CN104880711B - Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection system and detection method - Google Patents

Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection system and detection method Download PDF

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CN104880711B
CN104880711B CN201510254035.2A CN201510254035A CN104880711B CN 104880711 B CN104880711 B CN 104880711B CN 201510254035 A CN201510254035 A CN 201510254035A CN 104880711 B CN104880711 B CN 104880711B
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signal
interferometric filter
optical
light path
color separation
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CN201510254035.2A
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CN104880711A (en
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王英俭
谢晨波
赵明
尚震
钟志庆
王邦新
王珍珠
伯广宇
董吉辉
刘�东
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中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/88Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S17/95Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications for meteorological use
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A90/00Technologies having an indirect contribution to adaptation to climate change
    • Y02A90/10Information and communication technologies [ICT] supporting adaptation to climate change, e.g. for weather forecasting or climate simulation

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection system and detection method, this system globe area pure rotational Raman scattering is measured atmospheric temperature, vibrating Raman scatterometry steam and Raman Mie scattering and is measured three kinds of laser radar techniques of Optical Properties of Aerosol and inversion method.Laser radar system uses 355nm single wavelength pulse laser as probe source, a large-aperture optical receiving telescope possessing high permeability to measurement wavelength is utilized to collect atmospheric backscatter optical signal, follow-up light path passes through color separation film and interferometric filter angle color separation method by 353nm, 354nm, 355nm, four wavelength air Raman scattering optical signals of 386nm and 407nm and Mie scattering echo optical signal are separated from each other, eventually pass through spike interference filter and gate above-mentioned five wavelength dispersion optical signals, and completed opto-electronic conversion and data acquisition unit data acquisition by same model photomultiplier.

Description

Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection system and detection method
Technical field
The present invention relates to atmospheric laser remote sensing fields, specifically a kind of Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection system And detection method.
Background technology
Atmospheric temperature is one of important parameter describing air stability, and it characterizes the degree of stability of air.Greatly Air water vapour is the greenhouse gases that the earth is important, affect the whole world water circulation, atmospheric chemistry process, weather system and Climate change.Liquid that atmospheric aerosol is suspended in air and particulate solid general name, main by directly Effect and indirect effect affect global climate drawn game ground air quality.Atmospheric temperature, steam and aerosol are as retouching State the major parameter of atmospheric condition, influence each other and together decide on short-term air quality, local Meteorological difference and Longer term climatic changes, and therefore the real-time monitoring to three's spatial and temporal distributions is just particularly important.
The Main Means of currently acquired atmospheric temperature and steam includes: (1) radiosonde, for working as pre-test Atmospheric temperature and the conventional means of steam vertical distribution, the measurement that businessization is run is recommended by Ye Shi World Meteorological Organization Means.But the time resolution rate variance of radiosonde measurement data, for major part website, in one day only There are two secondary data sooner or later.The humicap used in radiosonde is in the environment such as low humidity, high humidity, low temperature Measure error relatively big, and the uncertain vertical distribution causing measuring of ascending path of sounding balloon has bigger Uncertain.These all cannot meet, and current short-term weather prediction, extreme weather and haze event study are actual to be needed Want.(2) microwave radiometer, is to be measured by the microwave signal of scanning different angles water vapor sensitive frequency The bright temperature of air, and then it is finally inversed by total precipitable water.The temporal resolution of this device measuring total precipitable water is high, it is possible to daytime Night measures continuously.But its inverting air relative temperature and steam Vertical Profile need local long-term sounding historical data Carry out correcting training, and vertical spatial resolution is poor.(3) laser radar, by measuring air molecule Pure rotational Raman scattering signal obtains atmosphere temperature profile, by measuring nitrogen and steam vibrating Raman scattered signal Obtain atmosphere vapour profile.Optical Properties of Aerosol Vertical Profile is measured, present stage Airborne Lidar Survey technology is uniquely to measure technological means.
Laser radar is the combination of conventional radar technology and modern laser, is electromagnetic radar Detection Techniques From centimeter wave, the extension of millimeter wave direction light wave Detection Techniques.Relative to other electromagnetic radar technology, light wave has Having shorter wavelength, therefore laser radar can utilize air molecule and aerosol particle present in laser and air Interaction between son realizes atmospheric optics and physical characteristic, and the active remote sensing of air meteorologic parameter is visited Survey.Laser superperformance on monochromaticjty, directionality, coherence and high brightness promotes laser radar to exist simultaneously Measure the aspects such as height, spatial and temporal resolution, certainty of measurement and automatic monitor for continuously and all there is traditional Atmospheric Survey The advantage that means are incomparable.
The laser radar system developed outside Present Domestic is main or with for atmospheric temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single detective purpose is main, and external canonical system specifically includes that
(1) atmospheric temperature measurement
At night, it measures height to the Raman lidar that Leipzig, Germany troposphere research institute set up in 2002 Top, troposphere can be reached.The certainty of measurement of atmospheric temperature is 1-2% (2-4K);Kyoto Univ Japan is 2002 The RASC laser radar that year sets up, by using etalon filter, achieves atmospheric temperature round the clock well Measure.At night, through the accumulative average and smothing filtering of 500 meters of windows of 9 minutes, convection current can be obtained Atmospheric temperature vertical distribution in Ceng, the measure error in the atmospheric temperature of below 6km is less than 2K.The U.S. Sandia National Laboratory is the CART laser radar of the atmospheric radiation experiments of measuring ARM foundation of USDOE Two the pure rotary Raman passages measuring atmospheric temperature are added, it is achieved that it is to atmospheric temperature in 2005 Measure.This laser radar can measure the atmosphere temperature profile in troposphere at night, and is merely able to daytime measure The atmosphere temperature profile of below 3km.
(2) atmosphere vapour is measured
U.S. NASA Goddard space research center in nineteen ninety build SRL laser radar.This radar Having a diameter of 0.76m, relative aperture is the Dall-Kirkham telescopic system of f/4.8, uses XeF Laser instrument, its wavelength is 351nm, and repetition rate is 400Hz, and power is 24W, available troposphere steam Mixing ratio profile, certainty of measurement is about 30%;USDOE (DOE/ARM) is built in the CART of nineteen ninety-five Laser radar.It uses Nd:YAG laser instrument, exports frequency tripled laser 355nm, and repetition rate is 30Hz, Single pulse energy is 400mJ, and receiving telescope is 0.61m bore, atmosphere vapour in available boundary layer round the clock Spatial and temporal distributions, certainty of measurement is 20-30%;The CRL laser that the U.S. " scientific and engineering service company " develops Radar.This radar uses the quadruple Nd:YAG laser instrument of diode pumping output, and its output wavelength is 266nm, Single pulse energy is 1mJ, and repetition rate is 1KHz.Using a diameter of 35cm, relative aperture is f/10.2's Cassegrain type telescope.Wherein use the Solarblind detector of advanced person, the narrow band pass filter of high cut-off And adjustable aperture so that daytime measures steam and becomes possible to.But owing to it uses wavelength to be 266nm Laser as emission source, it is therefore necessary to consider O3Absorb corrects.The result thus can measured to steam Bring certain error.
(3) big gasoloid
The micro-pulse lidar (Micro Pulse Lidar) of the GSFC research and development of U.S. NASA in 1992 is The laser radar product of the most first commercialization.This product uses solid state diode lasers as launching light Source, utilizes micro-burnt single pulse energy, KHz tranmitting frequency, microradian field of view of receiver and high-quantum efficiency light The advanced technologies such as sub-detection ensure that it realizes atmospheric aerosol and the long-time Continuous Observation of cloud, cut-off Nearly 28 composition micro-pulse lidar nets have been laid in the whole world till now, coordinate AERONET to carry out air gas molten Glue and cloud observation and satellite ground are calibrated.But the deadly defect of this product is its design structure can will launch laser Reflexing to detector cathode plane and cause system injury, its longer transition region can cause lower atmosphere layer to detect simultaneously The biggest measure error.Except the micro-pulse lidar of NASA, continue to bring out out the most again similar Laser radar product.Such as France's CAML aerosol of CIMEL company and cloud micro-pulse lidar, Greece The Raymetrics back scattering laser radar of Kipp&Zone company, and Leosphere company of France ALS aerosol lidar systems.
The domestic predominantly Chinese Academy of Sciences's Anhui ray machine institute's atmospheric optics center carrying out this type of research was built in nineteen ninety-five L625 multifunction laser radar, utilize Mie scattering lidar commercial measurement atmospheric aerosol;1999 Year adds Raman scattering and measures function, and the steam for 1-5km altitude range is measured;Calendar year 2001 adds Rayleigh and Raman scattering Measurement channel, for the atmospheric temperature measurement of 15-60km altitude range;Within 2007, increase Add pure rotational Raman scattering Measurement channel, for the atmospheric temperature measurement of 2-10km altitude range.Except this it Outward, in recent years, Wuhan University, Wuhan number thing institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an University of Technology and Beijing Institute of Technology etc. are single Position has carried out the Raman lidar detection study of atmospheric temperature and steam the most in succession.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection system and detection method, to solve The problem that certainly prior art exists.
In order to achieve the above object, the technical solution adopted in the present invention is:
Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection system, it is characterised in that: include control unit, Laser emission list Unit, optical receiver unit, acquisition of signal and collecting unit, wherein:
Laser emission element include Nd:YAG laser instrument, two frequency-doubling crystals, frequency tripling crystal, total reflective mirror, 3 The beam expander of multiplying power, transmitter, Nd:YAG laser emitting frequency tripling 355nm pulse laser, Nd:YAG The control of laser instrument terminates into control unit, the emitting light path of Nd:YAG laser instrument sets gradually two frequencys multiplication brilliant Body, frequency tripling crystal, total reflective mirror, the light incident side of beam expander is positioned on total reflective mirror reflected light path, transmitter by The optical mirror being parallel to each other for a pair and be the most each arranged in two-dimensional adjustment stand for optical lens is constituted, beam expander Emergent light through in transmitter two optical mirrors reflection after Vertical Launch to air;
Optical receiver unit includes optics receiving telescope, diaphragm, eyepiece, two color separation films, five interference filters Mating plate and five convergent lenses, optics receiving telescope is coated with 353-355nm, 386nm and 407nm tri- Measure the media coating that wave band is high anti-and height is saturating, the incident light axis of optics receiving telescope and laser emission element Middle transmitter emergent light optical axis is parallel, optics receiving telescope emitting light path sets gradually diaphragm, eyepiece, One color separation film BS1, second color separation film BS2 are arranged on the transmitted light path of first color separation film BS1, First interferometric filter IF1, first interference filter it is provided with on the transmitted light path of second color separation film BS2 First convergent lens L1, and first interferometric filter IF1 and it is provided with on the transmitted light path of sheet IF1 One convergent lens L1 central axis is parallel to each other, and the reflected light path of second color separation film BS2 is provided with Two interferometric filter IF2, the transmitted light path of second interferometric filter IF2 are provided with second and assemble thoroughly Mirror L2, and second interferometric filter IF2 and second convergent lens L2 central axis be parallel to each other, first The 3rd interferometric filter IF3, the 3rd interferometric filter IF3 it is provided with on the reflected light path of individual color separation film BS1 Transmitted light path on be provided with the 3rd convergent lens L3, and the 3rd interferometric filter IF3 central axis with Acute angle is accompanied, the reflection light of the 3rd interferometric filter IF3 between the central axis of the 3rd convergent lens L3 The 4th group of interferometric filter IF4 being made up of two interferometric filters being parallel to each other it is provided with on road, the 4th group The 4th convergent lens L4, and the 4th group of interferometric filter it is provided with on the transmitted light path of interferometric filter IF4 The central axis of IF4 central axis and the 4th convergent lens L4 is parallel to each other, the 4th group of interferometric filter IF4 Reflected light path on be provided with the 5th interferometric filter IF5, the transmitted light path of the 5th interferometric filter IF5 On be provided with the 5th convergent lens L5, and the 5th interferometric filter IF5 central axis and the 5th convergence Acute angle is accompanied between the central axis of lens L5;
Acquisition of signal and collecting unit include the data acquisition unit of Five-channel, detector power supply, five photomultiplier transits Pipe, described detector power supply supplies power to five photomultipliers respectively, and first photomultiplier PMT1 is arranged Focal point on the emitting light path of first convergent lens L1, second photomultiplier PMT2 is arranged on Focal point on the emitting light path of two convergent lens L2, the 3rd photomultiplier PMT3 is arranged on the 3rd Focal point on the emitting light path of convergent lens L3, the 4th photomultiplier PMT4 is arranged on the 4th convergence Focal point on the emitting light path of lens L4, the 5th photomultiplier PMT5 is arranged on the 5th convergent lens Focal point on the emitting light path of L5, and five photomultiplier one_to_one corresponding are electrically accessed data acquisition unit five and lead to The input in road, the output of five passages of data acquisition unit is electrically connected to control unit.
A kind of Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection method, it is characterised in that: first control unit is according to control Software design patterns parameter, by serial ports control Nd:YAG laser works, Nd:YAG laser instrument fundamental frequency according to 20Hz frequency outgoing single pulse energy is the 1064nm pulse laser of 1200mJ, and the angle of divergence is 0.45mrad, Spot diameter is 10mm, sequentially passes through two frequencys multiplication and frequency tripling crystal, and final outgoing single pulse energy is 300mJ 355nm pulse laser, the 355nm pulse laser of outgoing reflects into 3 multiplying power beam expanding lens through total reflective mirror, Then its angle of divergence is reduced to 0.15mrad, and spot diameter is increased to 30mm, the 355nm pulse after expanding Two pieces of two-dimension opticals that laser is launched in device adjust on framves optical mirror Vertical Launch in air.Transmitter Main Function to be to ensure that shoot laser optical axis and system receive light between centers height parallel;
Secondly, the 355nm pulse laser in air and the air molecule in air and particulate are shone Between produce and interact, including atmospheric molecule for 353nm produced by 355nm shoot laser and In 354nm pure rotational Raman scattering low-order and high-order spectral line optical signal, air nitrogen molecule and vapour molecule for 386nm and the 407nm vibrating Raman scattered light signal that 355nm shoot laser produces, and in air, gas is molten The 355nm Mie scattering optical signal that micelle produces for 355nm shoot laser;Light in optical receiver unit Receiving telescope is coated with 353-355nm, 386nm and 407nm tri-and measures the medium that wave band is high anti-and height is saturating Film layer, can effectively collect inverting atmospheric temperature, steam and the 353nm of aerosol optical signature, 354nm, Five wavelength atmospheric backscatter optical signals of 355nm, 386nm and 407nm;Optics receiving telescope is collected Atmospheric backscatter optical signal, through the diaphragm of diameter 2mm, limits its field of view of receiver angle as 0.5mrad;Warp The optical signal crossing diaphragm is less parallel light by eyepiece collimation, is then divided into two bundles by first color separation film BS1 Optical signal, wherein transmission light is the visible waveband more than 370nm, and reflected light signal is less than 360nm's Ultraviolet band;By second color separation film BS2, two bundles are divided into again for first color separation film BS1 transmission visible ray, Its transmission light is the visible waveband more than 400nm, only transmits after first interferometric filter IF1 filters 407nm optical signal, i.e. atmosphere vapour vibrating Raman scattered light signal;And reflected light signal is less than 390nm Ultraviolet band, reflection light only transmits 386nm optical signal after second interferometric filter IF2 filters, I.e. air nitrogen molecular vibration Raman scattering optical signal;The reflection light of first color separation film BS1 first passes around Three interferometric filter IF3 color separations, optical signal transmissive is 355nm, i.e. atmospheric aerosol Mie scattering optical signal; 3rd interferometric filter IF3 reflected light signal is through the 4th group of interference filter being made up of two interferometric filters Mating plate IF4 color separation, optical signal transmissive is that the low order of 354nm, i.e. atmospheric molecule passes rotational raman scattering optical signal; The reflection light of the 4th group of interferometric filter IF4 is through the 5th interferometric filter IF5 color separation, and optical signal transmissive is The high-order pure rotational Raman scattering optical signal of 353nm, i.e. atmospheric molecule.
Then, the optical signal of wavelength is gated respectively by diameter 25.4mm, Jiao respectively through five interferometric filters Convergent lens away from 25.4mm converges on the photomultiplier cathode plane of diameter 8mm, it is achieved opto-electronic conversion, Then through being enlarged into uV-mV magnitude voltages signal step by step;The photomultiplier signal of telecommunication passes through BNC holding wire Input to data acquisition unit, utilize analog-to-digital conversion mode to convert electrical signals to data signal for strong signal, its Sampling precision is 12bits;Photon counting mode is utilized to convert electrical signals to data signal for weak signal, its Sampling precision is 250MHz;The sample frequency of data acquisition unit is 20MHz, and corresponding spatial resolution is 7.5m;Within the measurement time, the collection data of each pulse are all accumulated and are saved in data acquisition unit caching In;
Finally, after data acquisition unit count down to the hits of control software design patterns, end is sent to control unit Measuring command, then end order is issued Nd:YAG laser instrument by serial ports by control unit, and Nd:YAG swashs Light device stops shoot laser and is in and waits open command next time;Control unit passes through netting twine by data acquisition unit Measurement initial data in caching reads in local hard drive, is processed by data inversion software data simultaneously and obtains Atmospheric temperature, steam and aerosol optical characteristics Vertical Profile also represent on a display screen.
For realizing for measuring while lower atmosphere layer temperature, steam and aerosol optical characteristics profile simultaneously, this Invention uses three kinds of different laser radar detection methods, i.e. utilizes atmospheric molecule for 355nm shoot laser Produced 353nm and 354nm pure rotational Raman scattering low-order and high-order spectral line optical signal inverting atmosphere temperature profile, 386nm and 407nm that in air, nitrogen molecule and vapour molecule produce for 355nm shoot laser is utilized to shake Dynamic Raman scattering optical signal Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiles, and utilize nitrogen molecule and particulate pair in air The 386nm vibrating Raman scattering produced in 355nm shoot laser is molten with 355nm Mie scattering optical signal inverting gas Glue optical characteristics.
Single wavelength laser emitting and the global design of four wavelength Raman scattering signal detection, owing to relating to three kinds of laser The radar exploration technique, and in view of the globality of system, stability and cost performance, the present invention uses 355nm Single wavelength pulse laser, as probe source, utilizes the heavy caliber light possessing high permeability to measurement wavelength Learn receiving telescope and collect atmospheric backscatter optical signal, to reach to measure for inverting atmospheric temperature, water simultaneously Four wavelength of 353nm, 354nm, 355nm, 386nm and 407nm of vapour and aerosol optical characteristics are big Gas Raman scattering optical signal and Mie scattering echo optical signal.
High-precision quasi-parallel transmitting and binary channels that small divergence angle shoot laser and small field of view angle signal receive detect Design eliminates closely geometrical factor impact.The present invention use 3 times of beam expanders by the shoot laser angle of divergence from 0.45mrad is reduced to 0.15mrad further, utilizes aperture the optical receiver unit angle of visual field to be limited in About 0.5mrad, utilizes the high-precision two-dimensional optical adjusting frame in transmitter to guarantee shoot laser and optics simultaneously Receive and keep the most parallel, reduce the coverage of laser radar self geometrical factor and improve in geometrical factor The stability of signal.Measuring parameter for three kinds, subsequent optical unit all uses binary channels detection design, passes through Measure signal ratio and effectively reduce and eliminate the impact that low layer is measured by laser radar geometrical factor.
Low-order and high-order atmospheric molecule pure rotational Raman scattering optical signal is distinguished based on interferometric filter angle color separation method. Pure rotational Raman lidar technology is used for lower atmosphere layer temperature survey, obtains atmospheric molecule the most simultaneously 353nm and the 354nm pure rotational Raman scattering low-order and high-order spectral line optical signal that 355nm shoot laser is produced. Due between two Raman scattering optical signals wavelength closely, and the strong Mie scattering of distance 355nm shoot laser returns Ripple signal also very close to, for this present invention use interferometric filter angle color separation method distinguish low-order and high-order atmospheric molecule Pure rotational Raman scattering optical signal.The method is to utilize the reflection of interferometric filter and throw transmissison characteristic and incidence angle Degree is relevant, utilizes the different of incident angle between incident optical signal from interferometric filter thus realizes pure rotary Raman and dissipate Penetrate the differentiation of low-order and high-order spectral line optical signal.
Effect of the present invention is:
1, the output of Single wavelength 355nm laser can be realized, measure 353nm and 354nm atmospheric molecule pure simultaneously Rotational raman scattering low-order and high-order spectral line optical signal, air nitrogen molecule and vapour molecule 386nm and 407nm shake Dynamic Raman scattering optical signal, and atmospheric aerosol 355nm Mie scattering optical signal;
2, can measure simultaneously near the ground to atmospheric temperature, steam and aerosol extinction system in 10km altitude range Number Vertical Profile, atmospheric temperature measurement precision is ± 2k, and steam certainty of measurement is ± 1g/kg, aerosol extinction system Number certainty of measurement is ± 0.1km-1
3, possessing continuous automatic Observation ability, its temporal resolution is 5 minutes, and spatial resolution is 7.5 meters;
4, overall system design is vehicle-mounted type, compact conformation, it is simple to mobile, under the measuring state of protection skylight Possesses round-the-clock unmanned measurement capability, it is simple to carry out field trial.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 lower atmosphere layer of the present invention temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single wavelength four Raman laser radar system structure Schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 lower atmosphere layer of the present invention temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single wavelength four Raman laser radar system are real Signal profile figure is measured on border.
Fig. 3 lower atmosphere layer of the present invention temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single wavelength four Raman laser radar system are surveyed Amount atmosphere temperature profile measures atmosphere temperature profile comparison diagram with radio sounding.
Fig. 4 lower atmosphere layer of the present invention temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single wavelength four Raman laser radar system are surveyed Amount atmosphere vapour profile measures atmosphere vapour profile comparison diagram with radio sounding.
Fig. 5 lower atmosphere layer of the present invention temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single wavelength four Raman laser radar system are surveyed Amount Aerosol Extinction Coefficients and backscattering coefficient profile figure.
Detailed description of the invention
As it is shown in figure 1, Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection system, including control unit, Laser emission list Unit, optical receiver unit, acquisition of signal and collecting unit, wherein:
Laser emission element include Nd:YAG laser instrument, two frequency-doubling crystals, frequency tripling crystal, total reflective mirror R1, The beam expander of 3 multiplying powers, transmitter, Nd:YAG laser emitting frequency tripling 355nm pulse laser, Nd:YAG The control of laser instrument terminates into control unit, the emitting light path of Nd:YAG laser instrument sets gradually two frequencys multiplication brilliant Body, frequency tripling crystal, total reflective mirror R1, the light incident side of beam expander is positioned on total reflective mirror R1 reflected light path, sends out Emitter be parallel to each other by a pair and be the most each arranged in two-dimensional adjustment stand for optical lens optical mirror R2, R3 is constituted, and the emergent light of beam expander is Vertical Launch after two optical mirror R2, R3 reflections in transmitter To air;
Optical receiver unit includes optics receiving telescope, diaphragm, eyepiece, two color separation films, five interference filters Mating plate and five convergent lenses, optics receiving telescope is coated with 353-355nm, 386nm and 407nm tri- Measure the media coating that wave band is high anti-and height is saturating, the incident light axis of optics receiving telescope and laser emission element Middle transmitter emergent light optical axis is parallel, optics receiving telescope emitting light path sets gradually diaphragm, eyepiece, One color separation film BS1, second color separation film BS2 are arranged on the transmitted light path of first color separation film BS1, First interferometric filter IF1, first interference filter it is provided with on the transmitted light path of second color separation film BS2 First convergent lens L1, and first interferometric filter IF1 and it is provided with on the transmitted light path of sheet IF1 One convergent lens L1 central axis is parallel to each other, and the reflected light path of second color separation film BS2 is provided with Two interferometric filter IF2, the transmitted light path of second interferometric filter IF2 are provided with second and assemble thoroughly Mirror L2, and second interferometric filter IF2 and second convergent lens L2 central axis be parallel to each other, first The 3rd interferometric filter IF3, the 3rd interferometric filter IF3 it is provided with on the reflected light path of individual color separation film BS1 Transmitted light path on be provided with the 3rd convergent lens L3, and the 3rd interferometric filter IF3 central axis with Acute angle is accompanied, the reflection light of the 3rd interferometric filter IF3 between the central axis of the 3rd convergent lens L3 The 4th group of interferometric filter IF4 being made up of two interferometric filters being parallel to each other it is provided with on road, the 4th group The 4th convergent lens L4, and the 4th group of interferometric filter it is provided with on the transmitted light path of interferometric filter IF4 The central axis of IF4 central axis and the 4th convergent lens L4 is parallel to each other, the 4th group of interferometric filter IF4 Reflected light path on be provided with the 5th interferometric filter IF5, the transmitted light path of the 5th interferometric filter IF5 On be provided with the 5th convergent lens L5, and the 5th interferometric filter IF5 central axis and the 5th convergence Acute angle is accompanied between the central axis of lens L5;
Acquisition of signal and collecting unit include the data acquisition unit of Five-channel, detector power supply, five photomultiplier transits Pipe, detector power supply supplies power to five photomultipliers respectively, and first photomultiplier PMT1 is arranged on the Focal point on the emitting light path of one convergent lens L1, second photomultiplier PMT2 is arranged on second Focal point on the emitting light path of convergent lens L2, the 3rd photomultiplier PMT3 is arranged on the 3rd convergence Focal point on the emitting light path of lens L3, the 4th photomultiplier PMT4 is arranged on the 4th convergent lens Focal point on the emitting light path of L4, the 5th photomultiplier PMT5 is arranged on the 5th convergent lens L5 Emitting light path on focal point, and five photomultiplier one_to_one corresponding are electrically accessed five passages of data acquisition unit Input, the output of five passages of data acquisition unit is electrically connected to control unit.
A kind of Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection method, first control unit are according to controlling software design patterns ginseng Number, controls Nd:YAG laser works by serial ports, and Nd:YAG laser instrument fundamental frequency goes out according to 20Hz frequency Penetrating the 1064nm pulse laser that single pulse energy is 1200mJ, the angle of divergence is 0.45mrad, and spot diameter is 10mm, sequentially passes through two frequencys multiplication and frequency tripling crystal, and final outgoing single pulse energy is the 355nm of 300mJ Pulse laser, the 355nm pulse laser of outgoing reflects into 3 multiplying power beam expanding lens through total reflective mirror, then its Scattered angle is reduced to 0.15mrad, and spot diameter is increased to 30mm, and the 355nm pulse laser after expanding is sent out Two pieces of two-dimension opticals in emitter adjust on framves optical mirror Vertical Launch in air.The main work of transmitter Parallel with being to ensure that shoot laser optical axis receives light between centers height with system;
Secondly, the 355nm pulse laser in air and the air molecule in air and particulate are shone Between produce and interact, including atmospheric molecule for 353nm produced by 355nm shoot laser and In 354nm pure rotational Raman scattering low-order and high-order spectral line optical signal, air nitrogen molecule and vapour molecule for 386nm and the 407nm vibrating Raman scattered light signal that 355nm shoot laser produces, and in air, gas is molten The 355nm Mie scattering optical signal that micelle produces for 355nm shoot laser;Light in optical receiver unit Receiving telescope is coated with 353-355nm, 386nm and 407nm tri-and measures the medium that wave band is high anti-and height is saturating Film layer, can effectively collect inverting atmospheric temperature, steam and the 353nm of aerosol optical signature, 354nm, Five wavelength atmospheric backscatter optical signals of 355nm, 386nm and 407nm;Optics receiving telescope is collected Atmospheric backscatter optical signal, through the diaphragm of diameter 2mm, limits its field of view of receiver angle as 0.5mrad;Warp The optical signal crossing diaphragm is less parallel light by eyepiece collimation, is then divided into two bundles by first color separation film BS1 Optical signal, wherein transmission light is the visible waveband more than 370nm, and reflected light signal is less than 360nm's Ultraviolet band;By second color separation film BS2, two bundles are divided into again for first color separation film BS1 transmission visible ray, Its transmission light is the visible waveband more than 400nm, only transmits after first interferometric filter IF1 filters 407nm optical signal, i.e. atmosphere vapour vibrating Raman scattered light signal;And reflected light signal is less than 390nm Ultraviolet band, reflection light only transmits 386nm optical signal after second interferometric filter IF2 filters, I.e. air nitrogen molecular vibration Raman scattering optical signal;The reflection light of first color separation film BS1 first passes around Three interferometric filter IF3 color separations, optical signal transmissive is 355nm, i.e. atmospheric aerosol Mie scattering optical signal; 3rd interferometric filter IF3 reflected light signal is through the 4th group of interference filter being made up of two interferometric filters Mating plate IF4 color separation, optical signal transmissive is that the low order of 354nm, i.e. atmospheric molecule passes rotational raman scattering optical signal; The reflection light of the 4th group of interferometric filter IF4 is through the 5th interferometric filter IF5 color separation, and optical signal transmissive is The high-order pure rotational Raman scattering optical signal of 353nm, i.e. atmospheric molecule.
Then, the optical signal of wavelength is gated respectively by diameter 25.4mm, Jiao respectively through five interferometric filters Convergent lens away from 25.4mm converges on the photomultiplier cathode plane of diameter 8mm, it is achieved opto-electronic conversion, Then through being enlarged into uV-mV magnitude voltages signal step by step;The photomultiplier signal of telecommunication passes through BNC holding wire Input to data acquisition unit, utilize analog-to-digital conversion mode to convert electrical signals to data signal for strong signal, its Sampling precision is 12bits;Photon counting mode is utilized to convert electrical signals to data signal for weak signal, its Sampling precision is 250MHz;The sample frequency of data acquisition unit is 20MHz, and corresponding spatial resolution is 7.5m;Within the measurement time, the collection data of each pulse are all accumulated and are saved in data acquisition unit caching In;
Finally, after data acquisition unit count down to the hits of control software design patterns, end is sent to control unit Measuring command, then end order is issued Nd:YAG laser instrument by serial ports by control unit, and Nd:YAG swashs Light device stops shoot laser and is in and waits open command next time;Control unit passes through netting twine by data acquisition unit Measurement initial data in caching reads in local hard drive, is processed by data inversion software data simultaneously and obtains Atmospheric temperature, steam and aerosol optical characteristics Vertical Profile also represent on a display screen.
It is an object of the invention to develop one and measure lower atmosphere layer temperature, steam and aerocolloidal unicast for simultaneously Long four Raman laser radar systems and detection method thereof.This system relates generally to three kinds of laser radar detection skills Art, wherein utilizes pure rotational Raman lidar technology (Rotational Raman Scattering) to measure air Temperature profile, utilizes vibrating Raman lidar technology (Vibrational Raman Scattering) to measure air Water vapor profile, and it is big to utilize Raman Mie scattering lidar technology (Raman&Mie Scattering) to measure Gas aerosol optical characteristics profile.In view of globality and the stability of equipment, this laser radar system uses 355nm Single wavelength pulse laser, as probe source, utilizes a heavy caliber being coated with three wave band highly reflecting films layers Shoot laser Single wavelength Mie scattering echo optical signal collected by optics receiving telescope and four wavelength air Ramans dissipate Being emitted back towards wave optical signal, follow-up light path uses and realizes above-mentioned five wavelength channels based on filter angle phi optical spectroscopy Light splitting and detection thereof.
Measure lower atmosphere layer temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single wavelength four Raman laser radar system mainly by laser Transmitter unit, optical receiver unit, acquisition of signal and collecting unit and control unit four part composition, such as figure Shown in 1.Table 1 gives the important technological parameters of native system component units device.
Table 1 lower atmosphere layer temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single wavelength four Raman laser radar system important technological parameters
(1) laser emission element
Laser emission element is made up of laser instrument, beam expanding lens, transmitter and reflecting optics thereof, Main Function be for Laser radar system provides high-quality probe source.For obtaining higher Raman back scattering optical signal and reduction Background radiation on daytime optical signal, this laser radar system uses the frequency tripling 355nm of lamp pump Nd:YAG laser instrument Pulse laser is as probe source.The shoot laser frequency of 355nm shoot laser is 20Hz, single pulse energy For 300mJ, < 10ns, spot diameter about 10mm, laser beam divergence is 0.45mrad to pulsewidth.For reducing The impact on close-in measurement data of laser radar self geometrical factor, adopts in this laser radar system transmitting light path With the beam expanding lens of multiplying power 3, further from 0.45mrad, laser beam divergence being reduced to 0.15mrad, hot spot is straight Footpath is expanded to 30mm by 10mm.Transmitter uses two-dimensional adjustment stand for optical lens and the 50mm of two high stables Bore optical mirror, it is achieved it is parallel that shoot laser optical axis receives light between centers height with optical telescope.
(2) optical receiver unit
Optical receiver unit is by optics receiving telescope, diaphragm, eyepiece, dichronic mirror, interferometric filter and convergence Lens etc. form, and be mainly used in collecting atmospheric molecule and particulate and shoot laser interacts after producing Carry out color separation to scattered light signal and according to measuring wavelength, filter and focus on.Optics receiving telescope is jam lattice Crop type, effective aperture is 450mm, and focal length is 4000mm.For increasing the receiving efficiency measuring wavelength, connect Receive the employing of telescopical protection glass and melt quartz material, and minute surface is for 353-355nm, 386nm and 407nm Three measure wave band plating antireflective coating, and Telescope surface is also to above-mentioned three wave band plating high-reflecting film layers.Receiving Telescope focal point disposes aperture, it is achieved telescope field of view of receiver angle is adjustable at 0.5-2mrad.Through light The converging light of door screen is less parallel light through eyepiece by quasi-value.The optical signal that telescope is received by color separation film BS1 It is divided into two at 360-370nm wavelength.The transmission light of color separation film BS1 by color separation film BS2 at 390-400nm Wavelength is further divided into two bundles, and wherein transmission light only transmits 407nm light after interferometric filter IF1 filters Signal, for atmosphere vapour vibrating Raman scattered light signal, reflection light is the most saturating after interferometric filter IF2 filters Cross 386nm optical signal, for air nitrogen molecular vibration Raman scattering optical signal.The reflection light of color separation film BS1 First passing around interferometric filter IF3 color separation, optical signal transmissive is 355nm, believes for atmospheric aerosol Mie scattering light Number;Interferometric filter IF3 reflected light signal is through two interferometric filter IF4 color separations, and optical signal transmissive is 354nm, the low order for atmospheric molecule passes rotational raman scattering optical signal;The reflection light warp of interferometric filter IF4 Crossing interferometric filter IF5 color separation, optical signal transmissive is 353nm, and the pure rotary Raman of high-order for atmospheric molecule dissipates Penetrate optical signal.
(3) acquisition of signal and collecting unit
Acquisition of signal and collecting unit are made up of, mainly photodetector and detector power supply thereof, data acquisition unit For to optical receiver unit collection, color separation, filter and the measurement wavelength channels assembled carry out opto-electronic conversion and Data acquisition.It is 353-407nm owing to measuring wave band, simultaneously takes account of modularization and the standardized designs of system, Five detection channels related in system all use same type photodetector and data acquisition unit.Wherein light Electric explorer is selected and is suitable for the photomultiplier type that Uv and visible light wave band is measured, and its cathode plane is a diameter of 8mm, spectral region is 300-650nm, and peak wavelength is at 420nm, and anode sensitivity is 4.3 × 104A/W, Anode dark noise is 0.2nA.For reaching to measure the dynamic range of echo-signal 6-8 the order of magnitude, data acquisition Device uses the acquisition technique that analog-to-digital conversion AD and photon counting PC combine.Gathering signal input range is 0-500mV, carries a width of DC-10MHz, and frequency acquisition is 20MHz (corresponding spatial resolution is 7.5m), Sampling precision for patten transformation is 12bits, and the sampling precision for photon counting is 250MHz.Detection Device power supply is powered to photomultiplier by Lemo power line, and photomultiplier output signal passes through BNC Holding wire supply data acquisition unit.
(4) control unit
Control unit is by main wave controller and industrial computer and corresponding running control software and data processing software group Become, be mainly used in realizing Laser emission, echo-signal detection, data acquisition, transmit and store and harmonious have Sequence is carried out, and processes data in real time and show.During for guaranteeing that laser emitting laser and collector gather Between highly consistent, system needs main wave controller according to laser instrument adjust Q trigger signal rapid shaping output 50us Transistor-Transistor Logic level signal, as data acquisition unit input trigger signal.Select industrial computer as native system control The core component of system, industrial computer utilizes Serial Port Line and laser instrument to carry out communication connection, utilizes netting twine and data acquisition Device carries out system and arranges and data transmission.Under system running control software operates, industrial computer is original by measure Data preserve in hard disk, and combine data processing software and pre-process and inverting measuring initial data, and Result is represented over the display.
Fig. 2 give lower atmosphere layer temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single wavelength four Raman laser radar system in The Received Signal Vertical Profile figure of on the July 29th, 2014 of actual measurement in Hefei.Wherein ordinate is for surveying Amount height, abscissa is for measuring signal.This laser radar uses altogether 5 wavelength acquisition channels, obtains 9 Individual measurement data profile.Wherein for 353nm and 354nm two wavelength simulation (AD) of inverting atmospheric temperature With four groups of measurement data of photon counting (PC);386nm and the 407nm two wavelength simulation of Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor With four groups of measurement data of photon counting;And 355nm, 532nm of inverting Optical Properties of Aerosol and Three groups of measurement data of 1064nm tri-wavelength.Being not difficult to find out in figure, owing to the scattering mechanism used is different, it is right The echo signal intensity answered also differs greatly.Comparatively speaking, the aerosol Mie scattering signal of 355nm wavelength is the strongest, And the vapour molecule Raman scattering signal of 407nm wavelength is the most weak.
Fig. 3 gives lower atmosphere layer temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single wavelength four Raman laser radar system and measures Atmosphere temperature profile measures atmosphere temperature profile comparison diagram with radio sounding.In figure, ordinate is height, Zuo Tu Abscissa is atmospheric temperature, and right figure abscissa is absolute error.For verifying the essence of measuring atmosphere temperature by lidar Degree, the most also discharges radiosonde in test, for comparing the atmospheric temperature of lidar measurement. In figure, result shows, at 0-10km altitude range inner laser radar (empty round dot) measurement result and wireless electrical resistivity survey Empty instrument (solid line) measurement result is very consistent, and the temperature configuration especially highly located at 2.5km and 8.5km is also Well it coincide.Contrast display absolute error major part between the two, within ± 2K, thus illustrates this laser thunder Reach the certainty of measurement that atmospheric temperature measurement has reached higher.
Fig. 4 gives lower atmosphere layer temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single wavelength four Raman laser radar system and measures Atmosphere vapour profile measures atmosphere vapour profile comparison diagram with radio sounding.In figure, ordinate is height, Zuo Tu Abscissa is vapor-to-liquid ratio, and right figure abscissa is absolute error.It is similar to atmospheric temperature measurement, the most same in figure Time give the atmosphere vapour profile of radiosonde measurement and compare.In figure, result shows, at 0-10km Altitude range inner laser radar (empty round dot) measurement result and radiosonde (solid line) measurement result are very Unanimously, the steam structure especially highly located at 1km and 4.5km is the most well coincide.Both contrast displays Between absolute error major part within ± 1g/kg, thus illustrate that this laser radar steam is measured and reached higher Certainty of measurement.
Fig. 5 gives lower atmosphere layer temperature, steam and aerocolloidal Single wavelength four Raman laser radar system and measures Aerosol Extinction Coefficients and backscattering coefficient Vertical Profile figure.In figure, ordinate is height, the horizontal seat of left figure Being designated as Aerosol Extinction, right figure abscissa is aerosol backscattering coefficient.In figure, result shows, The atmospheric extinction coefficient of 0-10km altitude range inner laser radar surveying and backscattering coefficient are generally with height Present decline trend, and slightly rise more than 8km height.It is similar to water vapor profile structure in Fig. 4, Aerosol Extinction and the backscattering coefficient highly located at 1km and 4.5km present little structure.Due to gas Colloidal sol extinction coefficient and backscattering coefficient only have laser radar to measure, and therefore cannot be entered by other means Row contrast test, but calculated by laser radar equation error propagation, obtains this systematic survey aerosol extinction system The precision of number is ± 0.1km-1

Claims (2)

1. Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection system, it is characterised in that: include control unit, laser emission element, optical receiver unit, acquisition of signal and collecting unit, wherein:
Laser emission element includes Nd:YAG laser instrument, two frequency-doubling crystals, frequency tripling crystal, total reflective mirror, the beam expander of 3 multiplying powers, transmitter, Nd:YAG laser emitting frequency tripling 355nm pulse laser, the control of Nd:YAG laser instrument terminates into control unit, two frequency-doubling crystals are set gradually on the emitting light path of Nd:YAG laser instrument, frequency tripling crystal, total reflective mirror, the light incident side of beam expander is positioned on total reflective mirror reflected light path, transmitter is parallel to each other by a pair and the optical mirror that is the most each arranged in two-dimensional adjustment stand for optical lens is constituted, the emergent light of beam expander through in transmitter two optical mirrors reflection after Vertical Launch to air;Use 355nm single wavelength pulse laser as probe source;
nullOptical receiver unit utilizes a large-aperture optical receiving telescope possessing high permeability to measurement wavelength to collect scattered light signal after air,Including optics receiving telescope、Diaphragm、Eyepiece、Two color separation films、Five interferometric filters and five convergent lenses,It is coated with 353-355nm on optics receiving telescope、386nm and 407nm tri-measures the media coating that wave band is high anti-and height is saturating,The incident light axis of optics receiving telescope is parallel with transmitter emergent light optical axis in laser emission element,Diaphragm is set gradually on optics receiving telescope emitting light path、Eyepiece、First color separation film BS1,Second color separation film BS2 is arranged on the transmitted light path of first color separation film BS1,First interferometric filter IF1 it is provided with on the transmitted light path of second color separation film BS2,First convergent lens L1 it is provided with on the transmitted light path of first interferometric filter IF1,And first interferometric filter IF1 and first convergent lens L1 central axis are parallel to each other,Second interferometric filter IF2 it is provided with on the reflected light path of second color separation film BS2,Second convergent lens L2 it is provided with on the transmitted light path of second interferometric filter IF2,And second interferometric filter IF2 and second convergent lens L2 central axis are parallel to each other,The 3rd interferometric filter IF3 it is provided with on the reflected light path of first color separation film BS1,The 3rd convergent lens L3 it is provided with on the transmitted light path of the 3rd interferometric filter IF3,And accompany acute angle between the 3rd interferometric filter IF3 central axis and the central axis of the 3rd convergent lens L3,The 4th group of interferometric filter IF4 being made up of two interferometric filters being parallel to each other it is provided with on the reflected light path of the 3rd interferometric filter IF3,The 4th convergent lens L4 it is provided with on the transmitted light path of the 4th group of interferometric filter IF4,And the central axis of the 4th group of interferometric filter IF4 central axis and the 4th convergent lens L4 is parallel to each other,The 5th interferometric filter IF5 it is provided with on the reflected light path of the 4th group of interferometric filter IF4,The 5th convergent lens L5 it is provided with on the transmitted light path of the 5th interferometric filter IF5,And accompany acute angle between the 5th interferometric filter IF5 central axis and the central axis of the 5th convergent lens L5;
nullAcquisition of signal and collecting unit include the data acquisition unit of Five-channel、Detector power supply、Five photomultipliers,Described detector power supply supplies power to five photomultipliers respectively,First photomultiplier PMT1 is arranged on focal point on the emitting light path of first convergent lens L1,Second photomultiplier PMT2 is arranged on focal point on the emitting light path of second convergent lens L2,3rd photomultiplier PMT3 is arranged on focal point on the emitting light path of the 3rd convergent lens L3,4th photomultiplier PMT4 is arranged on focal point on the emitting light path of the 4th convergent lens L4,5th photomultiplier PMT5 is arranged on focal point on the emitting light path of the 5th convergent lens L5,And five photomultiplier one_to_one corresponding are electrically accessed the input of five passages of data acquisition unit,The output of five passages of data acquisition unit is electrically connected to control unit.
null2. a Single wavelength four Raman lidar detection method,It is characterized in that: first control unit is according to controlling software design patterns parameter,Nd:YAG laser works is controlled by serial ports,Nd:YAG laser instrument fundamental frequency is according to the 1064nm pulse laser that 20Hz frequency outgoing single pulse energy is 1200mJ,The angle of divergence is 0.45mrad,Spot diameter is 10mm,Sequentially pass through two frequencys multiplication and frequency tripling crystal,Final outgoing single pulse energy is the 355nm pulse laser of 300mJ,The 355nm pulse laser of outgoing reflects into 3 multiplying power beam expanding lens through total reflective mirror,Then its angle of divergence is reduced to 0.15mrad,Spot diameter is increased to 30mm,Two pieces of two-dimension opticals that 355nm pulse laser after expanding is launched in device adjust on framves optical mirror Vertical Launch in air;
It is parallel that the Main Function of transmitter is to ensure that shoot laser optical axis receives light between centers height with system;
Secondly, shine to produce between the 355nm pulse laser in air and air molecule and the particulate in air and interact, 386nm and 407nm vibrating Raman scattered light signal nitrogen molecule in 353nm and 354nm pure rotational Raman scattering low-order and high-order spectral line optical signal, air produced by 355nm shoot laser and vapour molecule produced for 355nm shoot laser including atmospheric molecule, and the 355nm Mie scattering optical signal that in air, particulate produces for 355nm shoot laser;Optics receiving telescope in optical receiver unit is coated with 353-355nm, 386nm and 407nm tri-and measures the media coating that wave band is high anti-and height is saturating, can effectively collect five wavelength atmospheric backscatter optical signals of 353nm, 354nm, 355nm, 386nm and 407nm of inverting atmospheric temperature, steam and aerosol optical signature;The atmospheric backscatter optical signal that optics receiving telescope is collected, through the diaphragm of diameter 2mm, limits its field of view of receiver angle as 0.5mrad;It is less parallel light that optical signal through diaphragm is collimated by eyepiece, is then divided into two-beam signal by first color separation film BS1, and wherein transmission light is the visible waveband more than 370nm, and reflected light signal is the ultraviolet band less than 360nm;By second color separation film BS2, two bundles are divided into again for first color separation film BS1 transmission visible ray, its transmission light is the visible waveband more than 400nm, 407nm optical signal, i.e. atmosphere vapour vibrating Raman scattered light signal is only transmitted after first interferometric filter IF1 filters;And reflected light signal is the ultraviolet band less than 390nm, reflection light only transmits 386nm optical signal, i.e. air nitrogen molecular vibration Raman scattering optical signal after second interferometric filter IF2 filters;The reflection light of first color separation film BS1 first passes around the 3rd interferometric filter IF3 color separation, and optical signal transmissive is 355nm, i.e. atmospheric aerosol Mie scattering optical signal;3rd interferometric filter IF3 reflected light signal is through the 4th group of interferometric filter IF4 color separation being made up of two interferometric filters, and optical signal transmissive is that the low order of 354nm, i.e. atmospheric molecule passes rotational raman scattering optical signal;The reflection light of the 4th group of interferometric filter IF4 is through the 5th interferometric filter IF5 color separation, and optical signal transmissive is the high-order pure rotational Raman scattering optical signal of 353nm, i.e. atmospheric molecule;Low-order and high-order atmospheric molecule pure rotational Raman scattering optical signal is distinguished based on interferometric filter angle color separation method;
Then, the optical signal of wavelength is gated respectively by diameter 25.4mm respectively through five interferometric filters, the convergent lens of focal length 25.4mm converges on the photomultiplier cathode plane of diameter 8mm, it is achieved opto-electronic conversion, then through being enlarged into uV-mV magnitude voltages signal step by step;The photomultiplier signal of telecommunication inputs to data acquisition unit by BNC holding wire, utilizes analog-to-digital conversion mode to convert electrical signals to data signal for strong signal, and its sampling precision is 12bits;Utilizing photon counting mode to convert electrical signals to data signal for weak signal, its sampling precision is 250MHz;The sample frequency of data acquisition unit is 20MHz, and corresponding spatial resolution is 7.5m;Within the measurement time, the collection data of each pulse are all accumulated and are saved in data acquisition unit caching;
Finally, after data acquisition unit count down to the hits of control software design patterns, sending end measuring command to control unit, then end order is issued Nd:YAG laser instrument by serial ports by control unit, and Nd:YAG laser instrument stops shoot laser and is in and waits open command next time;Measurement initial data during data acquisition unit is cached by control unit by netting twine reads in local hard drive, is processed by data inversion software data simultaneously and obtains atmospheric temperature, steam and aerosol optical characteristics Vertical Profile and represent on a display screen.
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