CN104806226B - intelligent drilling expert system - Google Patents

intelligent drilling expert system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104806226B
CN104806226B CN201510219785.6A CN201510219785A CN104806226B CN 104806226 B CN104806226 B CN 104806226B CN 201510219785 A CN201510219785 A CN 201510219785A CN 104806226 B CN104806226 B CN 104806226B
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drilling
well
model
data
parameter
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CN201510219785.6A
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CN104806226A (en
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缑柏弘
来建强
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北京四利通控制技术股份有限公司
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B44/00Automatic control systems specially adapted for drilling operations, i.e. self-operating systems which function to carry out or modify a drilling operation without intervention of a human operator, e.g. computer-controlled drilling systems; Systems specially adapted for monitoring a plurality of drilling variables or conditions

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of intelligent drilling expert system, including:Spot sensor detecting system, intelligent expert system and executing agency;Form automated closed-loop drilling well regulator control system.The present invention acquires the data of entire drilling process by spot sensor;Then, the data collected feeding computer is subjected to processing monitoring, forecast, analysis, explanation, control etc..Most importantly, multi-disciplinary, inter-trade intelligence and the Multimode Control model such as the control of wellbore hydraulics that the present invention researches and develops, borehole wall stability control, frictional resistance and moment of torsion control, drilling speed and cost control, drilling complexity and accident control, it can realize real-time, it is early to find, early forecast, with explanation and automatic control function, not only accurate information is provided for drilling engineering, moreover, having the advantages that reduce drilling cost, improving bit speed, prevent contingency, accurate oil and gas discovery.

Description

Intelligent drilling expert system

Technical field

The invention belongs to oil drilling exploration and development technique fields, and in particular to a kind of intelligent drilling expert system.

Background technology

Oil-well rig is by lifting system, rotary system, the circulatory system, power-equipment, ancillary equipment and rig substructure It is a set of huge and complicated drilling well factory Deng composition, petroleum exploration & development times is completed according to drilling engineering and technological requirement Business.

Control system and monitoring detection instrument are to embody the core system of oil-well rig technical merit, since drilling machine is machine Multi-specialized more of tool, hydraulic pressure, gas control, automatically controlled and geology, chemistry, mathematics, geometry, the mechanics of materials, hydrodynamics etc. The assembly of section, during drilling machine production is mating, same set of drilling machine up to tens producers it is mating, each specialized factory is because special Industry barrier, there is a serious shortage of multi-disciplinary, inter-trade to be uniformly coordinated, and causes a whole set of drill control technical merit not high and repeats to match Set and waste, and identical data different majors equipment detects different data, driller can not know which be it is correct, less Effectively it can instruct and be precisely controlled equipment safety and be efficiently completed drilling well task.

In addition, in terms of actual well drilled process requirements angle, each profession local techniques have been reached same world level.Such as The application of AC frequency conversion electric driving control system can accurately control winch rotating speed, tourist bus displacement, turntable torque, drilling well completely Pumpage and pump pressure etc.;Drilling instrument can realize measuring multiple parameters and display;Downhole drilling, rotary steering, geosteering It is also applied successfully Deng world Advanced Drilling Technology.

But either vertical well, inclined shaft, horizontal well or extended reach well, it is all by electric-control system control to execute equipment What the equipment such as boring winch, turntable, top drive, slush pump and solid controlling throttling well control processed were realized, in practice of construction, same well Body structure, due to the difference of driller personal experience, and due to substantially disconnecting in practical applications between each profession and technology , the phenomenon that thus causing different drillers that can operate out different-effect, occurs.

Therefore, how from drilling technology requirement, reinforce overall plan design and research, it is especially integrated, automatic Change, the design and research of intelligent control system, is a key subjects of Petroleum Machinery Manufacturing Industry.

Invention content

In view of the defects existing in the prior art, the present invention provides a kind of intelligent drilling expert system, can effectively solve above-mentioned Problem.

The technical solution adopted by the present invention is as follows:

The present invention provides a kind of intelligent drilling expert system, including:Spot sensor detecting system, intelligent expert system and Executing agency;The output end of the spot sensor detecting system is connect with the input terminal of the intelligent expert system;The intelligence The output end of energy expert system is connect with the input terminal of the executing agency, and automated closed-loop drilling well regulator control system is consequently formed;

Wherein, the spot sensor detecting system is used for:In drilling well overall process, drilling well detection data is acquired in real time, And the collected drilling well detection data is uploaded to the intelligent expert system in real time;

The intelligent expert system is used for:Receive the drilling well testing number that the spot sensor detecting system uploads According to, and intellectual analysis is carried out to the drilling well detection data in real time, to optimize situ of drilling well technique as target, generate existing to drilling well The regulation and control instruction of field device, and the regulation and control instruction is issued to corresponding executing agency;

The executing agency is used for:Receive the regulation and control instruction that the intelligent expert system issues, and to corresponding existing Field device sends the regulation and control instruction, and then controls the working condition of the field device, to optimize situ of drilling well technical process.

Preferably, the spot sensor detecting system includes ground transaucer detecting system and downhole sensor detection system System;

The ground transaucer detecting system includes winch state sensor detection subsystem, automatic bit feed state sensor Detect subsystem, turntable state sensor detection subsystem, top drive operating status sensor detection subsystem, mud pump operation shape State sensor detects operation monitor and detection of subsystem, mud solid phase and volume trend state sensor detection subsystem, MCC System, well control device detection subsystem, standpipe pressure detection subsystem and annular pressure detect subsystem;

The downhole sensor detecting system includes drill bit bit pressure detection subsystem, torque-on-bit detection subsystem, drill bit Subsystem is detected at Rotating speed measring subsystem, bottom pressure detection subsystem, bottom hole temperature (BHT) detection subsystem and bit orientation angle.

Preferably, the winch state sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:Winch operating status, alarm State, tourist bus position, hook weigh and winch motor electric current;

The automatic bit feed state sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:It send and bores operating status, alarm shape State, tourist bus position, hook weigh and send brill current of electric;

The turntable state sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:Rotary speed, turns the limitation of turntable torque Disk drilling torque and turntable electric current;

Operating status sensor detection subsystem is driven for detecting following information in the top:Drive operating status, alarm shape in top State, drilling torque, torque wrench moment, Top Drive RPM, arrange parameter is driven on top and electric current is driven on top;

The slush pump operating status sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:Pump impulse, pump pressure, discharge capacity and turn Speed;

The mud solid phase and volume trend state sensor detection subsystem are for detecting following information:Mud entrance is close Degree, slurry outlet density, mud entrance viscosity, slurry outlet viscosity, mud entrance flow, mud-outlet-flow, mud entrance Temperature, slurry outlet temperature, the detection of oil-containing gassiness, mud pit liquid level, mud pit total volume, mud entrance conductivity and mud Slurry outlet conductivity;

The operation monitor and detection subsystem of the MCC is for detecting following information:Hydraulic station pump, winch hydraulic power source, stirring Machine, replenishment pump, aggravates pump, mixing pump, deaerator, vibrating screen, centrifugal pump and shear pump at charge pump.

Preferably, the intelligent expert system includes:Input unit, expert model, output unit and overall process are information-based Man-machine interface;

The input unit is used to input basic data source to the expert model;The basic data source includes and drilling well The relevant well bore project data in scene, geological environment data, device attribute data, offset well data and the scene sensing The drilling well detection data that device detecting system is acquired and uploaded in real time;

The expert model includes wellbore hydraulics computation model, well drilling pipe column mechanics model, hole stability point Analyse model, drilling risk prediction and diagnostic model, borehole track computation model, rate of penetration and cost forecast model and with bore ground Stressor layer prediction model;

Wherein, the wellbore hydraulics computation model is used for:Read the basic data that the input unit is inputted Source obtains drilling well pump characteristics, drill column structure, drill bit classification, property of drilling fluid, drilling fluid in pipe and the flow regime of annular space; And the consumption of drilling recycle stream dynamic pressure in real time is calculated and optimizes in conjunction with hydrodynamics basic theories and determines drilling well waterpower target component, And then generation is to the control instruction of drilling process;

The well drilling pipe column mechanics model is used for:Read the currently practical drill assembly that the input unit is inputted Data, obtain the drilling tool attribute in the well drilling pipe column of actual use, including drilling tool classification, drilling tool length, drilling tool internal diameter outer diameter value, The antitorque value of drilling tool tension, drilling tool service life and drilling tool class information;And when real-time drilling is calculated the drilling tool mechanics number According to optimization determines drilling machinery limit restraint Protection parameters, and then generates the control instruction to drilling process;

The hole stability analysis model is used for:The derived data source that the input unit is inputted is read, is bored Well liquid annular space stratum real-time pressure equilibrium response, it is automatic calculate identification formation lithology and Different Strata and lithology can Boring property stability feature, optimizing drilling mud and hydraulic parameters;

The drilling risk prediction and diagnostic model are used for:Pre-established various drilling risk models;By the input unit The basic data source inputted is input to the drilling risk model, the drilling risk model is run, to live drilling well Operating mode carries out risk profile;Wherein, the drilling risk model includes:Well kick risk model, blowout risk model, leakage risk Model and bit freezing risk model;

The operational process of the well kick risk model, the blowout risk model and the leakage risk model is:Pass through The basic data source, the situation of change of data and drilling liquid parameter when obtaining gas detection, boring, by being examined to the gas Data and the situation of change of drilling liquid parameter are analyzed when surveying, boring, and predict relevant risk;

The bit freezing risk model includes:The sub- risk model of the viscous suction bit freezing of pressure difference, the sub- risk model of sand setting bit freezing, cave in card Awl risk model, the sub- risk model of well wall dropping block bit freezing, turn on pump suppress the sub- risk model of leakage bit freezing, the sub- risk of junk bit freezing in well Model, the sub- risk model of undergauge bit freezing, the sub- risk model of key-seating sticking and the sub- risk model of balling-up sticking;

The borehole track computation model is used for:Obtain true stratigraphic section complete data, including formation lithology and close Degree, reservoir characteristics and reference lamina, pneumatic jack, oil reservoir, interlayer, oily bed rock and its depth, formation fluid depth and Fluid pressure, stream Volume property, the three-dimensional wellbore trajectory of real brill, drill string and its real-time working condition of each lens and drill bit, downhole drill dynamic operation condition;It is right The stratigraphic section complete data carries out comprehensive analysis and integration, and interpretation process obtains the technical parameter of well section optimization to be drilled And decision, and with planned well path structure geology and compared with the engineering model moment, generate the control instruction to drilling process;

The rate of penetration and cost forecast model are used for:It predicts real-time bit pressure, and bit pressure rotating speed is optimized;Specifically For:It is associated with the mathematic(al) mode of drilling process basic law and set optimization aim, establishes drilling object function;It is basic herein On, with Artificial Intelligence Controlling Theory and various linear, nonlinear programming approach, in the case where determining various constraintss, Every drilling parameter of optimization object function, and then generate the control instruction to drilling process;

It is described to be used for brill prediction of formation pressure model:To bottom pressure control and the control of mud line manifold system automation; Specially:Analysis in real time calculate termination of pumping, stop boring, pull out of hole, it is lower bore, the bottom pressure under drilling condition, it is flat with bottom pressure Weighing apparatus is theoretical, establishes bottom pressure Controlling model, to optimizing drilling and the speed that makes a trip, and then generates the control to drilling process System instruction, control well invade, overflow, well kick, blowout, the generation of leakage, well slough drilling failure;

The output unit is for exporting the control instruction to drilling process that the expert model is generated;It is additionally operable to defeated Go out warning message, casing programme, drill assembly, ground environment, borehole track, mechanical parameter, hydraulic parameters, mud solid phase letter Breath;

The overall process informationization man-machine interface is used for:Show the real-time analog picture of drilling process and various drilling well wind Danger prompt.

Preferably, the intelligent expert system further includes:It bores front simulation module and is summarized back after boring and look into module;

The operational process for boring front simulation module includes the following steps:

S1, reading and the relevant basic data of situ of drilling well, including:Well bore project data, geological environment data, equipment category Property data and offset well data;

S2, is based on the basic data, and simulation creates virtual emulation well;

S3, the virtual emulation well loads pending drilling technology parameter, and chooses a kind of pre-stored expert model, The drilling technology parameter is input to the expert model and is run, the 1st drilling well appraisal report is obtained;Wherein, it the described 1st bores Well appraisal report is used to carry out scientific evaluation to the engineering design of the virtual emulation well, complexity and risk, cost and efficiency;

S4 is based on the 1st drilling well appraisal report, adjusts the drilling technology parameter, and recycles and carry out S3, thus constantly The drilling technology parameter is optimized and changes well, obtains best drilling technology parameter;The drilling technology parameter is referred to Lead live drilling process;

It is summarized back after the brill and looks into the operational process of module and include the following steps:

S5, after drilling engineering, the virtual emulation well corresponding with situ of drilling well is to selected expert's mould Type imports offset well complete report, and inputs the history real-time detector data in drilling well all-work to the expert model, described After expert model operation, the 2nd drilling well appraisal report is obtained, and the 2nd drilling well appraisal report is deposited as offset well supplemental characteristic Storage.

Preferably, the field device that the executing agency is driven includes:Lifting system, the circulatory system, is moved rotary system Power equipment, drive apparatus, control system and ancillary equipment.

Preferably, the lifting system includes that winch, automatic bit feed winch, traveling system, rig tool, bank head machinery are set It is standby;

The rotary system includes turntable, tap and top drive;

The circulatory system includes drilling pump, high pressure pipe joint, circulating tank, solid control equipment, Deal With Drilling Fluid and storage facilities;

The power-equipment includes diesel generating set, Gas Generator Set and motor;

The drive apparatus include slow down and vehicle, transfer, steering, reversing, speed change, bending moment machine driving, hydraulic power, Hydraulic drive and electric-driving installation;

The control system includes SCR/VFD electric driving control systems, hydraulic control system and pneumatic control system;

The ancillary equipment includes gas supply supply equipment, auxiliary generating plant, hoisting aids equipment and blowout control equipment.

Preferably, the rate of penetration and cost forecast model, are specifically used for:

Step 10:Construct the parameter optimization multiple objective function of PDC drill bit drilling;

This step is specially:According to drilling speed object function and every meter of drilling cost object function, binary objective optimization is utilized Theory constructs following parameter optimization multiple objective function:

MaxF (x)=α1f1(x)-α2f2(x)

Wherein:

F(x):Object function;

f1(x) it is rate of penetration target, unit m/h;

f2(x) it is every meter of drilling cost target, unit is member/m;

α12For reflect policymaker's wish each object function weight,

Step 20:The constraints for determining the parameter optimization multiple objective function is established PDC according to the constraints and is bored Head drilling parameter Optimized model;

Wherein, the constraints includes:Bit pressure constraints, rotating speed constraints, bit wear constraints, drilling depth Constraints, rate of penetration constraints and drilling cost constraints;

Step 30:According to the real-time detection parameters of drilling, real-time regression Duffing equation parameter;

Step 40:According to the PDC drill bit drilling parameter Optimized model, the drilling parameter of PDC drill bit is determined, realize drilling The multiple-objection optimization of parameter.

Preferably, step 10 is specially:

The parameter optimization multiple objective function established is the object function of a broad sense;Work as weight α1=0, α2When=1, mesh Scalar functions become every meter of drilling cost least model;Work as weight α1=1, α2When=0, object function becomes rate of penetration maximum norm Type;

PDC drill bit equation for drilling rate and wear equation are the bases of PDC drill bit drilling parameter objective optimization;I.e.:It establishes following PDC drill bit ROP mode and the equation that is combined of quaternary ROP mode:

In formula:

vpeFor drilling speed, m/h;

K be and the relevant coefficient of colligation of drillability of rock factor;

WsFor than bit pressure, kN/cm;

N is drill speed, r/min;

D is drill bit than water power, W/cm2;

E is the truth of a matter of natural logrithm, is an irrational number, is approximately equal to 2.71828;

Δ p is bottom hole pressure difference, Mpa;

a1,b1,c1,d1The respectively influence coefficient of bit pressure, rotating speed, water power and bottom hole pressure difference to drilling speed;

Assuming that bit breakage is mainly to occur in the form of bit wear, then damaged according to bit life equation and linear accumulation Wound is theoretical, and the bit wear equation that a certain interval or a certain microbedding section can be obtained is:

In formula:

φ is internal friction angle of rock, degree;

T is rotating hours, h;

hfFor bit wear amount, dimensionless;

Parameter a, b, c, d is bit life equation coefficient;

N is rotating speed to be optimized, rpm;

W is bit pressure to be optimized, kN;

By integral, drill bit total drilling time t can be obtainedfFor:

tf=a φbWcedN(hf2-hf1)

hf2, hf1The respectively bit wear amount at current time and previous moment, dimensionless;

Total footage HfFor:

Drilling speed is:

Every meter of drilling cost is:

In formula:

CpmFor every meter of drilling cost, member/m;

CbFor drill bit cost, member/only;

CrFor drilling machine operating cost;

ttTo make a trip, making up a joint the time;

Multiple objective function expression formula is:

It determines constraints, drilling parameter is analysed in depth, the parameter calculated in above-mentioned equation is returned, according to application The improved simulated annealing genetic algorithm based on real coding solves PDC drill bit drilling parameter Model for Multi-Objective Optimization, Generally determine PDC drill bit drilling parameter.

Preferably, described that drilling parameter is analysed in depth, the parameter calculated in above-mentioned equation is returned, is changed according to application Into simulated annealing genetic algorithm based on real coding solve PDC drill bit drilling parameter Model for Multi-Objective Optimization, specifically For:

Step1:Evolutionary generation counter initializes:t←0.

Step2:Randomly generate initial population P (t);

Step3:Evaluate the adaptive value of population P (t);

Step4:Individual intersection operates:P’(t)←Crossover[P(t)];

Step5:Individual variation operates:P”(t)←Mutation[P’(t)];

Step6:Individual simulated annealing operation:P”’(t)←SimulatedAnnealing[P”(t)];

Step7:Evaluate the adaptive value of population P " ' (t);

Step8;Individual choice replicates operation:P(t+1)←Reproduction[P(t)U P”’(t)];

Step9:End condition judges;

If being unsatisfactory for end condition,:T ← t+1 goes to Step4, continues evolutionary process:If meeting end condition,: Current optimum individual is exported, algorithm terminates.

Beneficial effects of the present invention are as follows:

Intelligent drilling expert system provided by the invention has the following advantages:

Intelligent drilling expert system provided by the invention acquires the data of entire drilling process by spot sensor, packet All equipment related with drilling well and drilling engineering data of ground and underground are included, such as:Hoisting system of rig, follows at rotary system The state and operation data of loop system, power-equipment, ancillary equipment etc.;Then, by the data collected be sent into computer into Row, which is handled, to be monitored, forecasts, analyzes, explains, controls etc..Wherein, it is most important that, the control of wellbore hydraulics that the present invention researches and develops, The multi-disciplinary, inter-bank such as borehole wall stability control, frictional resistance and moment of torsion control, drilling speed and cost control, drilling complexity and accident control Industry intelligence and Multimode Control model, can realize real-time, it is early find, early forecast, with explaining and automatic control function, not only for Drilling engineering provides accurate information, moreover, system can automatically make quick decision, having reduces drilling cost, improves and bore Well speed prevents the advantages of contingency, accurate oil and gas discovery.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of intelligent drilling expert system provided by the invention;

Fig. 2 is the flow chart provided by the invention to the optimization of PDC drill bit drilling parameter.

Specific implementation mode

Below in conjunction with attached drawing, the present invention is described in detail:

As shown in Figure 1, the present invention provides a kind of intelligent drilling expert system, make drilling technology to information-based, intelligence, far Process automation direction is developed and is strided forward.Under the pressure of low oil price market, controls drilling risk, optimization drilling parameter, reduces Drilling cost improves drilling efficiency, is oil drill equipment update technology, has filled up industry blank.For oil drilling Company greatly improves the market competitiveness, while being also that petroleum exploration in China exploitation and energy security are made that contribution.

Specifically, including:Spot sensor detecting system, intelligent expert system and executing agency;The spot sensor The output end of detecting system is connect with the input terminal of the intelligent expert system;The output end of the intelligent expert system with it is described The input terminal of executing agency connects, and automated closed-loop drilling well regulator control system is consequently formed.Above-mentioned part described in detail below:

(1) spot sensor detecting system

Wherein, the spot sensor detecting system is used for:In drilling well overall process, drilling well detection data is acquired in real time, And the collected drilling well detection data is uploaded to the intelligent expert system in real time;

In the present invention, spot sensor detecting system includes ground transaucer detecting system and downhole sensor detection system System;

(1) ground transaucer detecting system

The ground transaucer detecting system includes winch state sensor detection subsystem, automatic bit feed state sensor Detect subsystem, turntable state sensor detection subsystem, top drive operating status sensor detection subsystem, mud pump operation shape State sensor detects operation monitor and detection of subsystem, mud solid phase and volume trend state sensor detection subsystem, MCC System, well control device detection subsystem, standpipe pressure detection subsystem and annular pressure detect subsystem;

The winch state sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:Winch operating status, alarm condition, trip Truck position, hook weigh and winch motor electric current;

The automatic bit feed state sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:It send and bores operating status, alarm shape State, tourist bus position, hook weigh and send brill current of electric;

The turntable state sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:Rotary speed, turns the limitation of turntable torque Disk drilling torque and turntable electric current;

Operating status sensor detection subsystem is driven for detecting following information in the top:Drive operating status, alarm shape in top State, drilling torque, torque wrench moment, Top Drive RPM, arrange parameter is driven on top and electric current is driven on top;

The slush pump operating status sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:Pump impulse, pump pressure, discharge capacity and turn Speed;

The mud solid phase and volume trend state sensor detection subsystem are for detecting following information:Mud entrance is close Degree, slurry outlet density, mud entrance viscosity, slurry outlet viscosity, mud entrance flow, mud-outlet-flow, mud entrance Temperature, slurry outlet temperature, the detection of oil-containing gassiness, mud pit liquid level, mud pit total volume, mud entrance conductivity and mud Slurry outlet conductivity;

The operation monitor and detection subsystem of the MCC is for detecting following information:Hydraulic station pump, winch hydraulic power source, stirring Machine, replenishment pump, aggravates pump, mixing pump, deaerator, vibrating screen, centrifugal pump and shear pump at charge pump.

(2) downhole sensor detecting system

The downhole sensor detecting system includes drill bit bit pressure detection subsystem, torque-on-bit detection subsystem, drill bit Subsystem is detected at Rotating speed measring subsystem, bottom pressure detection subsystem, bottom hole temperature (BHT) detection subsystem and bit orientation angle.

(2) intelligent expert system

The intelligent expert system is used for:Receive the drilling well testing number that the spot sensor detecting system uploads According to, and intellectual analysis is carried out to the drilling well detection data in real time, to optimize situ of drilling well technique as target, generate existing to drilling well The regulation and control instruction of field device, and the regulation and control instruction is issued to corresponding executing agency;

The intelligent expert system includes:The information-based man-machine boundary of input unit, expert model, output unit and overall process Face;

The input unit is used to input basic data source to the expert model;The basic data source includes and drilling well The relevant well bore project data in scene, geological environment data, device attribute data, offset well data and the scene sensing The drilling well detection data that device detecting system is acquired and uploaded in real time;

The expert model includes wellbore hydraulics computation model, well drilling pipe column mechanics model, hole stability point Analyse model, drilling risk prediction and diagnostic model, borehole track computation model, rate of penetration and cost forecast model and with bore ground Stressor layer prediction model;

Wherein, the wellbore hydraulics computation model is used for:Read the basic data that the input unit is inputted Source obtains drilling well pump characteristics, drill column structure, drill bit classification, property of drilling fluid, drilling fluid in pipe and the flow regime of annular space; And the consumption of drilling recycle stream dynamic pressure in real time is calculated and optimizes in conjunction with hydrodynamics basic theories and determines drilling well waterpower target component, And then generation is to the control instruction of drilling process;

The well drilling pipe column mechanics model is used for:Read the currently practical drill assembly that the input unit is inputted Data, obtain the drilling tool attribute in the well drilling pipe column of actual use, including drilling tool classification, drilling tool length, drilling tool internal diameter outer diameter value, The antitorque value of drilling tool tension, drilling tool service life and drilling tool class information;And when real-time drilling is calculated the drilling tool mechanics number According to optimization determines drilling machinery limit restraint Protection parameters, and then generates the control instruction to drilling process;

The hole stability analysis model is used for:The derived data source that the input unit is inputted is read, is bored Well liquid annular space stratum real-time pressure equilibrium response, it is automatic calculate identification formation lithology and Different Strata and lithology can Boring property stability feature, optimizing drilling mud and hydraulic parameters;

The drilling risk prediction and diagnostic model are used for:Pre-established various drilling risk models;By the input unit The basic data source inputted is input to the drilling risk model, the drilling risk model is run, to live drilling well Operating mode carries out risk profile;Wherein, the drilling risk model includes:Well kick risk model, blowout risk model, leakage risk Model and bit freezing risk model;

Specifically, the present invention, to various drilling risk modeling analysis, analysis occurs drilling failure and complicated reason, formulates It has and copes with engineering abnormal accident and complicated scheme, accomplishes early discovery, early prevention, early processing.System model covers all drilling wells Accident and complexity.Include the bit freezing etc. of well kick, blowout, leakage and various properties.Well kick, blowout, leakage belong to head of liquid It is unable to caused by equilibrium strata pressure, is shown in conjunction with gas detection, data when brill, the source that the variation of drilling liquid parameter judges, And reliable kill-job density can be provided according to programs such as kill-jobs.Bit freezing include pressure difference it is viscous inhale bit freezing, sand setting bit freezing, the bit freezing that caves in, Well wall dropping block bit freezing, turn on pump suppress leakage bit freezing, junk bit freezing, undergauge bit freezing, key-seating sticking, balling-up sticking in well.

The operational process of the well kick risk model, the blowout risk model and the leakage risk model is:Pass through The basic data source, the situation of change of data and drilling liquid parameter when obtaining gas detection, boring, by being examined to the gas Data and the situation of change of drilling liquid parameter are analyzed when surveying, boring, and predict relevant risk;

The bit freezing risk model includes:The sub- risk model of the viscous suction bit freezing of pressure difference, the sub- risk model of sand setting bit freezing, cave in card Awl risk model, the sub- risk model of well wall dropping block bit freezing, turn on pump suppress the sub- risk model of leakage bit freezing, the sub- risk of junk bit freezing in well Model, the sub- risk model of undergauge bit freezing, the sub- risk model of key-seating sticking and the sub- risk model of balling-up sticking;

The borehole track computation model is used for:Obtain true stratigraphic section complete data, including formation lithology and close Degree, reservoir characteristics and reference lamina, pneumatic jack, oil reservoir, interlayer, oily bed rock and its depth, formation fluid depth and Fluid pressure, stream Volume property, the three-dimensional wellbore trajectory of real brill, drill string and its real-time working condition of each lens and drill bit, downhole drill dynamic operation condition;It is right The stratigraphic section complete data carries out comprehensive analysis and integration, and interpretation process obtains the technical parameter of well section optimization to be drilled And decision, and with planned well path structure geology and compared with the engineering model moment, generate the control instruction to drilling process;

The rate of penetration and cost forecast model are used for:It predicts real-time bit pressure, and bit pressure rotating speed is optimized;Specifically For:It is associated with the mathematic(al) mode of drilling process basic law and set optimization aim, establishes drilling object function;It is basic herein On, with Artificial Intelligence Controlling Theory and various linear, nonlinear programming approach, in the case where determining various constraintss, Every drilling parameter of optimization object function, and then generate the control instruction to drilling process;

It is described to be used for brill prediction of formation pressure model:To bottom pressure control and the control of mud line manifold system automation; Specially:Analysis in real time calculate termination of pumping, stop boring, pull out of hole, it is lower bore, the bottom pressure under drilling condition, it is flat with bottom pressure Weighing apparatus is theoretical, establishes bottom pressure Controlling model, to optimizing drilling and the speed that makes a trip, and then generates the control to drilling process System instruction, control well invade, overflow, well kick, blowout, the generation of leakage, well slough drilling failure;

The output unit is for exporting the control instruction to drilling process that the expert model is generated;It is additionally operable to defeated Go out warning message, casing programme, drill assembly, ground environment, borehole track, mechanical parameter, hydraulic parameters, mud solid phase letter Breath;

The overall process informationization man-machine interface is used for:Show the real-time analog picture of drilling process and various drilling well wind Danger prompt.

The intelligent expert system further includes:It bores front simulation module and is summarized back after boring and look into module;

The operational process for boring front simulation module includes the following steps:

S1, reading and the relevant basic data of situ of drilling well, including:Well bore project data, geological environment data, equipment category Property data and offset well data;

S2, is based on the basic data, and simulation creates virtual emulation well;

S3, the virtual emulation well loads pending drilling technology parameter, and chooses a kind of pre-stored expert model, The drilling technology parameter is input to the expert model and is run, the 1st drilling well appraisal report is obtained;Wherein, it the described 1st bores Well appraisal report is used to carry out scientific evaluation to the engineering design of the virtual emulation well, complexity and risk, cost and efficiency;

S4 is based on the 1st drilling well appraisal report, adjusts the drilling technology parameter, and recycles and carry out S3, thus constantly The drilling technology parameter is optimized and changes well, obtains best drilling technology parameter;The drilling technology parameter is referred to Lead live drilling process;

It is summarized back after the brill and looks into the operational process of module and include the following steps:

S5, after drilling engineering, the virtual emulation well corresponding with situ of drilling well is to selected expert's mould Type imports offset well complete report, and inputs the history real-time detector data in drilling well all-work to the expert model, described After expert model operation, the 2nd drilling well appraisal report is obtained, and the 2nd drilling well appraisal report is deposited as offset well supplemental characteristic Storage.

That is, the control of drilling well overall process function monitoring is divided into:It bores real time monitoring in front simulation, brill, summarized back after brill Look into function.

A well can be beaten according to the input data simulation in addition to real-time detection by boring front simulation, be set to the engineering of this mouthful of well Meter, complicated and risk, cost and efficiency etc. carry out scientific evaluation;It summarizes back and looks into after brill, for the various history of drilling well overall process Data are further summarized, are analyzed, and report is generated, and are stored in database, be can be used as offset well data and are provided more optimized number to drilling well in future According to guidance;Real time monitoring is patent core of the present invention in brill, is mainly calculated by wellbore hydraulics, well drilling pipe column calculates, wellbore is steady Qualitative analysis, drilling risk prediction and diagnosis, borehole track calculating, rate of penetration and forecasting of cost, with boring, strata pressure etc. is soft Part model support is completed.Each control and functional mode strictly require to set out with site technique, integrate the reason of different industries and profession By science and professional technique, includes the operating instruction and experience of scene optimization, carry out scientific and reasonable analysis and calculating, completely Take precautions against and prevented various artificial erroneous judgements, maloperation, give arbitrary and impracticable direction, high risk, poor efficiency the problems such as.

Therefore, by intelligent drilling expert system, pass through casing programme, drill assembly, ground environment, borehole track (mark), the informationization for taking rock situation etc., the real-time processing and analysis of drilling parameter, realize the visualizing monitor to drilling process, Risk automatic control alarm, optimized drilling instruction output etc..

(3) executing agency

The executing agency is used for:Receive the regulation and control instruction that the intelligent expert system issues, and to corresponding existing Field device sends the regulation and control instruction, and then controls the working condition of the field device, to optimize situ of drilling well technical process.

The field device that executing agency is driven includes:Lifting system, rotary system, the circulatory system, power-equipment, transmission Equipment, control system and ancillary equipment.

Wherein, the lifting system includes that winch, automatic bit feed winch, traveling system, rig tool, bank head machinery are set It is standby;

The rotary system includes turntable, tap and top drive;

The circulatory system includes drilling pump, high pressure pipe joint, circulating tank, solid control equipment, Deal With Drilling Fluid and storage facilities;

The power-equipment includes diesel generating set, Gas Generator Set and motor;

The drive apparatus include slow down and vehicle, transfer, steering, reversing, speed change, bending moment machine driving, hydraulic power, Hydraulic drive and electric-driving installation;

The control system includes SCR/VFD electric driving control systems, hydraulic control system and pneumatic control system;

The ancillary equipment includes gas supply supply equipment, auxiliary generating plant, hoisting aids equipment and blowout control equipment.

In addition, for common different bite types during current actual well drilled, in conjunction with the use of live drilling equipment Situation, it is proposed that different prediction models come in drilling process rate of penetration and cost predict.Below with PDC drill bit For, introduce a kind of specific prediction model of rate of penetration and cost forecast model.

As shown in Fig. 2, being predicted rate of penetration and cost to be a kind of by optimizing to PDC drill bit drilling parameter Flow chart.

Step 1:Construct the multiple objective function of PDC drill bit drilling parameter optimization

Step 2:The constraints for determining parameter optimization multiple objective function establishes PDC drill bit drilling ginseng according to constraints Number Optimized model.

Step 3:According to the real-time detection parameters of drilling, real-time regression Duffing equation parameter.

Step 4:The drilling parameter that PDC drill bit is determined according to above-mentioned Optimized model realizes the multiple-objection optimization of drilling parameter.

Wherein step 1 further comprises:

According to drilling well actual conditions, it is based on two object functions:Drilling speed and every meter of drilling cost, utilize binary objective optimization The object function of theory building drilling parameter optimization.The object function of drilling parameter optimization is:

MaxF (x)=α1f1(x)-α2f2(x)

Wherein:

f1(x) it is rate of penetration target, unit m/h;

f2(x) it is every meter of drilling cost target, unit is member/m;

α12For reflect policymaker's wish each object function weight,

In step 2, the constraints includes:Bit pressure constraints, rotating speed constraints, bit wear constrain item Part, drilling depth constraints, rate of penetration constraints and drilling cost constraints.

It is worth noting that the drilling parameter multi-goal optimizing function established is the object function of a broad sense.Hold power Weight α1=0, α2When=1, object function reforms into every meter of drilling cost least model;Work as weight α1=1, α2When=0, target letter Number has reformed into rate of penetration maximum model.

PDC drill bit equation for drilling rate and wear equation are the bases of PDC drill bit drilling parameter objective optimization.It is innovated in this implementation Property the method that is combined of PDC drill bit ROP mode and quaternary ROP mode, learn from other's strong points to offset one's weaknesses, be conducive to calculate and optimization.

In formula:

V is drilling speed, m/h;

K is and the relevant coefficient of colligation of factors such as the drillability of rock;

WsFor than bit pressure, kN/cm;

N is drill speed, r/min;

D is drill bit than water power, W/cm2;

Δ p is bottom hole pressure difference, Mpa;

a1,b1,c1,d1The respectively influence coefficient of bit pressure, rotating speed, water power and bottom hole pressure difference to drilling speed.

Assuming that bit breakage is mainly to occur in the form of bit wear, then according to bit life equation and linear accumulation Defect theory, can be obtained a certain interval or full well section (according to formation parameter principle of invariance, is divided into multiple layers by a certain microbedding section Section or multiple microbedding sections) bit wear equation be:

In formula:

φ is internal friction angle of rock, degree;

T is rotating hours, h;

hfFor bit wear amount, dimensionless;

Parameter a, b, c, d is bit life equation coefficient;

N is rotating speed to be optimized, rpm;

W is bit pressure to be optimized, kN.

By integral, drill bit total drilling time t can be obtainedfFor:

tf=a φbWcedN(hf2-hf1)

Total footage HfFor:

Drilling speed is:

Every meter of drilling cost is:

In formula:

CpmFor every meter of drilling cost, member/m;

CbFor drill bit cost, member/only;

CrFor drilling machine operating cost;

ttTo make a trip, making up a joint the time.

Multiple objective function expression formula is:

It determines constraints, drilling parameter is analysed in depth, the parameter calculated in above-mentioned equation is returned, according to application The improved simulated annealing genetic algorithm based on real coding solves PDC drill bit drilling parameter Model for Multi-Objective Optimization, solution The certainly poor problem of genetic algorithm local search ability, to determine PDC drill bit drilling parameter on the whole.

The realization thought of this method is as follows:

Step1:Evolutionary generation counter initializes:t←0.

Step2:Randomly generate initial population P (t).

Step3:Evaluate the adaptive value of population P (t).

Step4:Individual intersection operates:P’(t)←Crossover[P(t)].

Step5:Individual variation operates:P”(t)←Mutation[P’(t)].

Step6:Individual simulated annealing operation:P”’(t)←SimulatedAnnealing[P”(t)].

Step7:Evaluate the adaptive value of population P " ' (t).

Step8;Individual choice replicates operation:P(t+1)←Reproduction[P(t)U P”’(t)].

Step9:End condition judges.

If being unsatisfactory for end condition,:T ← t+1 goes to Step4, continues evolutionary process:If meeting end condition,: Current optimum individual is exported, algorithm terminates.

In specific implementation, intelligent drilling expert system provided by the invention is made of system hardware and software.

(1) hardware implements explanation

Including:1GPS/3G antennas, 2 displays, 3 explosion-resistant enclosures, 4 power supplys, 5 system master making sheet and spot sensor, The compositions such as CAN acquisition modules.Whole integrated explosion-proof design, is installed in driller control house of drilling rig.If drilling engineer, Head pusher, platform manager host computer display terminal, are connect by communication cable with host, information real-time synchronization.According to different hilllocks Position setting corresponding authority.

(2), software systems implement explanation

System software is made of boundary layer, kernel service layer, Data support, driving application layer etc..

Wherein, boundary layer mainly completes man-machine information and control instruction interactive function.By driller's main interface, drilling engineer The compositions such as interface, platform manager interface, head pusher interface, Facilities Engineer interface.Wherein, driller's main interface and system host Integrated design, by HDMA interface drivers, other interfaces are deployed in PC machine, and long-range friendship in real time is realized by network and host Mutually.

By boundary layer, system is made to realize Complete Information, including real-time drilling machinery ginseng first to drilling well overall process Number, hydraulic parameters, actual efficiency data, geography information, formation information, safe condition etc..Meanwhile drilling well overall process is realized It is the large closed-loop control being oriented to target.

Kernel service layer is mainly support with various software models.Using intelligent algorithm, to drilling machinery parameter, water Force parameter, accident and the complicated, borehole wall and frictional resistance etc. modeling program.Mainly it is made of following subitem:Bottom schedule driven mould Block, well data handle analysis module, drilling risk diagnosis prediction module, rate of penetration inspection optimization module, waterpower ginseng in real time Count inspection optimization module, drag and torque computing module, with brill formation pressure calculation module etc..

Data support by device attribute data, drilling tool data, drilling engineering data, historical empirical data, in real time Monitoring data derive from the compositions such as calculating data.Using database technology, high efficient and flexible is called, stores and is returned and looks into.

System data layer uses Mysql5.1 databases, and stable after transplanting optimizes, speed is fast, professional platform independence energy It is good.

It is divided into following several classes by system function and service logic:

(1) real-time data collection table (SSCJinfo) is stored in whole gathered datas;

(2) derivation amount information table (PSinfo) is calculated, the derivation amount directly calculated is stored in;

(3) algorithm derives from scale (SFPSLinfo), is stored in the derivation amount calculated from algorithm;

(4) Optimal Parameters information table (YHCSinfo), the Optimal Parameters that deposit algorithm calculates in brill;

(5) and the relevant data of accident, accident critical parameter table (STPDinfo), this table store the reality of all accidents judgements When gathered data, derivation amount, threshold values;Accident record table (SGJLinfo) etc.;

(6) other units need the data stored, including the parameter of optimization before drilling, equipment running status, driller's operation letter Breath, warning message, down-hole pressure prompt, system prompt execute record, accident and complex situations parameter and processing;

(7) corresponding every real data is generated in each item data of storage design and operation.

In recent years, due to the universal operation of ultradeep well, extended reach well and horizontal well so that drilling prospection development difficulty is continuous It increases, oil drilling exploration all over the world and exploitation Frequent Accidents, severe and great casualty such as Mexico of Britain BP companies offshore oil Drilling platforms accident, China Petroleum Chongqing Kaixian gas blowout accident etc. cause the great warp such as equipment scrapping, casualties, environmental pollution Ji loss and serious social influence.In addition, small accident such as well kick, leakage, bit freezing etc. almost occurs everyday.According to non-public data Incomplete statistics, the direct economic loss that domestic each oil drilling company handles small-sized production accident every year is few then millions of, more Then several ten million.

The application of intelligent drilling expert system provided by the invention can make drilling well overall process prevent maloperation completely, miss The man's activities such as judge, give arbitrary and impracticable direction so that drilling engineering safety and be efficiently completed.Meanwhile spudder's number of passes of situ of drilling well It is negative for engineers and technicians, head pusher personnel, drilling team administrative staff and higher level according to the multistage industrial network of composition field level Duty personnel understand drilling well overall process information, participate in and cooperate at any time, and pass through Internet or wireless network real time remote Corporate HQ is transmitted to being drilled with meter borehole track, adjusting drilling method, determine completion strategy etc., proposes that expert consultation decision refers to Opinion is enabled, drilling crew is fed back to, real-time optimized drilling construction is realized, can also make drilling well and reservoir geology personnel " perspective " stratum The positive drilling well of image real-time oversight and the well track for waiting for drilling well, and directly control drilling equipment and precisely hit target a layer target spot, it is Oil and gas discovery provides the technical guarantee of update.

The above is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that for the ordinary skill people of the art For member, various improvements and modifications may be made without departing from the principle of the present invention, these improvements and modifications are also answered Depending on protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of intelligent drilling expert system, which is characterized in that including:Spot sensor detecting system, intelligent expert system and Executing agency;The output end of the spot sensor detecting system is connect with the input terminal of the intelligent expert system;The intelligence The output end of energy expert system is connect with the input terminal of the executing agency, and automated closed-loop drilling well regulator control system is consequently formed;
Wherein, the spot sensor detecting system is used for:In drilling well overall process, drilling well detection data is acquired in real time, and will The collected drilling well detection data is uploaded to the intelligent expert system in real time;
The intelligent expert system is used for:The drilling well detection data that the spot sensor detecting system uploads is received, and Intellectual analysis is carried out to the drilling well detection data in real time, to optimize situ of drilling well technique as target, generation sets situ of drilling well Standby regulation and control instruction, and the regulation and control instruction is issued to corresponding executing agency;
The executing agency is used for:The regulation and control instruction that the intelligent expert system issues is received, and is set to corresponding scene Preparation send the regulation and control instruction, and then controls the working condition of the field device, to optimize situ of drilling well technical process;
The intelligent expert system includes:Input unit, expert model, output unit and overall process informationization man-machine interface;
The input unit is used to input basic data source to the expert model;The basic data source includes and situ of drilling well Relevant well bore project data, geological environment data, device attribute data, offset well data and spot sensor inspection The drilling well detection data that examining system is acquired and uploaded in real time;
The expert model includes wellbore hydraulics computation model, well drilling pipe column mechanics model, hole stability analysis mould Type, drilling risk prediction and diagnostic model, borehole track computation model, rate of penetration and cost forecast model and with bore be laminated Power prediction model;
Wherein, the wellbore hydraulics computation model is used for:The basic data source that the input unit is inputted is read, is obtained Drilling well pump characteristics, drill column structure, drill bit classification, property of drilling fluid, drilling fluid in pipe and the flow regime of annular space;And it calculates It obtains creeping into recycle stream dynamic pressure consumption in real time, in conjunction with Hydrodynamics Theory, optimizes and determine drilling well waterpower target component, and then generation pair The control instruction of drilling process;
The well drilling pipe column mechanics model is used for:Read the currently practical drill assembly number that the input unit is inputted According to obtaining the drilling tool attribute in the well drilling pipe column of actual use, including drilling tool classification, drilling tool length, drilling tool internal diameter outer diameter value, bore Have the antitorque value of tension, drilling tool service life and drilling tool class information;And when real-time drilling is calculated the drilling tool Mechanical Data, Optimization determines drilling machinery limit restraint Protection parameters, and then generates the control instruction to drilling process;
The hole stability analysis model is used for:The derived data source that the input unit is inputted is read, drilling fluid is obtained Real-time pressure equilibrium response on annular space stratum, the automatic drillability for calculating identification formation lithology and Different Strata and lithology Stability feature, optimizing drilling mud and hydraulic parameters;
The drilling risk prediction and diagnostic model are used for:Pre-established drilling risk model;The input unit is inputted The basic data source is input to the drilling risk model, runs the drilling risk model, is carried out to live drilling condition Risk profile;Wherein, the drilling risk model includes:Well kick risk model, blowout risk model, leakage risk model and card Bore risk model;
The operational process of the well kick risk model, the blowout risk model and the leakage risk model is:By described Basic data source, the situation of change of data and drilling liquid parameter when obtaining gas detection, boring, by the gas detection, brill When data and the situation of change of drilling liquid parameter analyzed, predict relevant risk;
The bit freezing risk model includes:The sub- risk model of the viscous suction bit freezing of pressure difference, the sub- risk model of sand setting bit freezing, cave in bit freezing Risk model, the sub- risk model of well wall dropping block bit freezing, turn on pump suppress the sub- risk model of leakage bit freezing, the sub- risk mould of junk bit freezing in well Type, the sub- risk model of undergauge bit freezing, the sub- risk model of key-seating sticking and the sub- risk model of balling-up sticking;
The borehole track computation model is used for:Obtain true stratigraphic section complete data, including formation lithology and density, storage Layer characteristic and reference lamina, pneumatic jack, oil reservoir, interlayer, oily bed rock and its depth, formation fluid depth and Fluid pressure, fluidity Matter, the three-dimensional wellbore trajectory of real brill, drill string and its real-time working condition of accessory and drill bit, downhole drill dynamic operation condition;To the stratum Section complete data carries out comprehensive analysis and integration, and interpretation process obtains the technical parameter and decision of well section optimization to be drilled, And with planned well path structure geology and compared with the engineering model moment, generate the control instruction to drilling process;
The rate of penetration and cost forecast model are used for:It predicts real-time bit pressure, and bit pressure rotating speed is optimized;Specially: It is associated with the mathematic(al) mode of drilling process rule and set optimization aim, establishes drilling object function;On this basis, with people Work Intelligent Control Theory and linear, nonlinear programming approach, in the case where determining constraints, the drilling of optimization object function Parameter, and then generate the control instruction to drilling process;
It is described to be used for brill prediction of formation pressure model:To bottom pressure control and the control of mud line manifold system automation;Specifically For:Analysis in real time calculate termination of pumping, stop boring, pull out of hole, it is lower bore, the bottom pressure under drilling condition, balance and manage with bottom pressure By, bottom pressure Controlling model is established, thus optimizing drilling and the speed that makes a trip, and then generate and the control of drilling process is referred to Enable, control well invade, overflow, well kick, blowout, the generation of leakage, well slough drilling failure;
The output unit is for exporting the control instruction to drilling process that the expert model is generated;It is additionally operable to output report Alert information, casing programme, drill assembly, ground environment, borehole track, mechanical parameter, hydraulic parameters, mud solid phase information;
The overall process informationization man-machine interface is used for:Show real-time analog picture and the drilling risk prompt of drilling process;
Wherein, the intelligent expert system further includes:It bores front simulation module and is summarized back after boring and look into module;
The operational process for boring front simulation module includes the following steps:
S1, reading and the relevant basic data of situ of drilling well, including:Well bore project data, geological environment data, device attribute number According to this and offset well data;
S2, is based on the basic data, and simulation creates virtual emulation well;
S3, the virtual emulation well loads pending drilling technology parameter, and chooses a kind of pre-stored expert model, by institute It states drilling technology parameter to be input to the expert model and run, obtains the 1st drilling well appraisal report;Wherein, the 1st drilling well is commented Valence report to the engineering design of the virtual emulation well, complexity and risk, cost and efficiency for carrying out scientific evaluation;
S4 is based on the 1st drilling well appraisal report, adjusts the drilling technology parameter, and recycles and carry out S3, thus constantly to institute It states drilling technology parameter and optimizes and change well, obtain best drilling technology parameter;The drilling technology parameter instruct existing Field drilling process;
It is summarized back after the brill and looks into the operational process of module and include the following steps:
S5, after drilling engineering, the virtual emulation well corresponding with situ of drilling well is led to selected expert model Enter offset well complete report, and the history real-time detector data in drilling well all-work, the expert are inputted to the expert model After model running, the 2nd drilling well appraisal report is obtained, and store the 2nd drilling well appraisal report as offset well supplemental characteristic;
The rate of penetration and cost forecast model, are specifically used for:
Step 10:Construct the parameter optimization multiple objective function of PDC drill bit drilling;
This step is specially:It is theoretical using binary objective optimization according to drilling speed object function and every meter of drilling cost object function, Construct following parameter optimization multiple objective function:
MaxF (x)=α1f1(x)-α2f2(x)
Wherein:
F(x):Object function;
f1(x) it is rate of penetration target, unit m/h;
f2(x) it is every meter of drilling cost target, unit is member/m;
α12For reflect policymaker's wish each object function weight,
Step 20:The constraints for determining the parameter optimization multiple objective function is established PDC drill bit according to the constraints and is bored Into optimization model;
Wherein, the constraints includes:Bit pressure constraints, rotating speed constraints, bit wear constraints, drilling depth constraint Condition, rate of penetration constraints and drilling cost constraints;
Step 30:According to the real-time detection parameters of drilling, real-time regression Duffing equation parameter;
Step 40:According to the PDC drill bit drilling parameter Optimized model, the drilling parameter of PDC drill bit is determined, realize drilling parameter Multiple-objection optimization;
Wherein, step 10 is specially:
The parameter optimization multiple objective function established is the object function of a broad sense;Work as weight α1=0, α2When=1, target letter Number becomes every meter of drilling cost least model;Work as weight α1=1, α2When=0, object function becomes rate of penetration maximum model;
PDC drill bit equation for drilling rate and wear equation are the bases of PDC drill bit drilling parameter objective optimization;I.e.:Establish PDC below The equation that drill bit ROP mode and quaternary ROP mode are combined:
In formula:
vpeFor drilling speed, m/h;
K be and the relevant coefficient of colligation of drillability of rock factor;
WsFor than bit pressure, kN/cm;
N is drill speed, r/min;
D is drill bit than water power, W/cm2;
E is the truth of a matter of natural logrithm, is an irrational number, is approximately equal to 2.71828;
△ p are bottom hole pressure difference, Mpa;
a1,b1,c1,d1The respectively influence coefficient of bit pressure, rotating speed, water power and bottom hole pressure difference to drilling speed;
Assuming that bit breakage is that occur in the form of bit wear, then according to bit life equation and linear cumulative damage law, The bit wear equation that a certain interval or a certain microbedding section can be obtained is:
In formula:
φ is internal friction angle of rock, degree;
T is rotating hours, h;
hfFor bit wear amount, dimensionless;
Parameter a, b, c, d is bit life equation coefficient;
N is rotating speed to be optimized, rpm;
W is bit pressure to be optimized, kN;
By integral, drill bit total drilling time t can be obtainedfFor:
tf=a φbWcedN(hf2-hf1)
hf2, hf1The respectively bit wear amount at current time and previous moment, dimensionless;
Total footage HfFor:
Drilling speed is:
Every meter of drilling cost is:
In formula:
CpmFor every meter of drilling cost, member/m;
CbFor drill bit cost, member/only;
CrFor drilling machine operating cost;
ttTo make a trip, making up a joint the time;
Multiple objective function expression formula is:
It determines constraints, drilling parameter is analysed in depth, the parameter calculated in above-mentioned equation is returned, according to application enhancements Simulated annealing genetic algorithm based on real coding solve PDC drill bit drilling parameter Model for Multi-Objective Optimization, in totality Upper determining PDC drill bit drilling parameter;
Wherein, described that drilling parameter is analysed in depth, the parameter calculated in above-mentioned equation is returned, according to the base of application enhancements PDC drill bit drilling parameter Model for Multi-Objective Optimization is solved in the simulated annealing genetic algorithm of real coding, specially:
Step 1:Evolutionary generation counter initializes:t←0;
Step 2:Randomly generate initial population P (t);
Step 3:Evaluate the adaptive value of population P (t);
Step 4:Individual intersection operates:P’(t)←Crossover[P(t)];
Step 5:Individual variation operates:P”(t)←Mutation[P’(t)];
Step 6:Individual simulated annealing operation:P”’(t)←SimulatedAnnealing[P”(t)];
Step 7:Evaluate the adaptive value of population P " ' (t);
Step 8;Individual choice replicates operation:P(t+1)←Reproduction[P(t)U P”’(t)];
Step 9:End condition judges;
If being unsatisfactory for end condition,:T ← t+1 goes to Step4, continues evolutionary process:If meeting end condition,:Output Current optimum individual, algorithm terminate;
Intelligent drilling expert system is made of system hardware and software, and system software is supported by boundary layer, kernel service layer, data Layer, driving application layer composition;
Wherein, boundary layer completes man-machine information and control instruction interactive function;By driller's main interface, drilling engineer interface, put down Platform handles interface, head pusher interface, Facilities Engineer interface composition;Wherein, driller's main interface is integrated with system host sets Meter, by HDMA interface drivers, other interfaces are deployed in PC machine, and long-range real-time, interactive is realized by network and host;
By boundary layer, system is made to realize Complete Information, including real-time drilling mechanical parameter, water first to drilling well overall process Force parameter, actual efficiency data, geography information, formation information, safe condition;Meanwhile drilling well overall process is realized with target Target spot is the large closed-loop control being oriented to;
Kernel service layer is support with software model, using intelligent algorithm, to drilling machinery parameter, hydraulic parameters, accident It programs with the complicated, borehole wall and frictional resistance modeling, is made of following subitem:Bottom schedule driven module, well data are handled in real time Analysis module, drilling risk diagnosis prediction module, rate of penetration inspection optimization module, hydraulic parameters inspection optimization module, frictional resistance Torque arithmetic module, with bore formation pressure calculation module;
Data support is by device attribute data, drilling tool data, drilling engineering data, historical empirical data, in real time monitoring Data derive from calculating data composition;System data layer uses Mysql5.1 databases, stable, the speed after transplanting optimizes Soon, professional platform independence can be good;
It is divided into following several classes by system function and service logic:
(1) real-time data collection table is stored in whole gathered datas;
(2) derivation amount information table is calculated, the derivation amount directly calculated is stored in;
(3) algorithm derives from scale, is stored in the derivation amount calculated from algorithm;
(4) Optimal Parameters information table, the Optimal Parameters that deposit algorithm calculates in brill;
(5) and the relevant data of accident, accident critical parameter table, this table store the real-time data collection of all accidents judgements, group Raw amount, threshold values;Accident record table;
(6) unit needs the data stored, including the parameter of optimization before drilling, equipment running status, driller's operation information, alarm signal Breath, down-hole pressure prompt, system prompt execute record, accident and complex situations parameter and processing;
(7) corresponding every real data is generated in each item data of storage design and operation;
Wherein, the spot sensor detecting system includes ground transaucer detecting system and downhole sensor detecting system;
The ground transaucer detecting system includes winch state sensor detection subsystem, the detection of automatic bit feed state sensor Subsystem, turntable state sensor detection subsystem, operating status sensor detection subsystem is driven on top, slush pump operating status passes Sensor detects the operation monitor and detection subsystem that subsystem, mud solid phase and volume trend state sensor detect subsystem, MCC System, well control device detection subsystem, standpipe pressure detection subsystem and annular pressure detect subsystem;
The downhole sensor detecting system includes drill bit bit pressure detection subsystem, torque-on-bit detection subsystem, drill speed It detects subsystem, bottom pressure detection subsystem, bottom hole temperature (BHT) detection subsystem and bit orientation angle and detects subsystem;
Wherein, the winch state sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:Winch operating status, alarm condition, Tourist bus position, hook weigh and winch motor electric current;
The automatic bit feed state sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:It send and bores operating status, alarm condition, trip Truck position, hook weigh and send brill current of electric;
The turntable state sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:Rotary speed, the limitation of turntable torque, turntable bore Well torque and turntable electric current;
Operating status sensor detection subsystem is driven for detecting following information in the top:Drive operating status, alarm condition, brill in top Well torque, torque wrench moment, Top Drive RPM, arrange parameter is driven on top and electric current is driven on top;
The slush pump operating status sensor detection subsystem is for detecting following information:Pump impulse, pump pressure, discharge capacity and rotating speed;
The mud solid phase and volume trend state sensor detection subsystem are for detecting following information:Mud entrance density, Slurry outlet density, mud entrance viscosity, slurry outlet viscosity, mud entrance flow, mud-outlet-flow, mud entrance temperature Degree, the detection of slurry outlet temperature, oil-containing gassiness, mud pit liquid level, mud pit total volume, mud entrance conductivity and mud Export conductivity;
The operation monitor and detection subsystem of the MCC is for detecting following information:Hydraulic station pump, winch hydraulic power source, blender, filling It notes pump, replenishment pump, aggravate pump, mixing pump, deaerator, vibrating screen, centrifugal pump and shear pump;
Wherein, the field device that the executing agency is driven includes:Lifting system, rotary system, the circulatory system, power are set Standby, drive apparatus, control system and ancillary equipment;
Wherein, the lifting system includes winch, automatic bit feed winch, traveling system, rig tool, bank head machinery equipment;
The rotary system includes turntable, tap and top drive;
The circulatory system includes drilling pump, high pressure pipe joint, circulating tank, solid control equipment, Deal With Drilling Fluid and storage facilities;
The power-equipment includes diesel generating set, Gas Generator Set and motor;
The drive apparatus includes deceleration and vehicle, transfer, steering, reversing, speed change, bending moment machine driving, hydraulic power, hydraulic pressure Transmission and electric-driving installation;
The control system includes SCR/VFD electric driving control systems, hydraulic control system and pneumatic control system;
The ancillary equipment includes gas supply supply equipment, auxiliary generating plant, hoisting aids equipment and blowout control equipment;
The control of drilling well overall process function monitoring is divided into:Real time monitoring in front simulation, brill is bored, is summarized back after brill and looks into function;
It bores front simulation and a well is beaten according to the input data simulation in addition to real-time detection, engineering design, complexity to this mouthful of well Scientific evaluation is carried out with risk, cost and efficiency;It summarizes back and looks into after brill, for further total to drilling well overall process historical data Knot, analysis, generate report, are stored in database, and providing more optimized data to drilling well in future as offset well data instructs;In brill in real time Monitoring is core, is calculated by wellbore hydraulics, well drilling pipe column calculates, hole stability analysis, drilling risk is predicted and diagnosis, well Eye orbit computation, rate of penetration and forecasting of cost are completed with brill strata pressure software model support;Control and functional mode are stringent It requires to set out with site technique, integrates the pure science and professional technique of different industries and profession, including the behaviour that scene optimizes Make regulation and experience, carry out scientific and reasonable analysis and calculating, takes precautions against and prevented artificial erroneous judgement completely, maloperation, becomes blind Commander, high risk, low efficiency problem;
Therefore, by intelligent drilling expert system, by casing programme, drill assembly, ground environment, borehole track, rock feelings are taken Condition is information-based, and the real-time processing and analysis of drilling parameter, realization automatically control report to the visualizing monitor of drilling process, risk Alert, optimized drilling instruction output.
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