CN104871924A - Wild grape planting method - Google Patents

Wild grape planting method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104871924A
CN104871924A CN201510222881.6A CN201510222881A CN104871924A CN 104871924 A CN104871924 A CN 104871924A CN 201510222881 A CN201510222881 A CN 201510222881A CN 104871924 A CN104871924 A CN 104871924A
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grape
fruit
climing
master
amur
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欧高龙
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Xincheng County Gao Long Agricultural Development Co Ltd
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Xincheng County Gao Long Agricultural Development Co Ltd
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Abstract

A wild grape planting method includes selecting place with even terrain, thick, loose and fertile soil and convenient in irrigation as a planting field, raking the planting field, applying decomposed farmyard manure of 1500 kilograms per mu, and making trenches; picking up two years old wild grape branches with full bud eyes, robust and short internodes for cutage; interplanting male viticulture variety and wild grape; fertilizing twice every year, removing other lateral buds and shoots except a shoot after a nursery stock survives; preventing diseases and pets of wild grapes first. Generally, the wild grape trees can fruit in 2 to 3 years and yield per mu is up to 2000-3000 jin. The wild grape planting method combines natural characteristics of the wild grape, is simple in soil, fertilizer and water management and few in pesticide use, and has the advantages of nature, no pollution, low cost, stability in output, high yield and efficiency and the like.

Description

The implantation methods of amur grape
Technical field
The invention belongs to implantation methods field, be specifically related to a kind of implantation methods of amur grape.
Background technology
Grape is that area under cultivation is maximum in the world, the fruit tree that output is maximum.The current seed selection to grape variety, requires to have high yield, many wet, the sugar content highs of disease-resistant, cold-resistant, high temperature resistance.Existing variety source is only relied on to be difficult to reach this target, therefore, breeder attaches great importance to the collection research to Grape Germplasm resource, and leads in eight cultivars by the heterogeneous resistant gene of amur grape resource, wants measure as the meat or fish solving resistant gene poor.
China is one of amur grape centre of origin, the nearly 7O kind of world's vitis spp, and East Asia monoid about has 4O kind, and what originate in China just has 35 kinds (comprising mutation).In recent years, China's scientific research and teaching unit are done a lot of work in the collection of wild Grape Germplasm resource, utilization and research, achieve gratifying achievement.China's amur grape resource is very abundant, but lacks investigation arrangement and the research and utilization of system.Obviously, from wild resource, finding the material with value, for improveing existing cultivar, will larger economic worth be had.Some common wild species of Vitis (vitis) have:
Downy grape (V.quinquangularis Rchd.)
Plant strain growth gesture is strong, and tender tip red green, has extremely close rust spider's thread shape fine hair; Spire is green, and there is sparse fine hair on blade face, and blade back has closeer rust or grey fine hair.Because Growth status environmental condition is different, become leaf blade size significant difference in age, the long 6.5-7cm of leaf, wide 6-16cm, the avette or oblong of leaf, on branches and tendrils, alternate row example, thick in blade, and mostly be entirely green, blade face is level and smooth, glossy.Perennial branch skin is easily peeled off, and tendril is intermittent, and be bifurcated, joint place is micro-expands.Existing dioecism, also has monoecism.Fruit ear and is born in the female climing 2-10 joint of result, and be many with 2-6 joint, climing average 4.3 fringes of every fruit, can reach 8 fringes at most. and fruit ear shape has taper shape, cylindrical and difference shape 3 kinds, mostly is conical.What have has secondary fringe.Columniform fruit ear is tight, and the fruit ear of difference shape is more loose. and fruit ear size is relevant from land occupation condition, managerial skills and different individual plant, average long 11.3 cm, wide 6.2cm, average heavy 58.6g. fruit grain is little, circular, average vertical footpath 13.6mm, transverse diameter 13.2mm, average 100-grain weight 136.3g.Pericarp atropurpureus, 1 one 4, seed, mostly is 3.Because downy grape distribution is wide, type is complicated, and each atural object marquis phase is not quite identical.Be roughly rudiment mid-April, on June, bloom the middle ten days, mid-August to mid-September, fruit started maturation, the middle ten days late September to 10 fruit full maturity. according to preliminary observation, downy grape percentage of fertile fruit is 95%, and fruit bearing shoot ratio is 90%, has biennial fruiting phenomenon.
White downy grape (V.quinquangulavis Rehd)
White downy grape maintains the feature of downy grape substantially. and tender tip yellow green, has extremely close rust or canescence spider's thread shape fine hair, and young sprout maturation is puce afterwards, spire celadon.Avette or the oblong of leaf, long 13.5cm, wide 11cm, alternate arrangement on branches and tendrils, thick in blade, leaf edge sawtooth is sharper, and blade face is level and smooth, glossy.Tendril is intermittent, is bifurcated.Male and female are same
Strain.Fruit ear and is born in the 2 one climing l2 joint of result, and 4.5, the average fruit ear of every fruit branch, can reach 8 fringes at most.Fruit ear is conical, the secondary fringe of many tools, spike length 13cm, wide 6cm, the heavy 85g of fringe.Fruit grain raw comparatively tight, and fruit grain is little, subsphaeroidal, average vertical footpath 10.0mm, transverse diameter 9.8mm, and average 100-grain weight 104.5g, size is comparatively neat, and maturity is consistent.Transparent and the coating white wax powder of white skin, this is one of key character being different from downy grape.Seed l mono-4 is common with 2.Rudiment mid-April of white downy grape, in 6 months, sentence is bloomed, early September fruit start maturation, 1 O month early and middle ten days is complete or ripe, under identical conditions more late-maturing than downy grape about 10 days.Percentage of fertile fruit is about 9O%, and fruit bearing shoot ratio can reach more than 9O%.White downy grape wide adaptability, better resistance is by force important biological property with disease resistance especially.
Vitis davidii Foex (Vitis davidii var. davidii)
Vitis davidii Foex is a mutation under Vitaceae Vitis.Vitaceae woody climber.Long 5 ~ 6 m, sprig is by prickle, and long 2 ~ 4 mm of thorn, without hair.Tendril 2 pitches 1 branch.Leaf egg shape is oval, long 5 ~ 15 cm, tip tail point, and base portion is heart-shaped, and edge does not divide or micro-3 shallowly to split, the shallow tooth of tool.Two sides is without hair, and base goes out arteries and veins 5, and net veinclearing shows.Spend 5 numbers, panicle and leaf, to life, grow 7 ~ 24 cm, long 1 ~ 2.5 cm of peduncle.Calyx dish, irregular 5 shallowly split.The bonding of petal hat shape comes off.Ovary is conical, and berry is spherical, footpath 1.1 ~ 2.5 cm, aubergine after ripe.4 ~ June of florescence, really 7 ~ August of phase.Produce the Qinling Mountains, Funiu Shan Mountain and on the south autonomous regions and municipalities.Vitis davidii Foex fruit in the middle of amur grape is maximum, is the valuable materials of vertical greening and Grape Breeding.This kind of sprig, without hair, has prickle, is different from this very well and belongs to other kinds.Adapt to the condition of high temperature and humidity, and there is certain resistant to diseases and insects; Root hyoscine, can control bones and tendons injury pain.
East China grape (Vitis pseudoreticulata W. T. Wang)
Woody climber.Sprig is cylindrical, and have significantly vertical rib, spray is dredged by spider's thread shape fine hair, comes off near without hair later.Tendril 2 pitches branch, breaks with leaf to life every 2 internodes.Leaf oval or kidney shape oval, long 6-13 centimetre, wide 5-11 centimetre, the anxious point in top or short gradually point, rare circle, base portion is heart-shaped, base is scarce is recessed into circle or obtuse angle, every lateral edges 16-25 sawtooth, and increment is sharp-pointed, micro-irregular, green above, dredge by spider's thread shape fine hair at the beginning, come off without hair later, dredge by spider's thread shape fine hair at the beginning below, come off later; The raw arteries and veins 5 of base goes out, and middle arteries and veins has lateral vein 3-5 couple, below along lateral vein by white pubescence, net arteries and veins is obvious below; The long 3-6 centimetre of petiole, at the beginning by spider-like velvet hair, comes off later, and has pubescence; Stipule is caducous.Panicle is evacuated, and with leaf to life, base portion branch is flourishing, the different strain of polygamy, long 5-11 centimetre, dredges by spider's thread shape fine hair, comes off later; The long 1-1.5 millimeter of bennet, without hair; Bud falls oval, high 2-2.5 millimeter, and top is circular; Calyx dish, calyx tooth is not obvious, without hair; Petal 5, bonds in hat shape and comes off; Stamen 5, filigree is thread, is about 1 millimeter, and flower pesticide is yellow, oval, is about 0.2 millimeter, wide about 0.1 millimeter, the significantly short and abortion of stamen in female flower; Floral disc is flourishing; Gynoecium 1, ovary taper, the not obvious expansion of style.Atropurpureus during fruit maturation, diameter 0.8-1 centimetre; Seed falls oval, top nick, and base portion has short beak, and hilum is ovalize in the middle part of the seed back side, rib ridge micro-protuberance in the outside of belly, and hollow cave, both sides is narrow in bar shaped, upwards reaches seed top 1/3 place.The florescence 4-6 month, the fruit phase 6-10 month.
Gland branch grape (V.adenodada Hand-Mazz)
Tender tip celadon, has atropurpureus glandular hairs. spire front aubergine, back side canescence, close raw fine hair.Blade is heart-shaped, and long 9cm, wide 8cm, leaf appearance is open and flat, middle uniform thickness, and edge has more uniform wavy sawtooth, does not divide.The long 3cm of petiole, ripe blade face is light green smooth, and blade back is close by white fluff.Annual complicated and confused brown, long 6 one 7cm of internode, spinosity spot.Tendril bifurcated, intermittent raw.Dioecism, inflorescence is conical, less.Gland branch grape fruit bearing habit is between downy grape and Vitis davidii Foex, and the thing marquis phase is similar to Vitis davidii Foex.This kind of growth potential is strong, grows in the shrub of hillside more.
Autumn grape (V.romanetii Roman)
Sprout purple, close by fine hair and glandular hairs.Spire front is purple green, the purple white in the back side; Become blade in age thick heart, long 9 one 25 cm, wide 8 one l4cm, leaf and light green color, blade back tool grey gland bristle, obviously, pole is not open and flat, mesophyll projection between vein for leaf margin skirt wrinkle, and leaf is not obvious three to split, and sawtooth is uneven triangle.Close look pubescence and the long firm glandular hairs of getting rusty of petiole, long 9 one l2cm.Tendril tool bifurcated, minority three bifurcated, intermittent raw.Dioecism, panicle.Fruit grain is little, spherical, and diameter is about l0 mm, pericarp atropurpureus, fruit edible or brewed fruit wine.Autumn grape is grown on low hillside shrub therefrom or limit, gully more, with in the majority in the shrub of height above sea level 800 below m.
Net arteries and veins grape (V.wilsonae Veitch)
Children is climing closely cylindrical, adularescent spider's thread shape fine hair.Leaf is heart-shaped, long 8 one l5cm, and wide 5 one l0cm, do not divide usually, and sometimes for not obvious three shallowly split, leaf tow sides are often had white powder.Long 4 one 7cm of petiole.Tendril bifurcated, intermittent raw.Dioecism, inflorescence is conical, long 8 one 15cm.Fruit is little, spherical, and diameter is 7 one l8mm, and pericarp is black-and-blue and had white powder.Net arteries and veins grape growth is in the shrub of hillside.
Compound leaf grape (V. Piqsezkii Maxim)
Sprout and petiole are had brown pubescence.Blade mostly is oval, long 4 one 9cm, the prominent point in top, and base portion is felt relieved shape, shallowly to split, drastic crack or totally cleave, and limb edge has rough sawn tooth, and leaf table is without hair, and leaf back has yellowish-brown fine hair.The long 4 one 9cm. panicles of petiole, 5 one 10cm.Fruit is spherical, and diameter is l0mm, pericarp pitchy.Compound leaf grape often grows in hillside or cheuch.
Pueraria lobota Bud grape (V.flexuosa Thunb)
Branches and tendrils are elongated, and sprout is by brown or greyish white leaf bag fine hair, aging complicated and confused without hair, annual complicated and confused grey, long 7 one 8 cm of internode.Leaf light violet magenta, leaf width egg shape or triangular shape avette, leaf long 3.5 1 l1cm, wide 2.5 1 9.5cm, leaf appearance is open and flat, and blade is thin, and leaf margin has the wavy sawtooth do not waited, and blade face is dense, glossy without hair, and blade back is slightly by fine hair, and master pulse and lateral vein have pubescence.Long 3 one 6cm of petiole, have canescence spider's thread shape fine hair.Dioecism, panicle, long 6 one l2cm of inflorescence, fruit ear polycylindser shape, fruit grain raw extremely pine, and fruit is spherical, diameter 6 one 8mm, and early September is ripe, pericarp atropurpureus.In Pueraria lobota Bud grape is grown on mountain region shrub more.
Southeast grape (V.chunganensis Hu).
The climing subcircular of sprout, without hair, reddish violet. tendril and leaf are to life.Leaf heart shape, some thin-and-longs, long 9 one l9cm, wide 4 one l2.5cm, the micro-point in leaf top, leaf edge sawtooth is little and rare, and blade back is close by white powder, and lateral vein 5-6 is right, and the network of vein is not obvious.Long 2.5 1 6.5cm of petiole.Inflorescence is conical, is about 10cm.Fruit is spherical, and diameter 10 walks slowly like a woman, pericarp mulberry.In being born in hillside shrub this kind more.
Fruitlet bryony (V.balanseana Planch)
Sprout and petiole adularescent spider's thread shape fine hair, with blade aging, fine hair comes off gradually.Tendril and leaf are to life.The food value of leaf is comparatively hard, and oval shape is heart-shaped, and top is gradually sharp, and blade back is without white powder, and leaf long 3.5 1 l0cm, wide 3 one 9cm, vein swells, and the network of vein is obviously the key character of difference southeast grape and fruitlet bryony.Long 2.5 1 6cm of petiole.Inflorescence is conical, and long 5.5 1 l3cm, with leaf to life.Fruit is subsphaeroidal, and diameter is 4 one 6mm, pericarp navy blue.Fruitlet bryony is grown in the spinney of mountain region more.
As everyone knows, grape belongs to sexual propagation, and that is, each individual plant obtained by hybridization is the unique combination from maternal and male parent gene.Spending of grape may be female flower, male flower or hermaphrodite flower.It is first-selected for having hermaphrodite flower grape individual plant in cultivation, because they can self-pollination, each strain grape can be solid, and if unisexual flower just can not get fruit without fertilization.At present, most cultivar is hermaphrodite flower kind.
Cultivar and most amur grape kinds of minority are female plants, the flower of these plant has complete ovary, column cap and ventricle, but lack complete male portion, the pollen that these pollen sac produce is generally sterile, support that the filigree of pollen sac is often very short, be bent downwardly away from ovary, such kind will obtain fruit must nearby field planting staminiferous plant or hermaphrodite flower plant.Because staminiferous plant can not result, they can not be used for economy agricultural, although be used as stock a little, the flower of these plant comprises functional pollen sac, but only there is a little rudimentary ovary at the center of flower and does not have column cap and ventricle, the breeding of these grapes is that the pollen of other plant by being come by wind completes fertilization, finds that many amur grapes are staminiferous plants in North America and Asia.Provenance is done in strain.
The amur grape in Guangxi, its pericarp, pulp and seed are rich in anticancer, anti-cardiovascular disease material, be together acknowledged as brewage senior wild red optimum feed stock vinous with Jilin wild grape, the wild Vitis davidii Foex in Hunan.The sixties in last century five, Guangxi Luo Cheng, all pacify, the ground wild red wine industry such as Yongfu starts to rise, the hill wine not only unique flavor brewageed with amur grape berry, also has health care concurrently, quite favor by market, amur grape wine-making industry is grown gradually becomes local pillar industry.But along with the development of wine-making industry and the continuous lifting of Guangxi amur grape wine brand recognition, the demand of amur grape fresh fruit also thereupon " when the river rises the boat goes up ", causes amur grape raw material supply to reduce gradually.At present, the amur grape fresh fruit annual requirement of Guangxi wine production enterprise reaches more than 20,000 tons, and the supply of raw material does not also reach the half of demand, and breach is very large, directly has influence on the benefit of liquor-making enterprise and the development of local economy.
Although there is abundant amur grape resource in Guangxi, but be all dioecious amur grape kind substantially, pollen transmission mainly with wind, insect for medium, due to amur grape flowering stage at a time when rainy weather, have impact on amur grape pollination and ripening rate, annual production fluctuation is larger.And staminiferous plant amur grape is only pollinated not result, and orchard worker cannot distinguish amur grape male and female plant again, so all will waste the cultivated area of 10%-15% every year, these kind factors affect are to the planting benefit of amur grape.
Summary of the invention
The present invention plants existing problem to overcome above-mentioned amur grape, provides a kind of implantation methods of amur grape of high-yield and high-efficiency.
The technical solution adopted in the present invention is:
The implantation methods of amur grape:
A, nursery, in order to the quality of the survival rate and nursery stock that improve nursery stock, select suitable cutting medium extremely important, the place that nursery should be selected in that physical features is smooth, soil layer is deep, the soil is porous is fertile, have irrigation conditions simultaneously, after plow harrow, mu is executed well-rotted farmyard manure 1500 kilograms and is made base manure, then plays furrow, furrow face width is pressed mulch film width and determines, general 60 ~ 120 centimetres;
B, cuttage, cuttage is carried out in collection life in 2 years in the winter time, the amur grape branch that eye is full, branch enriches, internode is shorter, branch is cut into respectively the cutting of 2 ~ 3 buds, cutting is long 20 cm generally, before cuttage, first root process is urged to cutting, so both can accelerate seedling and can also improve cutting planting percent, way utilizes plant growth regulator for root-growing agent, soak cutting base portion, plant growth regulator can adopt: No. 2, ABT root-inducing powder, indolebutyric acid, methyl α-naphthyl acetate, heteroauxin etc., with powerful root-growing agent best results;
C, plantation, generally carry out in the winter time, choose viticulture kind (wild staminiferous plant or tame staminiferous plant grape variety) and the plantation of amur grape intersection of staminiferous plant, (improved seeds also can be selected as pollination strain, such as kyoto grape, the sub-grape of Xinjiang mare's milk, local sour grapes or other kinds carry out hybridization of pollinating) and gather staminiferous plant cutting in female, the male ratio than 15:1, line-spacing 25 centimetres is pressed during cuttage, spacing in the rows 10 centimetres, cutting is directly inserted on the seedbed of plastic mulching, terminal bud exposes on mulch film, and scion and soil contiguity are not interspaced;
D, fertilising, amur grape is owing to having resistance to lean, drought-enduring characteristic, thus can simplify in clay fertilizer water management program, annual fertilising 2 times, first time uses 45% composite fertilizer 20 ~ 40 kilograms young fruit expanding stage every mu, second time mu organic fertilizer 500 ~ 1000kg after gathering, 20 ~ 40 kilograms, tripping fused calcium magnesium phosphate, purity nitrogen 5 kilograms, 10 kilograms, potash fertilizer;
E, training, after Survival rate of nursery stock, only stay a young sprout, other lateral buds and sublateral shoot are all erased, the pinching when seedling grows to 30 ~ 40 centimetres, promote the aging and lignification of young sprout, bud picking, determining the tip can in conjunction with carrying out, the rudiment on annual mother is climing, to select and remain strong main bud depending on position, frame face, erase all accessory buds, for many years breeder mother climing on rudiment, except for upgrade and short covering except, erase without exception, when rudiment grows up to young sprout 10 ~ 15cm, determine the tip depending on inflorescence situation and the direction of growth, every square metre is stayed 10 ~ 12, the tip;
F, the extermination of disease and insect pest, amur grape is except slightly weak to resistances such as downy mildew, powdery mildew, cob diseases, the disease resistance stronger to the performance of other damage by disease and insect, the damage by disease and insect of amur grape to put prevention first, should notice that soil insect is caused harm early stage, later stage arrived with rainy season, various disease also happens occasionally, generally at premorbid, every about 7 days spray 1 equivalent or 200 times of bordeaux mixture, when falling ill heavier, spray 50% Tuzet, 500 times of liquid;
G, to pluck in batches, flower and fruit management is the core key technology in cultivation, the flower and fruit thinning of grape is also very important, amur grape Post flowering will carry out flower thinning management, florescence cut 1/1 to four/5th fringe point, all cut secondary fringe, remove unnecessary colored fringe, about generally staying 2500-3000 fringe according to predetermined output.Fruit thinning is exactly by unnecessary fruit, malformed fruit, and peripheral fruit is cut.After cuttings of wild grapes general 2 ~ 3 years can result, per mu yield can reach 2000 ~ 3000 jin, and fruit ear has 90% fruit grain purpling black, during the intrinsic color and luster of performance kind. can pluck in batches.
Preferably, adopt flat shed frame type to plant, frame identity distance ground level 1.7 ~ 2.3 meters, flat canopy column can use concrete column, rod, bamboo pole or stone material, in order to reduce costs, also can use by mix and match.Post, apart from 3 ~ 6 meters, is connected with 8 ~ l0 iron wire or bamboo pole in length and breadth.The materials such as frame face l0 ~ l4 iron wire, plastic ties, bamboo wood are bundled into 0.5 ~ 0.7 meter of square loading end.After growth of cuttage seedlings, select healthy and strong young sprout, vertical pillar uprightly draws to tie up and is trained single trunk, pinching when trunk young sprout grows to more than 1.5 meters, and tip two sublateral shoots of selecting and remain cause on load frame face, both sides respectively does the climing cultivation of one-level master; When the climing tip of one-level master grows to 50 cm, inspire secondary sublateral shoot in 30 cm place pinching, two, top sublateral shoot of selecting and remain does the climing cultivation of secondary master; When the climing tip of secondary master grows to apart from trunk 2 ~ 4 m, then two, top sublateral shoot of selecting and remain respectively does three grades of climing cultivations of master, cultivates level Four master climing by same method.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
1, the implantation methods of amur grape of the present invention adopts flat shed frame type to plant, and improves grape commodity, premature ripening, increase yield, reduces spray medicine number of times etc., reduces about 8O% pruning and tie up manually climing, output increased about 2O% than hedge frame posture.
2, the implantation methods of amur grape of the present invention adopts the viticulture kind of staminiferous plant and amur grape to intersect plantation, all yields positive results every year, stable yield, solves amur grape and only to bloom the problem of not result or biennial fruiting.
3, the implantation methods of amur grape of the present invention is in conjunction with the natural characteristic of amur grape, and clay fertilizer water management is simple and easy, throws in agricultural chemicals less, has the advantages such as natural nuisance-free, cost are low, stable yield, high-yield and high-efficiency.
4, the implantation methods of amur grape of the present invention is by studying amur grape propagation technique, rational exploitation and utilization amur grape resource, shake off poverty and set out on the road to prosperity for Poor Mountainous Area and provide an approach, have good directive function to the technician of vast production line, the whole nation simultaneously.
Embodiment
The implantation methods of amur grape:
A, nursery, in order to the quality of the survival rate and nursery stock that improve nursery stock, select suitable cutting medium extremely important, the place that nursery should be selected in that physical features is smooth, soil layer is deep, the soil is porous is fertile, have irrigation conditions simultaneously, after plow harrow, mu is executed well-rotted farmyard manure 1500 kilograms and is made base manure, then plays furrow, furrow face width is pressed mulch film width and determines, general 60 ~ 120 centimetres;
B, cuttage, cuttage is carried out in collection life in 2 years in the winter time, the amur grape branch that eye is full, branch enriches, internode is shorter, branch is cut into respectively the cutting of 2 ~ 3 buds, cutting is long 20 cm generally, before cuttage, first root process is urged to cutting, so both can accelerate seedling and can also improve cutting planting percent, way utilizes plant growth regulator for root-growing agent, soak cutting base portion, plant growth regulator can adopt: No. 2, ABT root-inducing powder, indolebutyric acid, methyl α-naphthyl acetate, heteroauxin etc., with powerful root-growing agent best results;
C, plantation, generally carry out in the winter time, choose viticulture kind and the plantation of amur grape intersection of wild staminiferous plant or kyoto grape, and gather staminiferous plant cutting in female, the male ratio than 15:1, press line-spacing 25 centimetres during cuttage, spacing in the rows 10 centimetres, is directly inserted into cutting on the seedbed of plastic mulching, terminal bud exposes on mulch film, and scion and soil contiguity are not interspaced;
D, fertilising, amur grape is owing to having resistance to lean, drought-enduring characteristic, thus can simplify in clay fertilizer water management program, annual fertilising 2 times, first time uses 45% composite fertilizer 20 ~ 40 kilograms young fruit expanding stage every mu, second time mu organic fertilizer 500 ~ 1000kg after gathering, 20 ~ 40 kilograms, tripping fused calcium magnesium phosphate, purity nitrogen 5 kilograms, 10 kilograms, potash fertilizer;
E, training, after Survival rate of nursery stock, only stay a young sprout, other lateral buds and sublateral shoot are all erased, the pinching when seedling grows to 30 ~ 40 centimetres, promote the aging and lignification of young sprout, bud picking, determining the tip can in conjunction with carrying out, the rudiment on annual mother is climing, to select and remain strong main bud depending on position, frame face, erase all accessory buds, for many years breeder mother climing on rudiment, except for upgrade and short covering except, erase without exception, when rudiment grows up to young sprout 10 ~ 15cm, determine the tip depending on inflorescence situation and the direction of growth, every square metre is stayed 10 ~ 12, the tip;
F, the extermination of disease and insect pest, amur grape is except slightly weak to resistances such as downy mildew, powdery mildew, cob diseases, the disease resistance stronger to the performance of other damage by disease and insect, the damage by disease and insect of amur grape to put prevention first, should notice that soil insect is caused harm early stage, later stage arrived with rainy season, various disease also happens occasionally, generally at premorbid, every about 7 days spray 1 equivalent or 200 times of bordeaux mixture, when falling ill heavier, spray 50% Tuzet, 500 times of liquid;
G, to pluck in batches, flower and fruit management is the core key technology in cultivation, the flower and fruit thinning of grape is also very important, amur grape Post flowering will carry out flower thinning management, florescence cut 1/1 to four/5th fringe point, all cut secondary fringe, remove unnecessary colored fringe, about generally staying 2500-3000 fringe according to predetermined output.Fruit thinning is exactly by unnecessary fruit, malformed fruit, and peripheral fruit is cut.After cuttings of wild grapes general 2 ~ 3 years can result, per mu yield can reach 2000 ~ 3000 jin, and fruit ear has 90% fruit grain purpling black, during the intrinsic color and luster of performance kind. can pluck in batches.
Preferably, adopt flat shed frame type to plant, frame identity distance ground level 1.7 ~ 2.3 meters, flat canopy column can use concrete column, rod, bamboo pole or stone material, in order to reduce costs, also can use by mix and match.Post, apart from 3 ~ 6 meters, is connected with 8 ~ l0 iron wire or bamboo pole in length and breadth.The materials such as frame face l0 ~ l4 iron wire, plastic ties, bamboo wood are bundled into 0.5 ~ 0.7 meter of square loading end.After growth of cuttage seedlings, select healthy and strong young sprout, vertical pillar uprightly draws to tie up and is trained single trunk, pinching when trunk young sprout grows to more than 1.5 meters, and tip two sublateral shoots of selecting and remain cause on load frame face, both sides respectively does the climing cultivation of one-level master; When the climing tip of one-level master grows to 50 cm, inspire secondary sublateral shoot in 30 cm place pinching, two, top sublateral shoot of selecting and remain does the climing cultivation of secondary master; When the climing tip of secondary master grows to apart from trunk 2 ~ 4 m, then two, top sublateral shoot of selecting and remain respectively does three grades of climing cultivations of master, cultivates level Four master climing by same method.
Application implementation case 1:
The soil of Xincheng County, Guangxi, the plantation of benign climate amur grape, the plantation of wild wine grape is greatly developed in certain amur grape planting base, but the problems such as it exists on producing, and disease is serious, management is difficult, yield poorly, stable yields, kind (being) be not assorted, govern further developing of its amur grape industry, after adopting the implantation methods of amur grape of the present invention, simultaneously organizational technology personnel go deep into base and carry out technological guidance's service, teach the culture technique of amur grape to the masses.Add the very suitable amur grape growth of the weather of Xingye County, soil, plantation just obtains successfully then.Fruit grain is circular, size as little finger, and size is neat, and fruit ear is looked closely.Amur grape 10 mu, per mu yield about 3000 jin, produce wine to brewery, with the calculation of price of 3 yuan per jin, the gross output value reaches 100,000 yuan.
Application implementation case 2:
Luo Chengxian village, Guangxi family Lee, plant have 10 mu of ground amur grapes, be used to hill grow Guangxi special product wild Vitis quinquangularis always " wild nature is pure ", not being not result of only blooming, is exactly result, and fruit is also sparse, harvest extremely unstable.After adopting the implantation methods of amur grape of the present invention, through organizational technology personnel technological guidance, grasped the culture technique of amur grape, average yield per mu reaches 2326 jin, and the net income of these amur grapes is very considerable.Look at fruit heavy on grape trellis, Lee's plan multiple 10 mu of ground again.

Claims (2)

1. the implantation methods of amur grape, is characterized in that:
A, nursery, that nursery should be selected in that physical features is smooth, soil layer is deep, the soil is porous is fertile, the place that simultaneously has irrigation conditions, after plow harrow, mu is executed well-rotted farmyard manure 1500 kilograms and is made base manure, then play furrow, furrow face width is pressed mulch film width and determines, general 60 ~ 120 centimetres;
B, cuttage, cuttage is carried out in collection life in 2 years in the winter time, the amur grape branch that eye is full, branch enriches, internode is shorter, branch is cut into respectively the cutting of 2 ~ 3 buds, and cutting is long 20 cm generally;
C, plantation, choose viticulture kind and the plantation of amur grape intersection of staminiferous plant, and gather staminiferous plant cutting in female, the male ratio than 15:1;
D, fertilising, annual fertilising 2 times, first time uses 45% composite fertilizer 20 ~ 40 kilograms young fruit expanding stage every mu, second time mu organic fertilizer 500 ~ 1000kg after gathering, 20 ~ 40 kilograms, tripping fused calcium magnesium phosphate, purity nitrogen 5 kilograms, 10 kilograms, potash fertilizer;
E, training, after Survival rate of nursery stock, only stay a young sprout, other lateral buds and sublateral shoot are all erased, the pinching when seedling grows to 30 ~ 40 centimetres, promote young sprout aging and lignification;
F, the extermination of disease and insect pest, the damage by disease and insect of amur grape should to put prevention first, notice that soil insect is caused harm early stage, later stage arrived with rainy season, various disease also happens occasionally, generally at premorbid, every about 7 days spray 1 equivalent or 200 times of bordeaux mixture, when falling ill heavier, spray 50% Tuzet, 500 times of liquid;
G, to pluck in batches, general 2 ~ 3 years can result, per mu yield can reach 2000 ~ 3000 jin, and fruit ear has 90% fruit grain purpling black, during the intrinsic color and luster of performance kind, can pluck in batches.
2. amur grape implantation methods according to claim 1, be further characterized in that, flat shed frame type is adopted to plant, after growth of cuttage seedlings, select healthy and strong young sprout, vertical pillar uprightly draws to tie up and is trained single trunk, pinching when trunk young sprout grows to more than 1.5 meters, and tip two sublateral shoots of selecting and remain cause on load frame face, both sides respectively does the climing cultivation of one-level master; When the climing tip of one-level master grows to 50 cm, inspire secondary sublateral shoot in 30 cm place pinching, two, top sublateral shoot of selecting and remain does the climing cultivation of secondary master; When the climing tip of secondary master grows to apart from trunk 2 ~ 4 m, then two, top sublateral shoot of selecting and remain respectively does three grades of climing cultivations of master, cultivates level Four master climing by same method.
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CN106496648A (en) * 2016-10-28 2017-03-15 广西都安密洛陀野生葡萄酒有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of amur grape
CN106518523A (en) * 2016-10-28 2017-03-22 广西都安密洛陀野生葡萄酒有限公司 Planting method for reducing wild grape plant diseases and insect pests
CN106538342A (en) * 2016-10-28 2017-03-29 广西都安密洛陀野生葡萄酒有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of amur grape
CN106613722A (en) * 2016-12-01 2017-05-10 都安瑶族自治县技术开发中心 Vitis amurensis planting method
CN107114203A (en) * 2017-07-03 2017-09-01 合肥卓畅农业科技有限公司 A kind of grape planting process
CN108901581A (en) * 2018-08-31 2018-11-30 北京三润泰克国际农业科技有限公司 A kind of grape pot and its breeding method

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