CN104827898B - Two-gear speed changing power system of electric automobile - Google Patents

Two-gear speed changing power system of electric automobile Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104827898B
CN104827898B CN201510234758.6A CN201510234758A CN104827898B CN 104827898 B CN104827898 B CN 104827898B CN 201510234758 A CN201510234758 A CN 201510234758A CN 104827898 B CN104827898 B CN 104827898B
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wheel
gear
differential
planet
external toothing
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CN104827898A (en
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赵韩
张琰
黄康
陈奇
黄守武
秦菲菲
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Hefei University of Technology
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Hefei University of Technology
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Abstract

The invention relates to a two-gear speed changing power system of an electric automobile. The two-gear speed changing power system comprises a driving motor, a differential mechanism, a right half shaft and a left half shaft, and further comprises a planetary gear speed reducing mechanism, a synchronizer and two sets of wheel rim speed reducing mechanisms, wherein the planetary gear speed reducing mechanism and the synchronizer are located in a shell of the driving motor to form an integrated structure. The two-gear speed changing power system has extremely high integration degree; the wheel rim speed reducing mechanisms are used as the final stage of a transmission chain of a main speed reducing mechanism so that the load of the front-stage part of the transmission chain is greatly reduced and the part size of the front-grade part of the transmission chain is reduced, and a miniaturization and light-weight principle is met; a rotor rotary shaft of the driving motor is directly connected with a speed changer gear so that coaxial tolerance caused by matched installation is avoided; the quantities of duplex planetary gears and differential mechanism driving gears are the same and the duplex planetary gears and the differential mechanism driving gears are arranged around the central line at equal angles; the whole structure is centrally symmetrical, the weight distribution is uniform, the dynamic balance property is good, the transmission efficiency is higher, and the vibration noise condition is better.

Description

A kind of electric automobile two keeps off the dynamical system of speed change
Technical field
The invention belongs to electric automobile electric drive technical field, and in particular to a kind of electric automobile two keeps off variable-speed dynamic system Assembly.
Background technology
Due to possessing the advantages such as energy-conserving and environment-protective, suitable for city road condition, the development of electric automobile is received significant attention.It is existing The electric drive solution of some electric automobiles is mostly improved in fuel-engined vehicle drive system:Motor is replaced with engine, Motor is connected and is connected on drive axle by reduction box again on power transmission shaft.This design changes smaller, and inheritance is good, but has The shortcomings such as noise is big, vibration is strong, transmission chain length, the low, huge structure of transmission efficiency.Therefore, with ev industry Continue to develop, specifically designed for electric automobile power drive system design it is also growing.
The main gear deceleration system of power assembly system of electric vehicle at present on the market, this system does not have mechanical speed change Device, all realizes speed control by electronic speed regulation, higher to controller requirement, and motor working efficiency is not high, to electricity The impact in pond is also larger.Use the two gear variable-speed dynamic systems that increased mechanical changeover structure instead, can be with equal job requirement Using lower-powered motor, electric efficiency is improve, there is provided starting moment of torsion higher, reduce noise of running at high speed, subtract Lack battery impact, improve battery life.
In order to reduce the quantity of part, reduce installation dimension, reduce system weight, dynamical system it is integrated and integrated It is a trend of power drive system development, this trend is divided into In-wheel-motor driving and motor-driven both direction again.It is electronic Wheel drive be using wheel hub motor or wheel motor, will motor, decelerator and driving wheel integrate, cancel differential Device structure, each motor is individually controlled, and this scheme mechanical structure is simple, and integrated level is high, and installation dimension is small, but due to each drive Driving wheel is equipped with respective motor controller, need to configure E-Diff, high to the requirement of high power density motor technology, control Difficulty processed is larger, and the stability of a system is poor, and economy is poor.Because the Technical comparing of motor and speed changer is ripe, The motor-driven direction feasibility that motor and decelerator are integrated is higher.
Mechanical speed change part uses a gear and subtracts in a kind of driving motor for electric automobile structure of built-in subtractive assembly Fast device, such motor working efficiency is relatively low, and the impact to battery is also larger, influences battery life, while starting performance is poor, it is high Motor speed is larger during speed traveling causes noise and cooling problem.
Motor still needs to be installed by parts such as shaft couplings in a kind of structure of 2+1 gear gearboxes used for electric vehicle, Degree of integration is relatively low, and speed changer structure is driven using fixed axis gear, and integral installation size is larger.
The content of the invention
The present invention is the weak point for overcoming above-mentioned prior art to exist, and improves motor working efficiency, completes dynamical system Miniaturization and lightweight, there is provided a kind of electric automobile two keep off speed change dynamical system.
A kind of dynamical system of the gear speed change of electric automobile two includes motor, differential mechanism 23, right axle shaft 4 and left half axle 13, also including planetary gear reducing mechanism, synchronizer and two sets of wheel hem retarding mechanisms;Wherein planetary gear reducing mechanism and synchronization Device is respectively positioned in the housing of motor, forms integral structure;
The planetary gear reducing mechanism includes sun gear 6, more than two duplex row dental star wheels, external toothing 9 and planet Frame 8, the compound planet gear respectively with sun gear 6 and the engaged transmission of external toothing 9, planet carrier 8 fixes with the housing of differential mechanism Power is reached differential mechanism by connection;Electromagnetic brake 25 is provided with the housing corresponding with planet carrier 8;Electromagnetic brake 25 with Parking function is realized in the combination or separation of planet carrier 8;
The synchronizer on the left half axle 13, external toothing 9 by synchronizer respectively with the inwall of the housing of motor Outer wall with the housing of differential mechanism is connected, so as to complete the switching of two gears;
Two sets of wheel hem retarding mechanisms are planetary gears, and often covering wheel hem retarding mechanism includes wheel side sun gear 17th, more than two wheels external toothing 15 and wheel side planet carrier 18 in planetary gear 16, wheel, wherein a wheel side planetary wheeling mechanism The wheel hub on right axle shaft 4 and right side is connected to, another wheel side planetary wheeling mechanism is connected to the wheel hub in left half axle 13 and left side;Power By right axle shaft 4 or the incoming wheel side sun gear 17 of left half axle 13, wheel hub is driven by taking turns side planet carrier 18, complete power defeated Go out.
The sun gear 6 of the planetary gear reducing mechanism is connected to one end of hollow shaft 5, and hollow shaft 5 is fixed by spline It is set on armature spindle;The double-planetary gear is made up of coaxial major planet wheel 7 and asteroid wheel 10, wherein major planet wheel 7 With the engaged transmission of sun gear 6, asteroid wheel 10 and the engaged transmission of external toothing 9.
Drive bevel gear in the number and differential mechanism 23 of the compound planet gear in the planetary gear reducing mechanism Number is identical.
Sun gear 6, compound planet gear and external toothing 9 in the planetary gear reducing mechanism are straight-tooth gear;Institute State the intermediate slider of synchronizer carry out gearshift slide when, external toothing 9 along asteroid wheel 10 facewidth direction slide.
The facewidth of the external toothing 9 is the twice of the facewidth of asteroid wheel 10.
Compared with the prior art, Advantageous Effects of the invention embody in the following areas:
1. the present invention keeps off speed change bridge design using two, can be used under equal job requirement and a gear deceleration electric bridge phase The less motor of specific power, improves electric efficiency, there is provided starting moment of torsion higher, reduces noise of running at high speed, and reduces Battery impact, improves battery life.6% electrical efficiency can be improved under NEDC state of cyclic operations, so as to save 8.5% Battery cost(70%DOD).
2. the present invention is subtracted using hub reduction gear as master, master is subtracted and is placed in driving-chain afterbody, is improved by reduction of speed Output torque, by taking aftermentioned actual development type pure electric automobile as an example, about 4 times is reduced using wheel main the subtracting in side by nominal torque, Significantly reduce the load of driving-chain prime part, improve mechanical performance, increased safety coefficient, and before reducing driving-chain The accessory size of level part, meets miniaturization and lightweight principle.
3. the present invention uses coaxially arranged motor transmission differential mechanism integral structure, is subtracted using hollow shaft structure design Small radial dimension;Motor is arranged in same housing with differential mechanism, and using double-planetary gear slowing-down structure by differential mechanism It is placed in speed changer, compared with speed change differential structure of connecting, axial dimension reduces 25%;Master is subtracted by shifting using hub reduction gear To wheel hub, integral installation size is reduced.
4. directly be connected motor rotor shaft with transmission gear by the present invention, overall using coaxial layout, it is to avoid Coordinate the concentricity tolerance installed and cause, eliminate the mechanical oscillation and noise for thus bringing.
5. compound planet gear of the present invention is consistent with the number of differential sliding clutch, and angularly matches somebody with somebody around center line Put, and overall structure is centrosymmetric distribution, distribution of weight is uniform, and dynamic balance property is good, and transmission efficiency is higher, and vibrates Noise situation is preferable.
6. the present invention uses motor transmission differential mechanism integrated structure design, using insulation machine oil as cooling oil and profit Lubricating oil, by immersion oil or splashing mode in whole housing interior circulation, while the cooling to motor stator and rotor is completed, Complete to speed changer, the cooling of differential gear and lubrication, cooling and lubricating efficiency is higher.
7. the present invention has the parking locking mechanism of electromagnetic clutch, in climb and fall and the frequently road conditions of starting parking, Improve the parking safety of vehicle.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is a kind of power system of electric automobile structure diagram.
Sequence number in upper figure:Housing 1, rotor 2, stator 3, right axle shaft 4, hollow shaft 5, sun gear 6, major planet wheel 7, planet carrier 8th, external toothing 9, asteroid wheel 10, differential casing 11, half-axile sleeve 12, left half axle 13, wheel hub 14, wheel are in external toothing 15, wheel Planetary gear 16, the wheel synchronous lock ring 19 of the gear of planet carrier 18, the synchronous lock ring of the gear of intermediate slider 21, two in sun gear 17, wheel 22nd, differential mechanism 23, drive bevel gear 24, electromagnetic brake 25.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, the present invention is further described by embodiment.
Referring to Fig. 1, a kind of dynamical system of the gear speed change of electric automobile two includes motor, differential mechanism 23, the and of right axle shaft 4 Left half axle 13, stator 3 is fixed on side in the housing of motor, also including planetary gear reducing mechanism, synchronizer and two sets Wheel hem retarding mechanism;Wherein planetary gear reducing mechanism and synchronizer are respectively positioned on opposite side in the housing of motor, form one Body formula structure.
Planetary gear reducing mechanism includes sun gear 6, two duplex row dental star wheels, external toothing 9 and planet carriers 8, sun gear 6th, compound planet gear and external toothing 9 are straight-tooth gear;Active conical tooth in the number and differential mechanism 23 of compound planet gear The number of wheel 24 is identical.Sun gear 6 is connected to one end of hollow shaft 5, and hollow shaft 5 is fixedly set on armature spindle by spline; Each double-planetary gear is made up of coaxial major planet wheel 7 and asteroid wheel 10, and wherein major planet wheel 7 and the engagement of sun gear 6 is passed It is dynamic, asteroid wheel 10 and the engaged transmission of external toothing 9;Planet carrier 8 is fixedly connected with the housing of differential mechanism and for power to reach differential mechanism; Electromagnetic brake 25 is installed in housing 1 corresponding with planet carrier 8;The combination of electromagnetic brake 25 and planet carrier 8 separates reality Existing parking function;
Synchronizer on the left half axle 13, external toothing 9 by synchronizer respectively with the inwall and difference of the housing of motor The outer wall of the housing of fast device is connected, so as to complete the switching of two gears.When the intermediate slider 21 of synchronizer carries out gearshift slip, external toothing 9 slide along the facewidth direction of asteroid wheel 10, and the facewidth of external toothing 9 is the twice of the facewidth of asteroid wheel 10.
Two sets of wheel hem retarding mechanisms are planetary gears, and often covering wheel hem retarding mechanism includes wheel side sun gear 17, two Individual wheel above external toothing 15 and wheel side planet carrier 18 in planetary gear 16, wheel, wherein a wheel side planetary wheeling mechanism connection The wheel hub on right axle shaft 4 and right side, another wheel side planetary wheeling mechanism is connected to the wheel hub in left half axle 13 and left side;Power is by the right side Semiaxis 4 or the incoming wheel side sun gear 17 of left half axle 13, wheel hub is driven by taking turns side planet carrier 18, completes power output.
By taking actual development type pure electric automobile as an example, a gear gearratio is 13.91, and two gear gearratios are 4.14.Each tooth Tooth number is as shown in table 1.
The executive component of each gear is as shown in table 2;
Note:"●" represents combination in table, and "○" represents separation;
The neutral of the power system of electric automobile, two forward gears, reverse gear it is as follows with the power transmission line of parking:
1st, neutral(N keeps off)
During neutral, electromagnetic brake B is powered and separates, and intermediate slider 21 neither engages with a gear synchronous lock ring 19, also not with The synchronous lock ring 22 of two gears is engaged, unpowered output.
2nd, forward gear(D keeps off)
(1)Forward gear(D1 keeps off)
Middle bottom gear, electromagnetic brake 25 is powered and separates, and intermediate slider 21 is engaged with a gear synchronous lock ring 19.
Power reaches sun gear 6 and rotates by the hollow shaft 5 for being connected in rotor 2 by spline, and major planet wheel 7 is around sun gear 6 Rotate, external toothing 9 is connected by synchronizer with the housing 1 of motor, and asteroid wheel 10 is engaged with, and planet carrier 8 is with major planet Wheel 7 and asteroid wheel 10 rotate, and planet carrier 8 is connected with differential casing 11, and then drive drive bevel gear 24 through differential mechanism 23 Power is exported respectively to left half axle 13 and right axle shaft 4.Left half axle 13 and right axle shaft 4 connect the wheel side speed reducer on each side respectively Structure, with left half of explanation working condition:Left half axle 13 is rotated by spline connection driven wheel side sun gear 17, takes turns side external toothing 15 Be connected with screw by half-axile sleeve 12 and housing 1, wheel sun gear 17 when planetary gear 16 is around wheel revolves round the sun, wheel side planet carrier 18 with Wheel side planetary gear 16 is rotated and finally outputs power to wheel hub 14.
(2)Advance two gears(D2 keeps off)
Top gear, electromagnetic brake 25 is powered and separates, and intermediate slider 21 is engaged with two gear synchronous lock rings 22.
Power reaches sun gear 6 and rotates by the hollow shaft 5 for being connected in rotor 2 by spline, and major planet wheel 7 is around sun gear 6 Rotate, external toothing 9 is connected by synchronizer with differential casing 11, and then also connected with planet carrier 8, major planet wheel 7 and asteroid 10 not rotations of wheel, drive drive bevel gear 24 to export power respectively through differential mechanism 23 to left half axle 13 and right half by planet carrier 8 Axle 4.Subordinate's driving-chain is identical with forward gear.
3rd, reverse gear(R keeps off)
The present invention is reversed gear and is realized by motor reversal, and power transmission line is identical with forward gear, because rotor 2 is inverted, Last wheel reversing, realizes reversing.
4th, parking(P keeps off)
Using having, energization is separated parking locking mechanism of the invention, the electromagnetic brake 25 of power-off brake characteristic is realized. When electric automobile normal road condition is travelled, electromagnetic brake 25 is powered and separates, and mechanism does not work;When electric automobile during traveling is upper and lower When slope or the frequently road conditions of starting parking, the power-off brake of electromagnetic brake 25, the mechanism starts working, and can replace the work(of parking brake Energy.

Claims (2)

1. a kind of electric automobile two keeps off the dynamical system of speed change, including motor, differential mechanism (23), right axle shaft (4) and left half Axle (13), it is characterised in that:Also include planetary gear reducing mechanism, synchronizer and two sets of wheel hem retarding mechanisms;Wherein planet tooth Wheel reducing gear and synchronizer are respectively positioned in the housing of motor, form integral structure;
The planetary gear reducing mechanism includes sun gear (6), more than two compound planet gears, external toothing (9) and planet Frame (8), the compound planet gear respectively with sun gear (6) and external toothing (9) engaged transmission, planet carrier (8) and differential mechanism Housing is fixedly connected and for power to reach differential mechanism;Electromagnetic brake (25) is provided with the housing corresponding with planet carrier (8);Electricity The combination of magnetic brake (25) and planet carrier (8) is separated and realizes parking function;
Drive bevel gear in the number and differential mechanism (23) of the compound planet gear in the planetary gear reducing mechanism Number is identical;
The synchronizer on the left half axle (13), external toothing (9) by synchronizer respectively with the inwall of the housing of motor Outer wall with the housing of differential mechanism is connected, so as to complete the switching of two gears;
Two sets of wheel hem retarding mechanisms are planetary gears, often cover wheel hem retarding mechanism include wheel side sun gear (17), More than two wheels external toothing (15) and wheel side planet carrier (18) in planetary gear (16), wheel, wherein a set of wheel side speed reducer Structure is connected to the wheel hub on right axle shaft (4) and right side, and another set of wheel hem retarding mechanism is connected to the wheel hub in left half axle (13) and left side; Power drives wheel hub by right axle shaft (4) or the incoming wheel side sun gear (17) of left half axle (13) by taking turns side planet carrier (18), Complete power output;
The sun gear (6) of the planetary gear reducing mechanism is connected to one end of hollow shaft (5), and hollow shaft (5) is solid by spline Surely it is set on armature spindle;The compound planet gear is made up of coaxial major planet wheel (7) and asteroid wheel (10), wherein greatly Planetary gear (7) and sun gear (6) engaged transmission, asteroid wheel (10) and external toothing (9) engaged transmission;The external toothing (9) The facewidth is the twice of the facewidth of asteroid wheel (10).
2. a kind of electric automobile two according to claim 1 keeps off the dynamical system of speed change, it is characterised in that:The planet tooth Sun gear (6), compound planet gear and external toothing (9) in wheel reducing gear are straight-tooth gear;The centre of the synchronizer When sliding block carries out gearshift slip, external toothing (9) is slided along the facewidth direction of asteroid wheel (10).
CN201510234758.6A 2015-05-11 2015-05-11 Two-gear speed changing power system of electric automobile Active CN104827898B (en)

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US10047841B2 (en) * 2016-08-16 2018-08-14 Etr Co., Ltd. Single-shaft two-speed drive system
CN108361328A (en) * 2018-01-25 2018-08-03 北京长城华冠汽车科技股份有限公司 Drive axle speed change system
CN108953539A (en) * 2018-09-05 2018-12-07 恒大法拉第未来智能汽车(广东)有限公司 Two speed transmission and electric car
CN109910604A (en) * 2019-04-18 2019-06-21 西南大学 Mechanical double overdrive clutch self-adapting automatic gear shift external motor drive axle

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CN202573795U (en) * 2012-05-31 2012-12-05 石传龙 Two-gear drive device for electric car
CN103332108B (en) * 2013-07-18 2015-10-28 合肥工业大学 A kind of two shift power drive system systems of pure electric automobile integrated form planet circular system
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CN204749860U (en) * 2015-05-11 2015-11-11 合肥工业大学 Two driving system that keep off variable speed of electric automobile

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