CN104848585B - Light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system - Google Patents

Light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104848585B
CN104848585B CN201510281892.1A CN201510281892A CN104848585B CN 104848585 B CN104848585 B CN 104848585B CN 201510281892 A CN201510281892 A CN 201510281892A CN 104848585 B CN104848585 B CN 104848585B
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heat
energy
photovoltaic panel
heat pump
light
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CN104848585A (en
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杨立楠
张晓坤
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Changchun Shenghuo Science And Technology Development Co ltd
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Changchun Shenghuo Science And Technology Development Co ltd
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B30/00Heat pumps
    • F25B30/06Heat pumps characterised by the source of low potential heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B49/00Arrangement or mounting of control or safety devices
    • F25B49/02Arrangement or mounting of control or safety devices for compression type machines, plant or systems
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02SGENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER BY CONVERSION OF INFRA-RED RADIATION, VISIBLE LIGHT OR ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, e.g. USING PHOTOVOLTAIC [PV] MODULES
    • H02S10/00PV power plants; Combinations of PV energy systems with other systems for the generation of electric power
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2313/00Compression machines, plant, or systems with reversible cycle not otherwise provided for
    • F25B2313/002Compression machines, plant, or systems with reversible cycle not otherwise provided for geothermal
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy

Abstract

The invention provides a light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system, which comprises a power grid, an on-grid ammeter, an alternating current box, an inverter, a direct current box, an off-grid ammeter, a fan, a photovoltaic panel, a heat exchanger, a ground source or water source well, a heat pump, an intelligent control system and a terminal, wherein the power grid is connected with the on-grid ammeter; fill and annotate R290 as cycle fluid, regard as the power supply of cycle fluid through the circulating pump. The light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system provided by the invention realizes the compound conversion of light energy-electric energy, light energy-heat energy, wind energy-electric energy-heat energy and geothermal energy, and forms multi-energy source complementation and comprehensive utilization.

Description

Light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of complementary energy supply of light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy, and particularly relates to a complementary heat pump system of light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy.
Background
The energy source is a foundation stone existing and developing in the modern society. With the continuous development of the global economic society, the energy consumption is also continuously increased correspondingly. Over time, the scarcity of fossil energy sources has become more prominent, and this scarcity has also gradually reflected in the prices of energy commodities. Under the background of the increasing shortage of fossil energy supply, the large-scale development and utilization of renewable energy have become an important part of energy strategies in various countries.
The traditional energy supply modes of fire coal, fuel oil, fuel gas and the like have the technical problems of high operation cost, high pollution, low safety and limited service life. The new energy is utilized to supply heat in several forms including photovoltaic panels, geothermal energy heat pumps (including ground source heat pumps and water source heat pumps), light-heat pumps, wind-light heat pumps and the like. The single-form energy supply of novel clean energy such as light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy has the defects of large fluctuation, poor stability, low utilization rate of an energy supply terminal and the like.
Solar applications include photovoltaic power generation, including photovoltaic power stations and distributed generation, and photovoltaic heating; the photovoltaic heating comprises a solar water heater, a vacuum tube type heat collector, a plate type heat collector and the like. The heat supply mode has the advantages that the heat supply mode belongs to clean energy and the reserves are nearly infinite, and the defects that the illumination time and intensity change is greatly changed due to the change of the solar angle and the change of the geographic conditions, so that the stability is poor, the fluctuation is high, the application condition requirement is high, and the conversion efficiency is greatly influenced by the environment.
The ground source heat pump is a heating and air conditioning system which utilizes the terrestrial heat resources (usually less than 400 meters deep) on the superficial layer of the earth as cold and heat sources to convert energy. The surface shallow geothermal resource can be called Earth Energy (Earth Energy), and the Earth surface soil, underground water or river and lake geothermal heat pump is a high-efficiency Energy-saving air conditioning equipment which can supply heat and refrigerate by utilizing the shallow geothermal resource.
The ground source heat pump is used for extracting heat in soil as a low-level heat source in a heating season, extracting the heat into a high-level heat source through the heat pump and then heating the room through the heat exchanger; the heat in the underground water is extracted in summer to be used as a low-level heat source, heat exchange is carried out between the heat pump system and indoor air to supply indoor refrigeration, meanwhile, the heat taken away from the underground in the heating season is supplemented, and underground energy balance is guaranteed. The method has the advantages that clean underground energy is utilized to the maximum extent, no pollution is caused to the environment, the energy is saved by more than 30 percent compared with the traditional heat supply, the full-automatic operation is realized, and the operation and maintenance cost is low; the disadvantages are high requirement of construction condition and large one-time investment.
The water source heat pump utilizes low-temperature heat energy stored in shallow water sources (generally within 1000 m) on the earth surface, such as underground water, rivers on the earth surface, lakes and oceans, for absorbing solar energy and geothermal energy. The water source is short for the shallow water source on the earth surface. The temperature of the water source is generally quite stable. The working principle of the water source heat pump technology is as follows: the low-temperature heat energy is transferred to the high-temperature position by inputting a small amount of high-grade energy (such as electric energy). The water body is respectively used as a heat source for heating by the heat pump in winter and a cold source for an air conditioner in summer, namely, the heat in the building is taken out in summer and released into the water body, and the heat can be efficiently taken away due to the low temperature of the water source so as to achieve the purpose of indoor refrigeration of the building in summer; in winter, heat energy is extracted from water source by the water source heat pump unit and is sent to the building for heating.
The light-heat pump technology is a comprehensive light-heat and geothermal energy heat pump technology, adopts heat energy generated by a vacuum tube type/plate type heat collector as one of system heat sources, and supplies heat in a complementary manner with a low-level heat source of geothermal energy, thereby realizing energy conservation and consumption reduction. The system has the advantages that the double energy sources are complementary, the installed power and the well drilling number of the single geothermal energy heat pump are reduced, and the energy conservation and the consumption reduction are realized; the main defects of the method are that the fluctuation of light-heat conversion is large, the heat pump is driven by grid connection electricity taking, and the comprehensive utilization rate is high.
The wind-light heat pump technology is a new technology developed based on wind-electricity and light-heat technology, and mainly adopts the light-heat technology to collect heat, store the heat in a heat storage water tank, and then heat is supplied to the room through heat exchange of a circulating system. The wind-electricity technology is applied to converting wind energy into electric energy under the condition of no illumination, converting the electric energy into heat energy to collect heat, and supplementing the light-heat conversion. The method has the advantages that the introduction of the wind-electricity technology solves the disadvantage of no light-heat conversion under the condition of no illumination to a certain extent; the solar water heater has the defects of single heating, poor effect under the continuous non-illumination condition, need of power supply supplement of a power grid, higher power consumption, higher volatility and general stability.
Heretofore, there have been only heat pump systems that integrate two sources of light energy and wind energy. And a heat pump system integrating three sources of light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy is not provided.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems in the prior art, the invention provides a heat pump system with complementation of light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy. The invention provides a heat pump system with complementary light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy, which is a heat pump system integrating three sources into one. The geothermal energy of the invention comprises low-temperature-level thermal energy of geothermal energy and surface shallow water source, which is called water source for short. The three sources of the invention refer to light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy; the three-source-in-one means that light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy are organically combined together for comprehensive utilization. The invention provides a light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system, which effectively solves the technical difficulties of large temperature difference in alpine environment, uneven sunshine all year round, high heat loss, low conversion efficiency, large construction difficulty and the like, has composite property and multiple functions, and is an important direction for the heat supply development of new energy.
The invention provides a light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system, which comprises a power grid, an on-grid ammeter, an alternating current box, an inverter, a direct current box, an off-grid ammeter, a fan, a photovoltaic panel, a heat exchanger, a ground source or water source well, a heat pump, an intelligent control system and a terminal, wherein the power grid is connected with the on-grid ammeter; the fan and the photovoltaic panel are connected with the direct current box, the direct current box is sequentially connected with the inverter, the alternating current box and the internet electric meter, the internet electric meter is connected with the power grid, the off-grid electric meter is respectively connected with the power grid, the heat exchanger, the heat pump and the intelligent control system, the fan is respectively connected with the photovoltaic panel and the intelligent control system, the photovoltaic panel is respectively connected with the heat exchanger and the intelligent control system, the heat exchanger is connected with the ground source or water source well and the intelligent control system, and the terminal is respectively connected with the heat pump and the intelligent control system; the heat pump is connected with the intelligent control system; the terminal is a user, the number of the users is Ni, and i is a positive integer equal to or larger than 1; the heat pump system is filled with R290 as a circulating working medium, and the circulation of the working medium in the circulating pipeline is all used as a power source through a circulating pump;
the photovoltaic panel consists of unidirectional self-cleaning glass, first high borosilicate ultra-permeable unidirectional filter membrane glass, second high borosilicate ultra-permeable unidirectional filter membrane glass, a battery piece, a first lead heat-conducting piece, a fluid guide pipe, a second lead heat-conducting piece, a nano carbon fiber heating layer, a heat-insulating layer and a bottom plate which are connected in sequence; the fluid conduit is a carbon nano tube or a spiral copper tube;
after sunlight is incident to the photovoltaic panel, the sunlight passes through the first high borosilicate ultra-permeable one-way filter membrane glass, the second high borosilicate ultra-permeable one-way filter membrane glass and the cell piece through the one-way self-cleaning glass to perform photo-electric conversion power generation; at the moment, a certain amount of light is respectively reflected to the one-way self-cleaning glass and the first high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass by the first high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass and the second high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass; downloading electric energy from a power grid, and supplying the electric energy to relevant devices in the system after the electric energy is measured by a power meter of the power grid;
all incident light is removed from light of a specific wave band in the photoelectric conversion, and light of other wave bands penetrates through the battery piece and enters the lead heat conducting sheet to be subjected to light-heat conversion into heat; the first lead thermally conductive sheet transfers the photo-thermally converted heat to the fluid conduit;
direct current generated by the fan through wind-electricity conversion is integrated into an inverter through a direct current box and converted into alternating current, the alternating current enters an alternating current box to be boosted, and the on-line electricity is metered through an on-line electricity meter to supply power to a power grid; on the other hand, the fan is also connected with the carbon nanofiber heating layer in the photovoltaic panel, the carbon nanofiber heating layer in the photovoltaic panel is driven to generate heat by direct current generated by wind-electricity conversion of the fan, the heat is transferred to the fluid conduit after being absorbed by the second lead heat-conducting strip, and then the fluid conduit enters the heat exchanger as a low-level heat source of the heat pump for use by a system;
the fluid conduit sends all the transferred heat to the heat exchanger and then supplies the heat pump as a low-level heat source; meanwhile, the fluid conduit takes away heat and can cool the cell in the photovoltaic panel at a relatively constant temperature so as to ensure the temperature of the cell with the optimal power generation efficiency; the temperature of the cell sheet at which the optimum power generation efficiency is achieved is preferably 28 ℃.
The photovoltaic panel is formed by two layers of high borosilicate ultra-permeable one-way filter membrane glass, namely the first high borosilicate ultra-permeable one-way filter membrane glass and the second high borosilicate ultra-permeable one-way filter membrane glass, and is the result of scientific experiments.
Through comparative tests on different structures of the photovoltaic panel disclosed by the invention: the photovoltaic plate is of a single-layer high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass structure, or two-layer high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass structure, or one-layer high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass structure, the rest structures are the same, the photovoltaic plate is placed outdoors at the same place, and the photovoltaic plate is of two-layer high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass structure after measurement at the same time, so that the light-heat absorption and conversion heat energy effect is the best. The mechanism thereof has yet to be further studied.
In addition, compared with the common photovoltaic panel, the photovoltaic panel has the structure difference that: the top layer of the common photovoltaic panel is only provided with a layer of glass, and the glass is self-cleaning glass or anti-reflection glass; a layer of EVA-ethylene-vinyl acetate polymer is used for increasing water resistance and corrosion resistance; a layer of battery plate; a layer of a TPT backsheet protective material; a floor.
The invention is a heat pump system with complementation of light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy. The photovoltaic panel of the invention also carries out light-heat conversion and absorption while generating electricity by light-electricity conversion, namely, the maximum power generation amount is obtained under the condition of ensuring the optimal power generation temperature of the photovoltaic panel, and simultaneously the residual heat generated by power generation and the light-heat conversion directly absorb the light energy with the frequency without light-electricity conversion are converted into heat energy which is gathered to be used as the low-level heat source of the system. Therefore, the photovoltaic panel of the present invention requires high efficiency of light-electricity conversion power generation as well as high efficiency of light-heat conversion heat generation.
Direct current generated by the fan through wind-electricity conversion is integrated into an inverter through a direct current box and converted into alternating current, the alternating current enters an alternating current box to be boosted, and the on-line electricity is metered through an on-line electricity meter to supply power to a power grid; on the other hand, as mentioned above, the fan is further connected to the carbon nanofiber heating layer in the photovoltaic panel, the carbon nanofiber heating layer in the photovoltaic panel is driven to generate heat by direct current generated by wind-electricity conversion of the fan, and the heat is transferred to the fluid conduit after being absorbed by the lead heat-conducting sheet, and then enters the heat exchanger as a low-level heat source of the system for use by the system.
The heat pump comprises an evaporator, a reversing valve, a compressor, a throttling device and a condenser; the evaporator is sequentially connected with the reversing valve, the condenser and the throttling device, the throttling device is connected with the evaporator, and the compressor is connected with the reversing valve; the heat exchanger is connected with the compressor;
heat is extracted from a ground source or a water source well, enters a heat exchanger through a circulating pipeline, and enters the heat exchanger together with waste heat generated when a battery piece in a photovoltaic plate is subjected to light-electricity conversion power generation, heat generated by the photovoltaic plate directly subjected to light-heat conversion absorption, and heat generated by a carbon nanofiber heating layer in a direct current driven photovoltaic plate generated by wind-electricity conversion of a fan as a low-level heat source of a heat pump;
when the air conditioner cools in summer, the high pressure steam exhausted from the compressor enters the condenser via the change valve to be condensed into liquid, enters the evaporator via the throttle unit, absorbs heat in the evaporator to cool indoor air, and the evaporated refrigerant steam is sucked via the change valve to the compressor for further cooling.
When the terminal refrigerates, the heat generated by heat exchange enters the heat exchanger through the circulating pipeline and is used as heat extracted from a ground source or a water source well during supplying domestic hot water and supplementing heating seasons together with the generated heat. On one hand, the balance of energy balance of a ground source or a water source well is ensured, and on the other hand, the optimal power generation efficiency and temperature of the battery piece in the photovoltaic panel are ensured while the domestic hot water is supplied.
When heating in winter, the reversing valve is turned to a heating working position, so that high-pressure high-temperature steam discharged by the compressor flows into an indoor evaporator (serving as a condenser) after passing through the reversing valve, latent heat discharged during high-pressure high-temperature condensation heats indoor air to achieve the purpose of indoor heating, condensed liquid flows through a throttling device reversely to enter the condenser (serving as the evaporator) to absorb external heat to evaporate, and the evaporated steam is sucked by the compressor after passing through the reversing valve to complete a heating cycle. In this way, the heat from the outside is "pumped" into a room having a high temperature, and is therefore referred to as a "heat pump".
The heat exchanger has three technical functions: 1) in the heating season, the heat generated by the photovoltaic panel and the heat of the ground source or the water source well are integrated to be used as a low-level heat source of an evaporator of the heat pump, and the heat pump supplies indoor heating and domestic hot water to the terminal; 2) in the transition season, the regulation and control system obtains heat or does not obtain heat from a ground source or a water source well through system presetting, and the heat obtained from the ground source or the water source well and the heat generated by the photovoltaic panel are directly used as a low-level heat source, or the heat generated by the photovoltaic panel is directly used as the low-level heat source of the heat pump; the heat pump supplies energy to the indoor of the terminal; 3) in the cooling season, the heat exchanger is used for realizing heat exchange with a ground source or a water source well besides utilizing the photovoltaic plate to generate heat for supplying domestic hot water, so that the balance of the geothermal sources is achieved, namely the geothermal sources store heat in summer.
Further, the following techniques may also be employed: the photovoltaic panel frame is internally provided with a light intensity analysis controller, and a light sensitive probe (sensor) of the light intensity analysis controller is connected with a computer of an intelligent control system through a data line and is used for changing the orientation of the photovoltaic panel to ensure that the photovoltaic panel is vertical to direct solar light, so that the power generation efficiency can be improved, but the construction cost is higher.
Due to differences of regions and climates, sunlight is often unstable, the temperature of a cell of the photovoltaic panel is regulated to be constant through monitoring projected light by the light intensity analyzer, and wind, light and heat complementation of a primary heat source is realized.
The photovoltaic panel frame is internally provided with a first temperature analysis controller for the battery piece, the temperature of the battery piece is monitored, the temperature information is transmitted to the intelligent control system through a wire, and whether the heat exchanger exchanges heat with the photovoltaic panel or not is controlled through monitoring the real-time temperature of the battery piece, so that the optimal power generation efficiency temperature of the battery piece of the photovoltaic panel is ensured.
The terminal is provided with a second temperature analysis controller, actual temperature information of all monitored subunits of the terminal is transmitted to the intelligent control system, comparison and analysis are carried out according to preset information, the opening or closing of energy supply valves of the subunits of the terminal is controlled according to an analysis result, and meanwhile, the variable-frequency operation of the heat pump (11) is controlled according to the percentage of the opening and closing quantity of the valves of all subunits of the terminal (13) in the total quantity of the valves, so that the energy-saving efficiency of the heat pump is guaranteed.
The intelligent control system is a computer in which the software of the heat pump system is stored and operated. The software flow chart is shown in fig. 3. The details are described in example 1.
And testing and calculating, namely evaluating the comprehensive conversion efficiency of solar energy photoelectricity, photo-thermal, wind-thermal and ground source heat of the system by utilizing a second law of thermodynamics. Starting from the second law of thermodynamics, solar energy: solar radiation is clearly distinguishable from the theoretically available energy of solar radiation by including both direct and diffuse radiation. For simplicity, solar radiation conversion efficiency is still usually calculated as carnot efficiency, taking the solar surface temperature as 5777K.
The second law of thermodynamics is expressed as:
in the formula, WPV-photovoltaic output power, W;i-received radiation intensity, W/m2When the current is over; a-area of photovoltaic cell, m2; Ta-ambient temperature, deg.c.
The solar photoelectric conversion efficiency is as follows:
in the formula, Qc-heat pump condensing power, W; qCOM-compressor power, W; t isw-thermal energy output temperature, deg.c.
The solar photoelectric/photothermal comprehensive efficiency is as follows:
ηpv/t,2nd=ηpvpt,2nd (3)
condensing power QcThe water flow rate and the water temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet are measured to obtain the following results:
QC=mc(Tout-Tin) (4)
in the formula, m is the circulating water flow, kg/s; c-water heat capacity, J/(kg. DEG C.);
Tout-circulating water inlet temperature, deg.c; t isinThe outlet water temperature of the circulating water at DEG C.
The coefficient of performance COP of the system is expressed as follows:
the coefficient of performance COP of the system is expressed as follows:
the heat pump cycle compression ratio is defined as follows:
in the formula, Pcom-out-a compressorPa; pcom-in-inlet pressure of the compressor, Pa.
The light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system provided by the invention realizes that the energy efficiency value of the heat pump is between 6 and 8, and cop is more than or equal to 7.
The complementary heat pump system of light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy provided by the invention has the beneficial effects that the light energy, the wind energy and the geothermal energy are organically combined together to form a heat pump system of three sources in one. (1) Converting the received solar energy into electric energy and outputting the electric energy; (2) meanwhile, the heat energy and the solar energy generated during the power generation of the photovoltaic module are converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the circulating working medium flowing through the generator; (3) the circulating working medium and a low-level heat source in a ground source or water source well are subjected to heat exchange through a heat exchanger or directly used as the low-level heat source for a heat pump system, so that the photovoltaic panel can maintain relatively stable working temperature, the optimal power generation temperature of the photovoltaic panel is maintained, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic panel is improved; (4) after absorbing heat, the circulating working medium exchanges heat with a low-level heat source in a ground source or a water source well through a heat exchanger or directly serves as a low-level heat source to be used by a heat pump system, enters a compressor, and enters a condenser in a high-temperature and high-pressure gas state after being heated and boosted; (5) the heat exchange with water or air in the condenser is carried out fully, and then the heat exchange is converted into supercooled liquid and heat energy is output; (6) then the pressure is reduced by the electronic expansion valve, and the pressure is changed into a two-phase state, and the two-phase state enters a generator to complete one-time heat pump circulation.
The light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system provided by the invention realizes the compound conversion of light energy-electric energy, light energy-heat energy, wind energy-electric energy-heat energy and geothermal energy, forms multi-energy source complementary and compound conversion utilization, forms a closed relative temperature field, provides stable heat source output, and provides stable heat source output for the heat pump system to work, so that the energy efficiency value of the heat pump is 6-8, and cop is more than or equal to 7.
The light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system provided by the invention adopts a flat plate module structure, can be integrated with a building house or a wall body, and can also be independently placed. The service life of the heat pump system is prolonged, and the heat pump system has the characteristics of quick installation and convenient maintenance.
The invention adopts computer control, and adjusts the system operation mode according to the real-time data of the energy supply terminal, thereby realizing the complementary control of multi-energy supply.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram of a heat pump system for light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy according to the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic structural view of a photovoltaic panel of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic energy transfer diagram of a photovoltaic panel of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a schematic view of the structure of the heat pump of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a software flow diagram of the system intelligent monitoring system of the present invention.
Detailed Description
Embodiment 1 as shown in fig. 1, the present invention provides a light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system, which includes a power grid 1, an on-grid electric meter 2, an ac box 3, an inverter 4, a dc box 5, an off-grid electric meter 6, a fan 7, a photovoltaic panel 8, a heat exchanger 9, a ground source or water source well 10, a heat pump 11, an intelligent control system 12 and a terminal 13; the fan 7 and the photovoltaic panel 8 are both connected with the direct current box 5, the direct current box 5 is sequentially connected with the inverter 4, the alternating current box 3 and the on-grid ammeter 2, the on-grid ammeter 2 is connected with the power grid 1, the off-grid ammeter 6 is respectively connected with the power grid 1, the heat exchanger 9, the heat pump 11 and the intelligent control system 12, the fan 7 is respectively connected with the photovoltaic panel 8 and the intelligent control system 12, the photovoltaic panel 8 is respectively connected with the heat exchanger 9 and the intelligent control system 12, the heat exchanger 9 is connected with the ground source or water source well 10 and the intelligent control system 12, and the terminal 13 is respectively connected with the heat pump 11 and the intelligent control system 12; the heat pump 11 is connected with the intelligent control system 12; the terminal 13 is a user, the number of the users is Ni, and i is a positive integer equal to or larger than 1; the heat pump system is filled with R290 as a circulating working medium, and the circulation of the working medium in the circulating pipeline is all used as a power source through a circulating pump;
as shown in fig. 2, the photovoltaic panel 8 is composed of a unidirectional self-cleaning glass 801, a first high borosilicate ultra-permeable unidirectional filter membrane glass 802, a second high borosilicate ultra-permeable unidirectional filter membrane glass 803, a battery sheet 804, a first lead heat conducting sheet 805, a fluid conduit 806, a second lead heat conducting sheet 807, a carbon nanofiber heating layer 808, an insulating layer 809 and a bottom plate 8010 which are connected in sequence; the fluid conduit 806 is a carbon nanotube or a coiled copper tube;
as shown in fig. 3, after sunlight is incident to the photovoltaic panel 8, the sunlight passes through the unidirectional self-cleaning glass 801, the first high borosilicate ultra-permeable unidirectional filter membrane glass 802, the second high borosilicate ultra-permeable unidirectional filter membrane glass 803 and the cell 804 to perform photoelectric conversion power generation; at this time, a certain amount of light is respectively reflected to the one-way self-cleaning glass 801 and the first high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass 802 from the first high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass 802 and the second high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass 803, and because the one-way self-cleaning glass 801, the first high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass 802 and the second high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass 803 are all one-way glass, the reflected light is transmitted to the battery piece 804 through the second high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass 803 again for photoelectric conversion power generation, the generated direct current is integrated to the inverter 4 through the direct current box 5 and converted into alternating current to enter the alternating current box 3 for boosting, and the grid electricity is metered through; downloading electric energy from a power grid, and supplying the electric energy to related devices in the system after 6 rows of metering by a power meter;
all incident light except light of a specific wave band subjected to photo-electric conversion enters the lead heat conducting sheet 805 through the battery sheet 804 to be subjected to photo-thermal conversion into heat; the first lead thermal conductive sheet 805 transfers the photo-thermally converted heat to the fluid conduit 806;
the direct current generated by the wind-electricity conversion is integrated into the inverter 4 through the direct current box 5 by the fan 7 and converted into alternating current, the alternating current enters the alternating current box 3 to be boosted, the online electricity is measured through the online electricity meter 2, and power is supplied to the power grid 1; on the other hand, the fan 7 is further connected with the carbon nanofiber heating layer 808 in the photovoltaic panel 8, direct current generated by wind-electricity conversion of the fan 7 is used for driving the carbon nanofiber heating layer 808 in the photovoltaic panel 8 to generate heat, the heat is transferred to the fluid conduit 806 after being absorbed by the second lead heat-conducting strip 807, and then the heat is transferred to the heat exchanger 9 as a low-level heat source of the heat pump 11 for use in a system;
the fluid conduit 806 carries all the transferred heat to the heat exchanger 9 and then supplies it as a low level heat source to the heat pump 11; meanwhile, the fluid conduit 806 takes away heat and can cool the cells in the photovoltaic panel at a relatively constant temperature, so as to ensure the temperature of the optimal power generation efficiency of the cells 804; the temperature at which the optimal power generation efficiency of the cell piece 804 is achieved is preferably 28 ℃.
The photovoltaic panel 8 of the invention is formed by two layers of high borosilicate ultra-permeable one-way filter membrane glass, namely a first high borosilicate ultra-permeable one-way filter membrane glass 2 and a second high borosilicate ultra-permeable one-way filter membrane glass 3, and is the result of scientific experiments.
Through comparative tests on different structures of the photovoltaic panel 8 of the present invention: the structure of the photovoltaic plate 8 is single-layer high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass, or two-layer high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass, or 3-layer high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass, and the rest structures are the same, and the photovoltaic plate 8 is two-layer high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass measured at the same time outdoors at the same place, and the light-heat absorption and conversion heat energy effect is the best. The mechanism thereof has yet to be further studied.
In addition, the structural difference of the photovoltaic panel 8 of the present invention compared with the common photovoltaic panel is that: the top layer of the common photovoltaic panel is only provided with a layer of glass, and the glass is self-cleaning glass or anti-reflection glass; a layer of EVA-ethylene-vinyl acetate polymer is used for increasing water resistance and corrosion resistance; a layer of battery plate; a layer of a TPT backsheet protective material; a floor.
The invention is a heat pump system with complementation of light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy. The photovoltaic panel 8 of the invention also needs light-heat conversion and absorption while generating electricity by light-electricity conversion, namely, the maximum power generation amount is obtained under the condition of ensuring the optimal power generation temperature of the photovoltaic panel 8, and simultaneously the residual heat generated by power generation and the light-heat conversion directly absorb the light energy of the frequency without light-electricity conversion are converted into heat energy which is gathered to be used as the low-level heat source of the system. Therefore, the photovoltaic panel 8 of the present invention is required to have high efficiency of light-electricity conversion power generation as well as high efficiency of light-heat conversion heat generation.
The direct current generated by the wind-electricity conversion is integrated into the inverter 4 through the direct current box 5 by the fan 7 and converted into alternating current, the alternating current enters the alternating current box 3 to be boosted, the online electricity is measured through the online electricity meter 2, and power is supplied to the power grid 1; on the other hand, as mentioned above, the fan 7 is further connected to the carbon nanofiber heating layer 808 in the photovoltaic panel 8, the direct current generated by the wind-electricity conversion of the fan 7 drives the carbon nanofiber heating layer 808 in the photovoltaic panel 8 to generate heat, and the heat is absorbed by the lead heat conducting strip 807 to transfer the heat to the fluid conduit 806, and then enters the heat exchanger 9 as a low-level heat source of the system for use in the system.
As shown in fig. 4, the heat pump 11 includes an evaporator 1101, a reversing valve 1102, a compressor 1103, a throttling device 1104 and a condenser 1105; the evaporator 1101 is connected with a reversing valve 1102, a condenser 1105 and a throttling device 1104 in sequence, the throttling device 1104 is connected with the evaporator 1101, and the compressor 1103 is connected with the reversing valve 1102; the heat exchanger 9 is connected with the compressor 1103;
heat is extracted from a ground source or a water source well 10, enters a heat exchanger 9 through a circulating pipeline, and enters the heat exchanger 9 together with waste heat generated when a battery sheet 804 in a photovoltaic panel 8 performs photoelectric conversion power generation, heat generated by the photovoltaic panel 8 directly performing photoelectric conversion absorption, and heat generated by a carbon nanofiber heating layer 808 in the photovoltaic panel 8 driven by direct current generated by wind-electricity conversion of a fan 7 to generate enters the heat exchanger 9 as a low-level heat source of a heat pump 11;
when the air conditioner cools down in summer, the reversing valve 1102 turns to a refrigeration working position, high-pressure steam discharged by the compressor 1103 enters the condenser 1105 through the reversing valve (also called a four-way valve) 1102 to be condensed into liquid, enters the evaporator 1101 through the throttling device 1104, absorbs heat in the evaporator 1101 to cool indoor air, and evaporated refrigerant steam is sucked by the compressor 1103 after passing through the reversing valve (also called a four-way valve) 1102, so that the operation is repeated in this way, and the refrigeration cycle is realized.
When the terminal 13 is used for refrigerating, heat generated by heat exchange enters the heat exchanger 9 through the circulating pipeline and is used as heat extracted from the ground source or the water source well 10 during supplying domestic hot water and supplementing heating seasons together with the generated heat. On one hand, the energy balance of the ground source or the water source well 10 is ensured, and on the other hand, the optimal power generation efficiency and temperature of the battery pieces 804 in the photovoltaic panel 8 are ensured while the domestic hot water is supplied.
During heating in winter, the reversing valve 1102 is turned to a heating working position, so that high-pressure high-temperature steam discharged by the compressor 1103 flows into an indoor evaporator (serving as a condenser) 1101 after passing through the reversing valve 2, latent heat released during high-pressure high-temperature condensation heats indoor air to achieve the purpose of indoor heating, condensed liquid flows into the condenser 1105 (serving as an evaporator) from a reverse flow throttling device 1104 to absorb external heat to evaporate, and evaporated steam is sucked by the compressor 1103 after passing through the reversing valve 1102 to complete a heating cycle. In this way, the heat from the outside is "pumped" into a room having a high temperature, and is therefore referred to as a "heat pump".
The heat exchanger 9 has 3 technical functions: 1) in the heating season, the heat generated by the photovoltaic panel 8 and the heat of the ground source or the water source well 10 are integrated to be used as a low-level heat source of an evaporator 1101 of the heat pump 11, and the heat pump 11 supplies indoor heating and domestic hot water to the terminal 13; 2) in the transition season, the regulation and control system obtains heat or does not obtain heat from the ground source or the water source well 10 through system presetting, the heat obtained from the ground source or the water source well 10 and the heat generated by the photovoltaic panel 8 are directly used as a low-level heat source, or the heat generated by the photovoltaic panel 8 is directly used as the low-level heat source of the heat pump 11; the heat pump 11 supplies power to the room of the terminal 13; 3) in the cooling season, the heat exchanger 9 is used for realizing heat generation of the photovoltaic panel 8 for supplying domestic hot water, and heat exchange is also carried out between the photovoltaic panel and a ground source or a water source well 10, so that balance of the geothermal sources is achieved, namely heat storage of the geothermal sources in summer is achieved.
Further, the following techniques may also be employed: the light intensity analysis controller is arranged in the frame of the photovoltaic panel 8, and a light sensitive probe (sensor) of the light intensity analysis controller is connected with a computer of the intelligent control system 12 through a data line and used for changing the orientation of the photovoltaic panel 8, so that the photovoltaic panel 8 is perpendicular to the direct solar light, and the power generation efficiency can be improved by 30%. But the construction cost is high.
Due to differences of regions and climates, sunlight is often unstable, the temperature of the battery pieces 804 of the photovoltaic panel 8 is regulated to be constant through monitoring projected light by the light intensity analyzer, and wind, light and heat complementation of a primary heat source is realized.
The first temperature analysis controller for the battery pieces 804 is installed in the frame of the photovoltaic panel 8, the temperature of the battery pieces 804 is monitored, the temperature information is transmitted to the intelligent control system 12 through a wire, and the heat exchanger 9 is controlled to exchange heat with the photovoltaic panel 8 or not through monitoring the real-time temperature of the battery pieces, so that the optimal power generation efficiency temperature of the battery pieces 804 of the photovoltaic panel 8 is guaranteed.
The terminal 13 is provided with a second temperature analysis controller, actual temperature information of all the monitored subunits of the terminal 13 is transmitted to the intelligent control system 12, comparison and analysis are carried out according to the actual temperature information and preset information, and the opening or closing of energy supply valves of the subunits of the terminal 13 is controlled according to an analysis result; meanwhile, the variable frequency operation of the heat pump (11) is controlled according to the percentage of the opening and closing quantity of the valves of all the subunits of the terminal (13) in the total quantity of the valves, so that the energy-saving efficiency of the heat pump (11) is ensured.
The intelligent control system 12 is a computer in which the software of the heat pump system is stored and run. The software flow chart is shown in fig. 3.
Step 100, start;
105, initializing a system, and resetting all preset information;
step 200, determine whether the wall temperature of the fluid conduit 806 in the photovoltaic panel 8 is higher than the optimal power generation temperature of 28 ℃? If higher than 28 ℃, perform step 205; otherwise, go to step 220, the circulation pump is turned off;
step 205, the computer receives the information transmitted in step 200 and processes the information;
step 210, if the temperature is higher than 28 ℃, starting a circulating pump, and starting circulating to perform heat exchange;
step 215, after the circulation starts, the first temperature analysis controller monitors the temperature of the battery plate 804, the temperature information is transmitted to the intelligent control system 12 through a lead, and if the temperature of the pipe wall of the fluid conduit 806 reaches 28 ℃, the step 220 is performed, the circulation pump is turned off; otherwise, the data is transmitted to the intelligent control system 12, and the control cycle is started to carry out heat exchange;
step 300, is the Ni subsystem meet energy supply requirements? If not, go to step 305, the computer receives the information; if yes, go to step 335 and end;
step 310, the computer controls an energy supply valve of the Ni subsystem to be opened until the Ni subsystem meets the energy supply requirement;
315, the Ni subsystem meets the energy supply requirement, and the valve is closed;
in step 320, is the subsystem power supply of the terminal all qualified? Otherwise, go to step 325, the computer receives the information; if yes, go to step 335 and end;
and step 330, after receiving the information, the computer controls the heat pump 11 to start in a variable frequency mode, and controls the heat pump 11 to operate in a variable frequency mode according to the percentage of the number of the opened and closed valves of all the subunits of the terminal 13 in the total number of the valves, so that the energy-saving efficiency of the heat pump 11 is ensured. The frequency conversion amount of the heat pump 11 is adjusted according to the percentage of the energy supply terminal subsystem reaching the energy supply requirement: the percentage of the energy supply terminal subsystem reaching the energy supply requirement reaches 10%, and the power of the heat pump 11 is correspondingly adjusted to 90% for operation; the percentage of the energy supply terminal subsystem reaching the energy supply requirement reaches 20%, and the power of the heat pump 11 is correspondingly adjusted to 80% for operation; by this series, the percentage of the energy supply terminal subsystem reaching the energy supply requirement reaches 90%, and the power of the heat pump 11 is correspondingly adjusted to 10% for operation; if the percentage of the energy supply terminal subsystem reaching the energy supply requirement reaches 100%, the heat pump 11 is in a dormant state.
And testing and calculating, namely evaluating the comprehensive conversion efficiency of solar energy photoelectricity, photo-thermal, wind-thermal and ground source heat of the system by utilizing a second law of thermodynamics. Starting from the second law of thermodynamics, solar energy: solar radiation is clearly distinguishable from the theoretically available energy of solar radiation by including both direct and diffuse radiation. For simplicity, solar radiation conversion efficiency is still usually calculated as carnot efficiency, taking the solar surface temperature as 5777K.
The second law of thermodynamics is expressed as:
in the formula, WPV-photovoltaic output power, W; i-received radiation intensity, W/m2When the current is over; a-area of photovoltaic cell, m2; Ta-ambient temperature, deg.c.
The solar photoelectric conversion efficiency is as follows:
in the formula, Qc-heat pump condensing power, W; qCOM-compressor power, W; tw-temperature of heat output, DEG C.
The solar photoelectric/photothermal comprehensive efficiency is as follows:
ηpv/t,2nd=ηpvpt,2nd (3)
condensing power QcThe water flow rate and the water temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet are measured to obtain the following results:
QC=mc(Tout-Tin) (4)
in the formula, m is the circulating water flow, kg/s; c-water heat capacity, J/(kg. DEG C.);
Tout-circulating water inlet temperature, deg.c; t isinThe outlet water temperature of the circulating water at DEG C.
The coefficient of performance COP of the system is expressed as follows:
the coefficient of performance COP of the system is expressed as follows:
the heat pump cycle compression ratio is defined as follows:
in the formula, Pcom-out-the outlet pressure of the compressor, Pa; pcom-in-inlet pressure of the compressor, Pa.
The light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system provided by the invention realizes that the energy efficiency value of the heat pump is between 6 and 8, and cop is more than or equal to 7.

Claims (5)

1. A light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy complementary heat pump system is characterized by comprising a power grid (1), an on-grid ammeter (2), an alternating current box (3), an inverter (4), a direct current box (5), an off-grid ammeter (6), a fan (7), a photovoltaic panel (8), a heat exchanger (9), a ground source or water source well (10), a heat pump (11), an intelligent control system (12) and a terminal (13); the wind turbine is characterized in that a fan (7) and a photovoltaic panel (8) are connected with a direct current box (5), the direct current box (5) is sequentially connected with an inverter (4), an alternating current box (3) and an on-grid ammeter (2), the on-grid ammeter (2) is connected with a power grid (1), an off-grid ammeter (6) is respectively connected with the power grid (1), a heat exchanger (9), a heat pump (11) and an intelligent control system (12), the fan (7) is respectively connected with the photovoltaic panel (8) and the intelligent control system (12), the photovoltaic panel (8) is respectively connected with the heat exchanger (9) and the intelligent control system (12), the heat exchanger (9) is connected with a ground source or water source well (10) and the intelligent control system (12), and a terminal (13) is respectively connected with the heat pump (11) and the intelligent control system (12; the heat pump (11) is connected with the intelligent control system (12); the terminal (13) is a user, the number of the users is Ni, and i is a positive integer equal to or larger than 1; the heat pump system is filled with R290 as a circulating working medium, and the circulation of the working medium in the circulating pipeline is all used as a power source through a circulating pump;
the photovoltaic panel (8) is composed of unidirectional self-cleaning glass (801), first high borosilicate ultra-permeable unidirectional filter membrane glass (802), second high borosilicate ultra-permeable unidirectional filter membrane glass (803), a battery piece (804), a first lead heat conducting sheet (805), a fluid conduit (806), a second lead heat conducting sheet (807), a carbon nanofiber heating layer (808), an insulating layer (809) and a bottom plate (8010) which are connected in sequence; the fluid conduit (806) is a carbon nanotube or a coiled copper tube;
after sunlight is incident to the photovoltaic panel (8), the sunlight passes through the one-way self-cleaning glass (801) and penetrates through the first high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass (802) and the second high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass (803) to the cell (804) for photoelectric conversion power generation; reflected light passes through the second high borosilicate ultra-transparent one-way filter membrane glass (803) again to the battery piece (804) for photoelectric conversion power generation, generated direct current is integrated to the inverter (4) through the direct current box (5) and converted into alternating current, the alternating current enters the alternating current box (3) for boosting, and the grid power is measured through the grid power meter (2) to supply power to a power grid; downloading electric energy from a power grid, and supplying the electric energy to relevant devices in the system for use after the electric energy is measured by a power meter (6) in the power grid;
all incident light except light of a specific wave band subjected to photo-electric conversion enters the first lead heat-conducting sheet (805) through the battery sheet (804) to be subjected to photo-thermal conversion into heat; the first lead thermally conductive sheet (805) transfers the photo-thermally converted heat to the fluid conduit (806);
the direct current generated by wind-electricity conversion is integrated into the inverter (4) through the direct current box (5) by the fan (7) and converted into alternating current, the alternating current enters the alternating current box (3) to be boosted, and the on-line electricity is measured through the on-line electricity meter (2) to supply power to the power grid (1); on the other hand, the fan (7) is also connected with the nano carbon fiber heating layer (808) in the photovoltaic panel (8), direct current generated by wind-electricity conversion of the fan (7) is used for driving the nano carbon fiber heating layer (808) in the photovoltaic panel (8) to generate heat, the heat is transferred to the fluid conduit (806) after being absorbed by the second lead heat-conducting sheet (807), and then the fluid conduit enters the heat exchanger (9) to be used as a low-level heat source of the heat pump (11) for a system;
the fluid conduit (806) sends all the transferred heat to the heat exchanger (9) and then supplies the heat pump (11) as a low-level heat source; meanwhile, the fluid conduit (806) takes away heat and can cool the cell in the photovoltaic panel at a relatively constant temperature so as to ensure the temperature of the cell (804) with the optimal power generation efficiency;
the heat pump (11) comprises an evaporator (1101), a reversing valve (1102), a compressor (1103), a throttling device (1104) and a condenser (1105); the evaporator (1101) is connected with the reversing valve (1102), the condenser (1105) and the throttling device (1104) in sequence, the throttling device (1104) is connected with the evaporator (1101), and the compressor (1103) is connected with the reversing valve (1102); the heat exchanger (9) is connected with the compressor (1103);
heat is extracted from a ground source or a water source well (10), enters a heat exchanger (9) through a circulating pipeline, and enters the heat exchanger (9) together with waste heat generated when a battery piece (804) in a photovoltaic panel (8) performs photoelectric conversion power generation, heat generated by the photovoltaic panel (8) directly performing photoelectric conversion absorption, and heat generated by a carbon nanofiber heating layer (808) in a direct current driven photovoltaic panel (8) by wind-electricity conversion of a fan (7) as a low-level heat source of a heat pump (11);
the heat exchanger (9): in the heating season, the heat generated by the photovoltaic panel (8) and the heat of the ground source or the water source well (10) are integrated to be used as a low-level heat source of an evaporator (1101) of the heat pump (11), and the heat pump (11) supplies indoor heating and domestic hot water to the terminal (13);
in a transition season, the regulation and control system obtains heat or does not obtain heat from a ground source or a water source well (10) through system presetting, the heat obtained from the ground source or the water source well (10) and the heat generated by a photovoltaic panel (8) are directly used as a low-level heat source, or the heat generated by the photovoltaic panel (8) is directly used as a low-level heat source of a heat pump (11), and the heat pump (11) supplies indoor heating and domestic hot water to a terminal (13);
in the refrigeration season, heat exchange is carried out between the solar heat collector and a ground source or a water source well (10) in addition to the heat generated by the photovoltaic panel (8) for supplying domestic hot water through the heat exchanger (9), so that the balance of the geothermal sources is achieved, namely the geothermal sources store heat in summer;
the intelligent control system (12) is a computer in which software for the heat pump system is stored and operated.
2. The complementary heat pump system of light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the frame of the photovoltaic panel (8) is provided with a light intensity analysis controller, the light sensitive probe of which is connected with the computer of the intelligent control system (12) through a data line.
3. The complementary heat pump system of light energy, wind energy and geothermal energy as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the photovoltaic panel (8) is provided with a first temperature analysis controller for the battery cells (804) in the frame, the temperature of the battery cells (804) is monitored, the temperature information is transmitted to the intelligent control system (12) through wires, and the heat exchanger (9) is controlled to exchange heat with the photovoltaic panel (8).
4. A complementary heat pump system of light, wind and geothermal energy according to claim 1, characterized in that the terminal (13) is provided with a second temperature analysis controller, and the monitored actual temperature information of the sub-units of the terminal (13) is transmitted to the intelligent control system (12).
5. A complementary heat pump system of light, wind and geothermal energy as defined in claim 1, wherein the temperature of the electricity generated by the battery plate (804) is 28 ℃.
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