be less than fire grate windrow region projected area in the horizontal plane.
In an optional example of the present invention, the position of described charging aperture is arranged to, and the heap bed of material is formed with nature and stacks the gradient in inlet side.In an object lesson of this example, described air inlet is higher than the upper surface naturally stacking the gradient.
In an optional example of the present invention, the edge of described fire grate all can be connected with inboard wall of burner hearth.
In an optional example of the present invention, described fire grate has interval at a lateral edges of combustion chamber and inboard wall of burner hearth.
In an optional example of the present invention, described combustion chamber can have two or more.
In an optional example of the present invention, described combustion chamber can be connected to heat-exchanger rig.
In an optional example of the present invention, described combustion chamber is provided with one or more outlets to heat-exchanger rig heat supply.
Experiment proves, adopt above-mentioned combustion furnace of the present invention, fugitive constituent almost can be completely burned, and the efficiency of combustion of combustion furnace reaches more than 95%, and does not have soot emission, achieves the clean emission of the high solid fuel ignition of volatile content.Combustion furnace of the present invention takes full advantage of the characteristic of gravity and heat transmission, not only can meet the requirement of fuel principle, achieve the automatic order burning of fuel, and structure is simple, low cost of manufacture, easy to use, thus be that solid-fuelled the applying that fugitive constituent is high provides advantage.
Accompanying drawing explanation
In order to be illustrated more clearly in the embodiment of the present invention or technical scheme of the prior art, be briefly described to the accompanying drawing used required in embodiment or description of the prior art below, apparently, accompanying drawing in the following describes is only some embodiments of the present invention, for those of ordinary skill in the art, under the prerequisite not paying creative work, other accompanying drawing can also be obtained according to these accompanying drawings.
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of existing burned hot-blast stove;
Fig. 2 is the fired state schematic diagram of burner of the present invention;
The cross-sectional side structural representation of Fig. 3 to be burner hearth sidewall between the inlet side of burner of the present invention and combustion side be upright side walls;
The cross-sectional side structural representation of Fig. 4 to be burner hearth sidewall between the inlet side of burner of the present invention and combustion side be sloped sidewall;
The cross-sectional side structural representation of Fig. 5 to be burner hearth sidewall between the inlet side of burner of the present invention and combustion side be curved wall;
Fig. 6 is a lateral edges and the spaced structural representation of inboard wall of burner hearth tool of burner fire grate of the present invention;
Fig. 7 is the A-A sectional structure schematic diagram of Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is the B-B sectional structure schematic diagram of Fig. 6;
Fig. 9 is that the B-B of Fig. 6 analyses and observe another kind of structural representation;
Figure 10 is that the accumulation of heat orifice plate C of Fig. 6 is to structural representation;
Figure 11 is the burner structural representation that heat storage is arranged along airflow direction;
Figure 12 is the structural representation that the combustion side of burner of the present invention has pore structure sidewall;
Figure 13 is the structural representation that the combustion side of burner of the present invention has band opening sidewalls;
Figure 14 is the structural representation that the grate edge of burner of the present invention all connects with inboard wall of burner hearth;
Figure 15 is the structural representation that burner of the present invention has inclination fire grate;
Figure 16 is the structural representation that burner of the present invention has two combustion chambers.
Figure number illustrates:
Burner 100; Heat-exchanger rig 200; Tail gas outlet 201;
Burner hearth 10; Inlet side 101; Combustion side 102; Side wall surface 103,104;
The heap bed of material 1; Two relative side 161,162; Naturally the gradient 16 is stacked; Charging aperture 11; Air inlet 12; Sidewall 13; Pore structure 131; Opening 132; Fire grate 14; Feed hopper 15;
Combustion chamber 3; Combustion chamber outlet 31;
Heat storage 2; Accumulation of heat orifice plate 2; Through hole 211;
Ash room 4;
Solid fuel 5; Fugitive constituent 51; Separate out the fixed carbon fuel 52 after fugitive constituent; Ashes 53.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in the embodiment of the present invention, be clearly and completely described the technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention, obviously, described embodiment is only the present invention's part embodiment, instead of whole embodiments.Based on the embodiment in the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art, not making the every other embodiment obtained under creative work prerequisite, belong to the scope of protection of the invention.
The invention provides a kind of solid-fuelled combustion method, as shown in Figures 2 to 5, charging aperture 11 is provided with at burner hearth 10 top, in burner hearth 10, corresponding charging aperture 11 is provided with the solid-fuelled fire grate 14 accepted and enter from charging aperture 11, the fuel entered from charging aperture 11 forms the heap bed of material 1 at fire grate 14, burner hearth 10 above this fire grate 14 is formed as inlet side 101 in the side of the heap bed of material 1, the opposite side relative with this inlet side 101 is formed as combustion side 102, inlet side 101 and combustion side 102 are kept apart by this heap bed of material 1, the slider of inlet side above fire grate 14 101 and combustion side 102 is made up of this heap bed of material 1, combustion side 102 is provided with the combustion chamber 3 being communicated in offgas outlet 201, and the flowing through on path of fugitive constituent air-flow of combustion side is provided with heat storage 2.During burning, light this heap bed of material 1, from inlet side 101 air intake of the heap bed of material 1, wind is horizontally through the heap bed of material 1, pass from the combustion side 102 of the heap bed of material 1, wind burns towards combustion chamber 3 with combustion flame, heat storage 2 is heated, fuel moves down gradually along with smaller volume, fresh fuel under gravity automatic makeup is charged on the heap bed of material 1, fugitive constituent 51 is separated out by heating, wind passes with the combustion side 102 of the fugitive constituent 51 of separating out from the heap bed of material 1 and flows towards combustion chamber 3, fugitive constituent 51 is lighted by heat storage 2 and combustion flame, enter combustion chamber 3 to burn, combustion tail gas is discharged from offgas outlet 201, meanwhile, the fixed carbon fuel 52 of separating out after fugitive constituent 51 is lighted, and carries out carbon burning, produce new combustion flame, the ashes 53 that the afterburnt produces are discharged, along with the carrying out of burning by the fire grate 14 bottom the heap bed of material 1, on the heap bed of material 1 that fresh fuel constantly supplements, form burn cycle.
Present invention also offers a kind of solid-fuelled burner 100 adopting above-mentioned combustion method.As shown in Fig. 2 to Figure 14, this burner 100 comprises burner hearth 10, this burner hearth 10 is provided with the air inlet 12 of air feed in burner hearth, at burner hearth 10 top, there is solid fuel charging aperture 11, in burner hearth 10, corresponding described charging aperture 11 is provided with the fire grate 14 accepting the solid fuel 5 entered from charging aperture 11, solid fuel 5 is formed between charging aperture 11 and fire grate 14 piles the bed of material 1, burner hearth 10 above this fire grate 14 is formed as inlet side 101 in the wherein side of the heap bed of material 1, the opposite side relative with this inlet side 101 is formed as combustion side 102, inlet side 101 and combustion side 102 are kept apart by this heap bed of material 1, the slider of isolation inlet side 101 and combustion side 102 is made up of this heap bed of material 1, conducting is formed with in the combustion chamber 3 of offgas outlet 201 at combustion side 102, the flowing through on path of fugitive constituent air-flow of combustion side 102 is provided with heat storage 2, thus the primary air that the wind entering burner hearth 10 produces enters combustion chamber 3 through warp after the heap bed of material 1 by heat storage 2 by inlet side 101 is substantial transverse, finally discharges from offgas outlet 201.
The primary air that the wind that the present invention enters burner hearth 10 produces refers to the main air-flow that wind produces, and this air-flow is substantial transverse from the inlet side 101 of stockpiling area 1 to be passed from combustion side 102 through stockpiling area 1; Wind in combustion in burner hearth 10 mainly produces the air-flow being horizontally through stockpiling area 1, bottom stockpiling area 1, fire grate 14 position does not almost have air-flow to pass or have faint air-flow to pass from bottom fire grate 14, as long as this faint air-flow does not affect main stream direction, would not have an impact to the effect of burner of the present invention, as long as namely the present invention can to ensure in combustion process that main stream direction enters from the heap bed of material 1 inlet side 101 and pass from combustion side 102 substantial transversely to form side direction combustion system through the heap bed of material 1 and namely belong to scope of the present invention.
The heap bed of material 1 in the present invention refers to the stockpile that solid fuel is formed between charging aperture 11 and fire grate 14.This heap bed of material 1 in combustion, the fuel that upper strata newly enters first is heated to fugitive constituent Precipitation Temperature and separates out fugitive constituent, lighted subsequently and be fixed carbon burning, along with the volume of fuel that carries out of burning diminishes and moves down gradually, the ashes 53 that the afterburnt produces are discharged by fire grate 14; Meanwhile, fresh fuel under gravity automatic makeup is charged on the heap bed of material 1, and so circulate, the heap bed of material 1 between charging aperture 11 and fire grate 14 is in dynamic balance state in combustion, keeps stable windrow shape.
Adopt above-mentioned combustion method of the present invention and burner 100, due in combustion, fuel is separated out fugitive constituent 51 and is fixed in the burner hearth of carbon burning all above fire grate 14, along with the carrying out of burning, the rear smaller volume of fugitive constituent 51 separated out by fuel, automatically move down under gravity, and lighted by lower floor's combustion flame gradually, fresh fuel is automatic to be under gravity added into the heap bed of material 1 from charging aperture 11, the fixed carbon burning of lower-layer fuel is separated out for upper strata fuel fugitive constituent again and is provided required heat, the supplementary speed of fresh fuel depends on the burning velocity of lower-layer fuel, thus naturally achieve the Natural matching of upper strata fugitive constituent precipitation and fixed carbon fuel 52 burning velocity, efficiently solve the security hidden trouble that existing hot-blast stove exists because burning velocity is not mated.
Simultaneously, as shown in Figure 2, in combustion, fuel is heated precipitation fugitive constituent 51 by lower floor's fixed carbon fuel 52 flows towards combustion chamber 3 along with air-flow, and lower floor's fixed carbon fuel 52 burning generation flame also burns towards combustion chamber 3 under air-flow drives, heat storage 2 is heated by the flame, and is lighted, thus achieve the Thorough combustion of fugitive constituent when fugitive constituent 51 forms high-temperature region via combustion flame and heat storage 2.And, because the present invention can utilize the charging of gravity automatic order along with the carrying out of burning, burner can be made to be in unattended running status, not only save manpower, and be in dynamic balance state owing to piling the bed of material 1, the heap bed of material 1 keeps stable windrow shape in combustion, under making the burning of the fixed carbon in burner hearth 1 and fugitive constituent precipitation be in the fired state of continous-stable always, effectively ensure that the Thorough combustion of fugitive constituent, improve efficiency of combustion, achieve the orderly controlled burning of burner.
In addition, due to the present invention from heap the bed of material 1 side air intake and the combustion side 102 relative with inlet side 101 arranges combustion chamber 3, thus the substantial transverse heap bed of material 1 that passes of primary air is passed from combustion side 102, thermal-flame district is formed at the combustion side 102 of the heap bed of material 1, light required hot environment for fugitive constituent provides, thus form side direction combustion system., because combustion flame mainly concentrates on the side of the heap bed of material 1, there is not high temperature grate in fire grate 14 position in this combustion system; And along with the carrying out of burning, the fixed carbon fuel of smaller volume progressively moves down, burning time, longer fixed carbon fuel was positioned at more downward position, make the more downward temperature of fixed carbon burning zone of piling the bed of material 1 bottom lower, the ashes 53 produced that burn also move down in process at fixed carbon fuel 52, be discharged in the grey room 4 of bottom by bottom fire grate 14 under gravity, thus effectively prevent and melt ash in fire grate position and the problem such as paste fire grate caused, ensure that the continued stable combustion of burner.
As shown in Figure 2, charging aperture 11 can be provided with feed hopper 15, be beneficial to stockpiling area 1 charging.
As shown in Figures 2 to 11, shown in, can be formed as outside the side that the heap bed of material 1 of the present invention is positioned at combustion side 102 not to the Open architecture that the heap bed of material 1 side view limits.Like this, during burning, under air-flow drives, the combustion flame passed from the heap bed of material 1 side of combustion side 102 and fugitive constituent directly enter combustion chamber 3 and burn, and structure is more simple.
As shown in Figure 12 and Figure 13, in another optional example of the present invention, can be formed with the sidewall 13 with opening 132 or pore structure 131 outside the side that the heap bed of material 1 is positioned at combustion side 102, thus the combustion flame passed from the heap bed of material 1 side of combustion side 102 and fugitive constituent enter combustion chamber 3 by this opening 132 or pore structure 131 burns.The pore structure 131 of sidewall 13 can be grate structure, or fence structure, or lattice structure, or AND DEWATERING FOR ORIFICE STRUCTURE etc., flame and fugitive constituent can be made to pass through as long as have hole, its concrete structure can not limit.The gradient of naturally stacking that this opening 132 can be formed higher than combustion side is arranged, and directly drops from opening 132 to avoid solid fuel.
In the optional example of burner 100 of the present invention, the two relative side 161,162 of the heap bed of material 1 between inlet side 101 and combustion side 102 connects with inboard wall of burner hearth, so that the burner hearth above fire grate 14 is kept apart by piling the bed of material 1 in the space of inlet side 101 and combustion side 102, as shown in Figures 2 to 5.Like this, the air-flow that the wind entering inlet side 101 produces can only could arrive combustion side 102 through the heap bed of material 1, avoids wind and passes through outside the heap bed of material and flog a dead horse, ensure that the effective supply of the wind through the heap bed of material 1.
In an optional example, the side wall surface 103,104 of this two opposite sides inwall of the burner hearth 10 above fire grate 14 between inlet side 101 and combustion side 102, with the heap two sides 161,162 of the bed of material 1 between inlet side 101 and combustion side 102 can be formed naturally to stack the gradient 16 consistent or be positioned at this and naturally stack inside the gradient 16, thus the two side walls 103,104 of the heap bed of material 1 between inlet side 101 with combustion side 102 is connected with inboard wall of burner hearth, as shown in Figures 3 to 5.
The shape of the side wall surface 103,104 of the two opposite sides inwall of the burner hearth 10 above this fire grate 14 between inlet side 101 and combustion side 102 can be arranged as required, only otherwise exceeding nature stacks outside the gradient 16, the two side walls 103,104 of piling the bed of material 1 can be made to connect with burner hearth sidewall face 103,104, and its concrete shape can not limit.The two side walls 103,104 of this two opposite sides inwall of burner hearth between inlet side 101 and combustion side 102 shown above fire grate 14 as Fig. 3 is the example of upright side walls, the two side walls 103,104 of this two opposite sides inwall of burner hearth between inlet side 101 and combustion side 102 that Fig. 4 shows above fire grate 14 is the example of sloped sidewall, and the two side walls 103,104 of this two opposite sides inwall of burner hearth between inlet side 101 and combustion side 102 that Fig. 5 shows above fire grate 14 is the example of curved wall.Certainly, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that, the shape of the two side walls 103,104 of this two opposite sides inwall of the burner hearth above fire grate 14 between inlet side 101 and combustion side 102 is not limited to the shape shown in figure, can also be arranged to other various shape, will not enumerate at this.
In the present invention, can at the heat storage 2 arranged from the fugitive constituent airflow passes path of the heap bed of material 1 to combustion chamber 3 of burner hearth 10 combustion side.This heat storage 2 can be made up of heat-storing material, can be heated by side direction burned flame, thus forms hot environment in flowing through on path of fugitive constituent, fugitive constituent 51 is lighted through out-of-date, contributes to the Thorough combustion of fugitive constituent.Be in the condition of high temperature as long as this heat storage 2 is heated by the flame, just contribute to lighting the hot environment of fugitive constituent in the formation on path that flows through of fugitive constituent, it specifically can not be limited by the temperature heated.In an optional preferred example, this heat storage 2 can be arranged to be heated to above the temperature of fugitive constituent burning-point by stockpiling area 1 flame produced that burns, and is so more conducive to the Thorough combustion of fugitive constituent.
As shown in figure 11, in an optional example of the present invention, heat storage 2 can be arranged along fugitive constituent airflow direction, thus flows through at fugitive constituent and lighted by during this heat storage 2.In this object lesson, heat storage 2 is arranged on the top of burner hearth 10, and the setting position of this heat storage 2 is not limited to top certainly, can also flow through other position setting in path at fugitive constituent.
As shown in Fig. 2, Fig. 6, Figure 12 to Figure 15, in another optional example of the present invention, heat storage 2 also can be arranged along the direction of barrier air.In this example embodiment, this heat storage 2 can be there is through hole 211 accumulation of heat orifice plate 21(as shown in Fig. 6, Figure 10), fugitive constituent 51 through accumulation of heat orifice plate 21 time lighted, enter into combustion chamber 3 and burn.This accumulation of heat orifice plate is not limited to the structure shown in Figure 10, as long as can accumulation of heat have can the through hole that flows through of air feed, its concrete shape and structure can be arranged as required.
Pile in an optional example of the bed of material 1 in the present invention, charging aperture 11 projected area in the horizontal plane can be less than fire grate 14 windrow region, bottom projected area in the horizontal plane.After solid fuel 5 enters into the heap bed of material 1, as shown in Figure 2, the up-small and down-big heap bed of material can be formed in stockpiling area 1.This Stock mode, the air-flow of top fuel bed can be made to be less than the thickness of lower floor's heap bed of material through thickness, in combustion, lower floor's fixed carbon fuel has larger area, be conducive to the Thorough combustion of fixed carbon fuel, and the thickness of upper strata fuel bed is less, the combustion chamber 3 fugitive constituent 51 being taken to the heap bed of material 1 combustion side 102 that passes rapidly through being conducive to air-flow burns.
As shown in Figure 2, in an optional example of the present invention, the position of charging aperture 11 can be arranged to, and the heap bed of material 1 is formed with nature and stacks the gradient in burner hearth 10 inlet side 101.In an object lesson of this example, air inlet 12 can higher than naturally stacking the upper surface of the gradient, thus when burning to inlet side 101 air feed.
In the present invention, air inlet 12 can be arranged on the sidewall of burner hearth 10 as shown in Figure 2, also as shown in figure 12, can be arranged at the top of burner hearth 10.Certainly, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that charging aperture 12 is not limited to the set-up mode described in figure, if can to the side air feed of stockpiling area 1 and formed substantial transverse through heap the bed of material primary air, its concrete setting position can not limit.
As shown in figure 14, in an optional example of the present invention, the edge of fire grate 14 all can be connected with burner hearth 14 inwall, thus covers the whole region in burner hearth.As shown in Fig. 2, Fig. 6, Figure 11, fire grate 14 combustion chamber 3 a lateral edges also can and burner hearth 10 inwall there is interval.As shown in Figure 6, this fire grate 14 can be horizontally set in burner hearth 10; Also can as shown in figure 15, fire grate 14 is inclined in burner hearth 10.The version of this fire grate 14 is not limited to above several, as long as the setting of fire grate 14 can accept solid fuel, is formed and pile the bed of material 1 between charging aperture 11 and fire grate 14, and avoid the solid fuel piling the bed of material 1 directly to drop, its concrete form can not limit.
In the present invention, combustion chamber 3 is connected with heat-exchanger rig 200, with the heat utilizing combustion chamber 3 burning to produce.This heat-exchanger rig 200 can be heat exchanger or a heatable brick bed, cooker, the water jacket etc. of heating.The example of heat exchanger to be set at combustion chamber 3 as shown in Figure 2; Fig. 6 shows the example that combustion chamber 3 has the outlet 31 to heat-exchanger rig heat supply, this outlet 31 can be placed pot or other heat-exchanger rig.This outlet 31 can arrange multiple, all for cooking, also partly for heating, partly can be used for cooking.As shown in figure 13, combustion chamber 3 can have the outlet 32 to heated kang heat supply, discharges after thermal current enters heated kang heat exchange finally by by offgas outlet 201.
In the present invention, as shown in figure 16, as required, combustion chamber 3 can be provided with two or more, to be applicable to various actual heat exchange demand.
Experiment proves, adopt combustion method and the burner of above-mentioned side direction combustion system of the present invention, fugitive constituent almost can burn completely, and efficiency of combustion is up to more than 95%, and there is no soot emission, achieve the clean emission of the high solid fuel ignition of volatile content.The present invention takes full advantage of the characteristic of gravity and heat transmission, and achieve the automatic order burning of fuel, structure is simple, and low cost of manufacture, easy to use, solid-fuelled apply high for fugitive constituent provides advantage.
Foregoing description of the present invention is only exemplary attribute, and the various distortion that so there is no depart from main idea of the present invention ought to be within the scope of the present invention.These distortion should not be regarded as departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.

Claims (24)

1. a solid-fuelled combustion method, it is characterized in that, charging aperture is provided with at roof of the furnace, in burner hearth, corresponding charging aperture is provided with the fire grate accepting the fuel entered from charging aperture, the fuel entered from charging aperture forms the heap bed of material at fire grate, burner hearth above this fire grate is formed as inlet side in the side of the heap bed of material, and the opposite side relative with this inlet side is formed as combustion side; Inlet side and combustion side keep apart by this heap bed of material, are made up of the slider of isolation inlet side and combustion side this heap bed of material; Be provided with the combustion chamber being communicated in offgas outlet at the combustion side of burner hearth, the flowing through on path of fugitive constituent air-flow of combustion side is provided with heat storage, wherein,
Light this heap bed of material, from the inlet side air intake of the heap bed of material, wind is horizontally through the heap bed of material, pass from the combustion side of the heap bed of material, the combustion flame of the heap bed of material burns towards combustion chamber, and heat storage is heated by the flame, and fuel moves down gradually along with smaller volume, fresh fuel under gravity automatic makeup is charged on the heap bed of material, separates out fugitive constituent after being heated; Wind with separate out fugitive constituent from heap the bed of material combustion side pass and towards combustion chamber flowing, fugitive constituent is lighted by heat storage and combustion flame, enter combustion chamber burning, combustion tail gas is discharged from offgas outlet; Meanwhile, the fixed carbon fuel of separating out after fugitive constituent is lighted, and carries out carbon burning, produces new combustion flame, and the ashes that the afterburnt produces are discharged by the fire grate bottom the heap bed of material, along with the carrying out of burning, on the heap bed of material that fresh fuel constantly supplements, forms burn cycle.
2. solid-fuelled combustion method as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, the two relative side of the heap bed of material between inlet side and combustion side connects with inboard wall of burner hearth, thus is isolated in inlet side and combustion side.
3. solid-fuelled combustion method as claimed in claim 2, it is characterized in that, the side wall surface of this two opposite sides inwall between inlet side and combustion side between the charging aperture of burner hearth and fire grate, with the heap two sides of the bed of material between inlet side and combustion side can be formed naturally to stack the gradient consistent or be positioned at this and naturally stack inside the gradient, thus make to pile the two sides of the bed of material between inlet side with combustion side and connect with inboard wall of burner hearth.
4. solid-fuelled combustion method as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, this heat storage is heated to above the temperature of fugitive constituent burning-point by the flame that stockpiling area burning produces.
5. solid-fuelled combustion method as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, described heat storage is arranged along fugitive constituent airflow direction, thus is lighted when fugitive constituent flows through this heat storage.
6. solid-fuelled combustion method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described heat storage is arranged along the direction of barrier air, and this heat storage is formed as the accumulation of heat orifice plate with through hole, fugitive constituent, being lighted through during accumulation of heat orifice plate, enters into combustion chamber burning.
7. a solid-fuelled burner, comprise burner hearth, this burner hearth is provided with air inlet and the solid fuel charging aperture of air feed in burner hearth, it is characterized in that, described charging aperture is arranged on roof of the furnace, and in burner hearth, corresponding described charging aperture is provided with the solid-fuelled fire grate accepted and enter from charging aperture, and solid fuel forms the heap bed of material between charging aperture and fire grate, burner hearth above this fire grate is formed as inlet side in the wherein side of the heap bed of material, and the opposite side relative with this inlet side is formed as combustion side; The slider between inlet side and combustion side is formed by this heap bed of material; Conducting is formed with in the combustion chamber of offgas outlet at described combustion side, flowing through on path of combustion side fugitive constituent air-flow is provided with heat storage, thus the primary air that the wind entering burner hearth produces enters combustion chamber through warp after the heap bed of material by heat storage by inlet side is substantial transverse, finally discharges from offgas outlet.
8. solid-fuelled burner as claimed in claim 7, is characterized in that, the two relative side of the described heap bed of material between inlet side and combustion side connects with inboard wall of burner hearth, thus is isolated in inlet side and combustion side.
9. solid-fuelled burner as claimed in claim 8, it is characterized in that, the side wall surface of this two opposite sides inwall of the burner hearth above described fire grate between inlet side and combustion side, with the heap two sides of the bed of material between inlet side and combustion side can be formed naturally to stack the gradient consistent or be positioned at this and naturally stack inside the gradient, thus make to pile the two side walls of the bed of material between inlet side with combustion side and connect with inboard wall of burner hearth.
10. solid-fuelled burner as claimed in claim 9, is characterized in that, this two opposite sides inwall between inlet side and combustion side of the burner hearth above described fire grate is upright side walls.
11. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 9, is characterized in that, this two opposite sides inwall between inlet side and combustion side of the burner hearth above described fire grate is sloped sidewall.
12. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, is characterized in that, this heat storage is heated to above the temperature of fugitive constituent burning-point by the flame that stockpiling area burning produces.
13. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, is characterized in that, described heat storage is arranged along fugitive constituent airflow direction, thus is lighted when fugitive constituent flows through this heat storage.
14. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, it is characterized in that, described heat storage is arranged along the direction of barrier air, and this heat storage is formed as the accumulation of heat orifice plate with through hole, fugitive constituent, being lighted through during accumulation of heat orifice plate, enters into combustion chamber burning.
15. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, is characterized in that, are formed as not to the Open architecture that heap bed of material side view limits outside the side that the described heap bed of material is positioned at combustion side.
16. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, is characterized in that, are formed with the sidewall with opening or pore structure outside the side that the described heap bed of material is positioned at combustion side.
17. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, is characterized in that, described charging aperture projected area is in the horizontal plane less than fire grate windrow region projected area in the horizontal plane.
18. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, it is characterized in that, the position of described charging aperture is arranged to, and the heap bed of material is formed with nature and stacks the gradient in inlet side.
19. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 18, is characterized in that, described air inlet is higher than the upper surface naturally stacking the gradient.
20. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, it is characterized in that, the edge of described fire grate is all connected with inboard wall of burner hearth.
21. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, is characterized in that, described fire grate has interval at a lateral edges of combustion chamber and inboard wall of burner hearth.
22. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, it is characterized in that, described combustion chamber has two or more.
23. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, it is characterized in that, described combustion chamber is connected to heat-exchanger rig.
24. solid-fuelled burners as claimed in claim 7, is characterized in that, described combustion chamber is provided with one or more outlets to heat-exchanger rig heat supply.
CN201410079185.XA 2014-03-05 2014-03-05 Combustion method and combustion device for solid fuel Pending CN104896466A (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2022151497A1 (en) * 2021-01-18 2022-07-21 车战斌 Combustion furnace having heat storage device

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CN106642676B (en) * 2017-02-27 2022-04-29 中南大学 Tunnel type counter-burning hot-blast stove
CN111650244A (en) * 2020-06-15 2020-09-11 中国石油大学(华东) Experimental test system and test method for optimizing combustion efficiency of methane hydrate

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US2695010A (en) * 1950-02-02 1954-11-23 Directie Staatsmijnen Nl Furnace for burning solid fuels
JPS5833004A (en) * 1981-08-21 1983-02-26 Kobe Steel Ltd Combustion device for solid fuel
CN203731385U (en) * 2014-03-05 2014-07-23 车战斌 Solid fuel burning device
CN203731383U (en) * 2014-03-05 2014-07-23 车战斌 Solid fuel burning device

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2022151497A1 (en) * 2021-01-18 2022-07-21 车战斌 Combustion furnace having heat storage device

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