CN104796082A - System and method for diagnosing faults of photovoltaic power generation systems in online manner - Google Patents

System and method for diagnosing faults of photovoltaic power generation systems in online manner Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104796082A
CN104796082A CN201510197855.2A CN201510197855A CN104796082A CN 104796082 A CN104796082 A CN 104796082A CN 201510197855 A CN201510197855 A CN 201510197855A CN 104796082 A CN104796082 A CN 104796082A
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China
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photovoltaic
monitoring
header box
module
photovoltaic generating
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CN201510197855.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
吴志锋
舒杰
崔琼
吴昌宏
张继元
黄磊
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中国科学院广州能源研究所
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Priority to CN201510197855.2A priority Critical patent/CN104796082A/en
Publication of CN104796082A publication Critical patent/CN104796082A/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02SGENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER BY CONVERSION OF INFRA-RED RADIATION, VISIBLE LIGHT OR ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, e.g. USING PHOTOVOLTAIC [PV] MODULES
    • H02S50/00Monitoring or testing of PV systems, e.g. load balancing or fault identification

Abstract

The invention provides a system for diagnosing faults of photovoltaic power generation systems in an online manner. The system comprises an upper computer, an environment monitoring instrument, a photovoltaic monitoring terminal, header box monitoring modules, assembly monitoring modules and the like. The upper computer has analyzing and processing functions, the environment monitoring instrument and the photovoltaic monitoring terminal are connected with the upper computer, the header box monitoring modules are respectively arranged on various header boxes, and the assembly monitoring modules are respectively arranged on various photovoltaic assemblies. The system has the advantages that the system is simple and reasonable in structure, each assembly monitoring module is arranged on the corresponding photovoltaic assembly, each header box monitoring module is arranged on the corresponding header box, accordingly, voltages, currents and power on each photovoltaic assembly, each photovoltaic assembly string and the header boxes can be detected; the various monitoring modules are organized to form a network and are matched with the environment monitoring instrument and the photovoltaic monitoring terminal, monitored and acquired data of various devices of the photovoltaic power generation systems and other reference data can be uploaded to the upper computer along network nodes step by step, accordingly, running states of the photovoltaic power generation systems can be comprehensively analyzed, and the system has an online fault diagnosing function.

Description

A kind of photovoltaic generating system online system failure diagnosis and method

Technical field

The present invention relates to field of solar thermal power generation, particularly relate to a kind of integration, efficient, intelligent photovoltaic generating system online system failure diagnosis, a kind of photovoltaic generating system on-line fault diagnosis method.

Background technology

Through the fast development in more than ten years, China's photovoltaic industry has entered the large-scale development stage.End 2013, it is 17.16GW that China's photovoltaic adds up installation, and within 2014, newly-increased photovoltaic installation amount target is 14GW, and the year two thousand twenty photovoltaic generation total capacity will reach 180GW.The operation level of photovoltaic generating system is the key element of influential system benefit, and it will directly affect operation expense, the generating efficiency of photovoltaic generating system, and generating reliability, and how safeguards system high level runs is each side's questions of common interest.

But so huge large-scale photovoltaic generating system, number of devices is huge, and when certain device fails, check all one by one all devices, workload is very huge.For the photovoltaic plant of 50,000 kilowatts, inverter has 100 multiple stage, header box 800 multiple stage, battery component more than 190,000 pieces, the direct current of One's name is legion is also had to conflux branch road, in addition the distribution of current photovoltaic generating system or remote geographic location, have inconvenient traffic, build at building roof, equipment routing inspection is very difficult with management.

Also have at present the data acquisition for photovoltaic generating system and supervisory control system, but its Problems existing has: 1) monitor data can not adopt, insincere.Do not organize string monitoring or only have the collection of simple group string data, control measurement precision is not high, measurement data is inaccurate; 2) monitor data reports difficulty.Monitor data is uploaded by RS-485 bus, and transmission rate is low, communication failure is many, it is serious to miss alarm and fail to report situation; 3) fault location difficulty.Photovoltaic module and number of nodes huge, lack effective fault location means, fault detect mainly by manual inspection, by the comparison of universal instrument hand dipping, troubleshooting cycle long, impact generating output, maintenance efficiency is low, it is large to drop into manpower; 4) system management lacks digitlization means.Monitor message simply gathers and presents, and mass data form is by the manual process of Excel, and aggregation of data analysis ability is poor, and generating performance analysis and improvement lack quantification means, cannot realize multisystem unified management.

Visible, be necessary the system to existing photovoltaic generating system fault detection and diagnosis, method makes improvements.

Summary of the invention

For the problems referred to above, the object of the invention is to propose a kind of integration, efficient, intelligent photovoltaic generating system online system failure diagnosis and method, to realize the on-line fault diagnosis to photovoltaic generating system.

In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:

A kind of photovoltaic generating system online system failure diagnosis, the photovoltaic generating system applied comprises interchange cabinet and some photovoltaic DC-to-AC converters, every platform photovoltaic DC-to-AC converter accesses some roads header box, every road header box accesses some roads photovoltaic group string, every road photovoltaic group string is in series by some pieces of photovoltaic modulies, described photovoltaic generating system online system failure diagnosis comprises the host computer with treatment and analysis function, the environment monitor be connected with host computer, photovoltaic monitoring terminal, and the header box monitoring modular be separately positioned on the header box of each road, be separately positioned on the assemblies monitor module on each piece of photovoltaic module,

Wherein,

Assemblies monitor module, for monitoring the voltage of photovoltaic module, electric current and power, and is uploaded in the header box detection module of higher level;

Header box monitoring modular, for gathering the voltage of header box Zhong Mei road photovoltaic group string, electric current and power, and the data that the component detection module collecting subordinate is uploaded, be uploaded to photovoltaic monitoring terminal in the lump;

Photovoltaic monitoring terminal, for collecting the data that each header box detection module is uploaded, gathering the operational factor exchanging cabinet, monitoring switch state signal and the analog signals of each equipment in photovoltaic generating system, and the data of collecting, gathering and monitoring are stored, then be uploaded to host computer.

Correspondingly, the invention allows for a kind of photovoltaic generating system on-line fault diagnosis method, comprise the following steps:

The type of steps A, foundation photovoltaic generating system is determined to treat diagnostic device;

Step B, determine to characterize and wait to diagnose the characteristic parameter of equipment running status, and read the instantaneous value of characteristic parameter;

The threshold value of the assessment models calculated characteristics parameter of diagnostic device is treated described in step C, reading or foundation;

Step D, the instantaneous value of characteristic of correspondence parameter and threshold value are made difference;

Step e, when described difference exceeds preset range, judge corresponding to treat that diagnostic device exists fault, and record trouble, transmission alarm is to operation maintenance personnel;

Step F, from be preset in host computer, have read-write and memory function knowledge base read failure treating method and guide operation maintenance personnel to carry out fault restoration;

Step G, after fault restoration, upgrade described knowledge base.

The present invention by arranging an assemblies monitor module on every block photovoltaic module, each header box arranges a header box monitoring modular, each photovoltaic module can be detected, voltage on every road photovoltaic group string and header box, electric current and power, and be organized as network by multiple monitoring modular, and coordinate environment monitor, photovoltaic monitoring terminal, make monitoring progressively can be uploaded to host computer along network node with the data of each equipment of photovoltaic generating system collected with other reference datas, thus the running status of photovoltaic generating system is comprehensively analyzed, realize the function of on-line fault diagnosis.

The present invention has the following advantages: the parts of comparatively easily acquisition, low cost, low-power consumption 1, can be adopted as assemblies monitor module, realize the monitoring of the photovoltaic module to substantial amounts, for its fault detect and location provide feasibility; 2, photovoltaic generating system is divided into square formation level, group tandem, component level, realize classified Monitoring and the location of fault, make malfunction monitoring and location sooner, more accurate; 3, monitoring is more accurate with the data gathered, and reports simple and reliable step by step, and transmission rate is high, report by mistake and fail to report and lack.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the grid-connected non-accumulation energy type photovoltaic generating system of mesohigh and supervisory control system schematic diagram thereof;

Fig. 2 is photovoltaic generating system online fault method of disposal flow chart;

Fig. 3 is the non-accumulation energy type photovoltaic generating system of low-pressure grid-connection and supervisory control system schematic diagram thereof;

Fig. 4 is low-pressure grid-connection accumulation energy type photovoltaic generating system and supervisory control system schematic diagram thereof;

Fig. 5 is that low pressure is from net accumulation energy type photovoltaic generating system and supervisory control system schematic diagram thereof;

Description of reference numerals: 1, assemblies monitor module; 2, header box monitoring modular; 3, photovoltaic monitoring terminal; 4, environment monitor; 5, host computer.

Embodiment

Whether photovoltaic generating system is grid-connected by is divided into grid type and from net type photovoltaic generating system, is divided into high-pressure type, medium-pressure type and low-pressure type photovoltaic generating system by electric pressure, by whether being divided into accumulation energy type and non-accumulation energy type photovoltaic generating system containing energy storage.General for from net type, be all low-pressure type, and all should configure energy-storage system.Further, for middle high-pressure grid type, generally energy-storage system is not configured.And for the structure of middle high-pressure parallel networking type photovoltaic electricity generation system, be almost consistent except grid-connected transformer voltage grade difference.Therefore actual light photovoltaic generating system mainly contains low pressure from net accumulation energy type, low-pressure grid-connection accumulation energy type, the non-accumulation energy type of low-pressure grid-connection, the grid-connected non-accumulation energy type of mesohigh etc. four kinds.

For enabling above-mentioned purpose of the present invention, feature and advantage become apparent more, and below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention is further detailed explanation.

Embodiment 1

Fig. 1 is a grid-connected non-accumulation energy type photovoltaic generating system of mesohigh and supervisory control system schematic diagram thereof.This photovoltaic system comprises the equipment such as step-up transformer, AC power distribution cabinet/AC distribution panel, photovoltaic DC-to-AC converter, and every platform photovoltaic DC-to-AC converter accesses some roads header box, and every road header box accesses again some roads photovoltaic group string, and every road photovoltaic group string is in series by multiple photovoltaic module; The concrete quantity viewing system scale of the said equipment and determining.The allocation plan of its online system failure diagnosis is: a host computer 5, photovoltaic monitoring terminal 3, environment monitor 4, header box monitoring modular 2 is some, and assemblies monitor module 1 is some.When on-line fault diagnosis is carried out to photovoltaic generating system, data acquisition communication process is: first in each block photovoltaic module, access an assemblies monitor module 1, voltage, electric current, the power of photovoltaic module is monitored by this assemblies monitor module 1, and communicate with higher level's header box monitoring modular 2, the voltage of real-time report photovoltaic module, electric current, power data; Then in each header box, a header box monitoring modular 2 is accessed, gather header box every road photovoltaic group string total voltage, electric current, power data on the one hand, communicated with the assemblies monitor module 1 be arranged on photovoltaic module by wireless communication port on the other hand, obtain voltage, electric current, the power data of photovoltaic module, by wireless communication port in the lump on deliver to photovoltaic monitoring terminal 3; Photovoltaic monitoring terminal 3 has important function within the system, and its function comprises: (1) radio communication function, communicates with header box, gathers voltage, electric current, the power data of header box photovoltaic group string and photovoltaic module; (2) there is switching value position signalling monitoring function, the transformer of monitoring photovoltaic generating system, the switch state signal exchanged in cabinet, DC cabinet; (3) there is analog quantity monitoring function, monitoring step-up transformer, the analog signals exchanged in cabinet, DC cabinet; (4) there is RS485/RS232 communication function, communicate with photovoltaic DC-to-AC converter, gather the related data of photovoltaic DC-to-AC converter; (5) there is data storage function, the data of above-mentioned collection are stored; (6) ethernet communication function, communicates with host computer 5, by above-mentioned data upload to host computer 5.In figure, fine line represents wired communications links, and dotted line represents wireless communication link, and heavy line then represents power line.

Accordingly, the invention allows for a kind of photovoltaic generating system on-line fault diagnosis method, can be used as software program and operate in host computer, comprise the following steps:

The type of steps A, foundation photovoltaic generating system is determined to treat diagnostic device;

Step B, determine to characterize and wait to diagnose the characteristic parameter of equipment running status, and read the instantaneous value of characteristic parameter;

The threshold value of the assessment models calculated characteristics parameter of diagnostic device is treated described in step C, reading or foundation;

Step D, the instantaneous value of characteristic of correspondence parameter and threshold value are made difference;

Step e, when described difference exceeds preset range, judge corresponding to treat that diagnostic device exists fault, and record trouble, transmission alarm is to operation maintenance personnel;

Step F, from be preset in host computer, have read-write and memory function knowledge base read failure treating method and guide operation maintenance personnel to carry out fault restoration;

Step G, after fault restoration, upgrade described knowledge base.

Fig. 2 is failure diagnosis and the disposal process of host computer 5.The method regards whole photovoltaic generating system as an entirety, corresponding characteristic parameter is set to each equipment in system, by gathering the instantaneous value of these characteristic parameters, the threshold value of characteristic parameter is directly read from equipment, or the threshold value of characteristic parameter is calculated according to the assessment models of each equipment fault, the instantaneous value of comparative feature parameter and threshold value, thus equipment fault is identified, and by modes such as sound, light, image, notes to operation maintenance personnel alarm, provide troubleshooting suggestion by knowledge base; Wherein this knowledge base can according to each troubleshooting result, and autonomous learning is constantly perfect.

First, according to photovoltaic generating system type, determine the system equipment of required failure diagnosis, namely treat diagnostic device.The equipment of photovoltaic generating system mainly contains grid-connected transformer, exchanges grid-connection cabinet, photovoltaic DC-to-AC converter, DC cabinet, controller, storage battery, header box, photovoltaic module etc., wherein maximum with the quantity of photovoltaic module again, the most difficult identification of fault.But not all photovoltaic generating system all comprises the said equipment, as isolated island type photovoltaic generating system does not just have grid-connected transformer and grid-connection cabinet, non-accumulation energy type photovoltaic generating system does not just have storage battery and controller.For the present embodiment, the equipment of photovoltaic generating system mainly contains transformer, grid-connection cabinet, photovoltaic DC-to-AC converter, header box, photovoltaic module etc., using these equipment as treating diagnostic device.

Secondly, according to different device types, determine to characterize the characteristic parameter treating that diagnostic device normally runs, and then by gathering and judging whether these operational factors are in normal range (NR), judge to treat whether diagnostic device exists fault.

The characteristic parameter of grid-connected transformer comprises high and low pressure side voltage, electric current, power and temperature of oil in transformer, pressure etc., its monitoring method for be gathered by photovoltaic monitoring terminal 3, and is uploaded to Surveillance center by the ethernet interface that photovoltaic monitoring terminal 3 has.

The characteristic parameter exchanging grid-connection cabinet is grid-connected switch position signal and measurement meter.The characteristic parameter of DC cabinet is DC switch position signalling.Its monitoring method is the same with the method for grid-connected transformer, gathered by photovoltaic monitoring terminal 3 and on give.

The characteristic parameter of photovoltaic DC-to-AC converter comprises DC voltage, electric current, power, AC voltage, electric current, power, frequency, power factor, module temperature etc.A lot of photovoltaic DC-to-AC converter itself also has malfunction monitoring function in addition, forms alarm status word.These monitor-interfaces (being generally RS232 or RS485) all passing through photovoltaic DC-to-AC converter itself deliver to host computer 5.

Controller and storage battery are applied to usually to be needed in the photovoltaic generating system of energy storage, and must use simultaneously, the monitoring of storage battery is also mostly realized by controller, complicated controller needs to monitor the state often saving storage battery, and the state of batteries string only monitored by simple controller.Its characteristic parameter comprises voltage, electric current, temperature etc.Controller, according to these characteristic parameter instantaneous values, judges the charging and discharging state of storage battery, by the monitor-interface of itself delivers to host computer 5.

The characteristic parameter of photovoltaic module is the voltage of assembly, electric current and power.Malfunction monitoring for photovoltaic module is the most difficult, and in order to accurate measurements and the fault of locating photovoltaic module, the present invention can be monitored by square formation level, group tandem, component level etc. three grades.Its general principle is: by the technical indicator parameter of photovoltaic module as voltage-current characteristic, conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage, electric current etc., (global radiation is comprised with the solar radiation that environment monitor 4 is monitored, scattering, direct projection), ambient temperature, humidity, the parameters such as atmospheric pressure, the power output inputting photovoltaic generating system together calculates in model, calculate square formation level respectively, group tandem, the generating power output theoretical value of component level etc. three grades, again with inverter, header box, assemblies monitor module 1 correspondence of monitoring actual power output valve at different levels is compared, see that whether difference is at zone of reasonableness, if difference, thinks do not have fault in the reasonable scope, otherwise then think that this level assembly exists fault.

Wherein, the power output of photovoltaic generating system calculates model and is: first environmentally parameter (mainly solar radiation and temperature), and contrast assembly V-I characteristic curve, draws the theoretical power output (being designated as P) of assembly.For group string rating formula: P always=P × N × η 1, in formula, N is number of components, η 1for series efficiency.As follows for square formation rating formula: P always=P × N × η 2, η in formula 2for efficiency of solar array.For same photovoltaic generating system, series component number and parallel component base are originally all fixing, therefore in systems in which can by η 1, η 2be chosen for a certain constant.

The monitoring method of component level is the assemblies monitor module 1 embedding a low cost, low-power consumption on every block photovoltaic module, this assemblies monitor module 1 can not only detect the voltage of photovoltaic module, electric current and power, also there is wireless Wifi communication function, automatically adjacent Wifi node can be detected, self-organizing network.Each control command of assemblies monitor module 1 and the data of collection are transmitted one by one along other sensor nodes, and be routed to aggregation node through too much bar---and gateway (relay reception transmitter), send to host computer 5 finally by the wireless communication mode such as wired ethernet and WiFi, 3G.

If treat that diagnostic device has fault, produce alarm, and notify operation maintenance personnel by modes such as sound, light, image, notes, then from the knowledge base of failure diagnosis, inquire about troubleshooting way, instruct operation maintenance personnel to carry out fault restoration; Or operation maintenance personnel is repaired fault in conjunction with self-skill, experience and actual conditions.Finally, according to the recovery scenario of operation maintenance personnel to fault, storehouse of refreshing one's knowledge, for troubleshooting next time provides better guidance; So repeatedly, make knowledge base constantly perfect.

Embodiment 2

Fig. 3 is a non-accumulation energy type photovoltaic generating system of low-pressure grid-connection and supervisory control system schematic diagram thereof, and compared with embodiment 1, the structure of photovoltaic generating system is almost completely the same, and difference does not have step-up transformer.Therefore photovoltaic generating system online system failure diagnosis is identical with embodiment 1, and when carrying out on-line fault diagnosis to photovoltaic generating system, only needs to get rid of step-up transformer when determining until diagnostic device.

Other technical characteristic is identical with embodiment 1, repeats no more herein.

Embodiment 3

Fig. 4 is a low-pressure grid-connection accumulation energy type photovoltaic generating system and supervisory control system schematic diagram thereof, and compared with embodiment 2, this photovoltaic generating system adds charging-discharging controller and storage battery.Its on-line fault diagnosis method is: the working temperature of being monitored the voltage of its alternating current-direct current end, electric current, power and storage battery by charging-discharging controller collection, stores and upload these data to host computer 5; In host computer 5, set up the fault diagnosis model of these equipment, determine to characterize the characteristic parameter that these equipment normally run, judge whether these operational factors are in normal range (NR), and then judge whether this equipment exists fault.

Other technical characteristic, with reference to embodiment 1,2, repeats no more herein.

Embodiment 4

Fig. 5 is that a low pressure is from net accumulation energy type photovoltaic generating system and supervisory control system schematic diagram thereof, compared with embodiment 3, this photovoltaic generating system is not only connected with power distribution network when exchanging and importing and exchange cabinet, but be directly connected with load, but this does not affect building of online system failure diagnosis and to the diagnosis of fault and disposal, therefore its on-line fault diagnosis method is identical with embodiment 3.

Cross-referenced between above-described embodiment.

The present invention by arranging an assemblies monitor module on every block photovoltaic module, each header box arranges a header box monitoring modular, each photovoltaic module can be detected, voltage on every road photovoltaic group string and header box, electric current and power, and be organized as network by multiple monitoring modular, and coordinate environment monitor, photovoltaic monitoring terminal, make monitoring progressively can be uploaded to host computer along network node with the data of each equipment of photovoltaic generating system collected with other reference datas, thus the running status of photovoltaic generating system is comprehensively analyzed, realize the function of on-line fault diagnosis.It adopts the parts of comparatively easily acquisition, low cost, low-power consumption as assemblies monitor module, realizes the monitoring of the photovoltaic module to substantial amounts, for its fault detect and location provide feasibility; Photovoltaic generating system is divided into square formation level, group tandem, component level, realize classified Monitoring and the location of fault, make malfunction monitoring and location sooner, more accurate; Monitoring is more accurate with the data gathered, and reports simple and reliable step by step, and transmission rate is high, it is few to report by mistake and fail to report.

The above embodiment only have expressed several execution mode of the present invention, and it describes comparatively concrete and detailed, but therefore can not be interpreted as the restriction to the scope of the claims of the present invention.It should be pointed out that for the person of ordinary skill of the art, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, can also make some distortion and improvement, these all belong to protection scope of the present invention.Therefore, the protection range of patent of the present invention should be as the criterion with claims.

Claims (2)

1. a photovoltaic generating system online system failure diagnosis, the photovoltaic generating system applied comprises interchange cabinet and some photovoltaic DC-to-AC converters, every platform photovoltaic DC-to-AC converter accesses some roads header box, every road header box accesses some roads photovoltaic group string, every road photovoltaic group string is in series by some pieces of photovoltaic modulies, it is characterized in that:
Described photovoltaic generating system online system failure diagnosis comprises the host computer with treatment and analysis function, the environment monitor be connected with host computer, photovoltaic monitoring terminal, and is separately positioned on the header box monitoring modular on the header box of each road, the assemblies monitor module be separately positioned on each piece of photovoltaic module;
Wherein,
Assemblies monitor module, for monitoring the voltage of photovoltaic module, electric current and power, and is uploaded in the header box detection module of higher level;
Header box monitoring modular, for gathering the voltage of header box Zhong Mei road photovoltaic group string, electric current and power, and the data that the component detection module collecting subordinate is uploaded, be uploaded to photovoltaic monitoring terminal in the lump;
Photovoltaic monitoring terminal, for collecting the data that each header box detection module is uploaded, gathering the operational factor exchanging cabinet, monitoring switch state signal and the analog signals of each equipment in photovoltaic generating system, and the data of collecting, gathering and monitoring are stored, then be uploaded to host computer.
2. adopt an on-line fault diagnosis method for photovoltaic generating system online system failure diagnosis as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, comprise the following steps:
The type of steps A, foundation photovoltaic generating system is determined to treat diagnostic device;
Step B, determine to characterize and wait to diagnose the characteristic parameter of equipment running status, and read the instantaneous value of characteristic parameter;
The threshold value of the assessment models calculated characteristics parameter of diagnostic device is treated described in step C, reading or foundation;
Step D, the instantaneous value of characteristic of correspondence parameter and threshold value are made difference;
Step e, when described difference exceeds preset range, judge corresponding to treat that diagnostic device exists fault, and record trouble, transmission alarm is to operation maintenance personnel;
Step F, from be preset in host computer, have read-write and memory function knowledge base read failure treating method and guide operation maintenance personnel to carry out fault restoration;
Step G, after fault restoration, upgrade described knowledge base.
CN201510197855.2A 2015-04-22 2015-04-22 System and method for diagnosing faults of photovoltaic power generation systems in online manner CN104796082A (en)

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Application publication date: 20150722