CN104792937A - Bridge head bump detection evaluation method based on vehicle-mounted gravitational acceleration sensor - Google Patents

Bridge head bump detection evaluation method based on vehicle-mounted gravitational acceleration sensor Download PDF

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CN104792937A
CN104792937A CN201510154084.9A CN201510154084A CN104792937A CN 104792937 A CN104792937 A CN 104792937A CN 201510154084 A CN201510154084 A CN 201510154084A CN 104792937 A CN104792937 A CN 104792937A
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acceleration
bridge
vehicle
bumping
head
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CN104792937B (en
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刘成龙
杜豫川
孙立军
李思雨
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Tongji University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W40/00Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models
    • B60W40/02Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models related to ambient conditions
    • B60W40/06Road conditions
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01CCONSTRUCTION OF, OR SURFACES FOR, ROADS, SPORTS GROUNDS, OR THE LIKE; MACHINES OR AUXILIARY TOOLS FOR CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR
    • E01C23/00Auxiliary devices or arrangements for constructing, repairing, reconditioning, or taking-up road or like surfaces
    • E01C23/01Devices or auxiliary means for setting-out or checking the configuration of new surfacing, e.g. templates, screed or reference line supports; Applications of apparatus for measuring, indicating, or recording the surface configuration of existing surfacing, e.g. profilographs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B21/00Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the preceding groups
    • G01B21/30Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the preceding groups for measuring roughness or irregularity of surfaces

Abstract

The invention relates to a bridge head bump detection evaluation method based on a vehicle-mounted gravitational acceleration sensor. The method comprises the following steps: selecting the gravitational acceleration sensor, a sampling frequency, a Zigbee remote transmission module and GPS (global positioning system) equipment; determining a suggested vehicle speed; acquiring gravitational acceleration information of traveling on a road section of bridge head bump through the gravitational acceleration sensor; performing wavelet transformation on gravitational acceleration data, and finding a bump generation point of bridge head bump; transforming acceleration data around the bump point through discrete Fourier transformation to obtain power spectrum density; calculating a root-mean-square value of spectrum density of different frequency domains with a one-third octave method; according to a root-mean-square value of weighed acceleration and upper and lower limits of comfort, calculating traveling annoyance rate; by utilizing a system response algorithm and Laplace transformation, calculating an equivalent impact coefficient of bridge head bump; performing grading on comfort of bridge head bump according to the root-mean-square value of weighed acceleration and the annoyance rate; performing grading on durable damage of bridge head bump according to the equivalent impact coefficient. The method solves problems of high time and labor consumption, high price and the like of a conventional detection method.

Description

A kind of bumping at bridge-head method of determination and evaluation based on vehicle-mounted Gravity accelerometer
Technical field
The invention belongs to road surface reparation and automatic information collecting technical field, be specifically related to a kind of bumping at bridge-head method of determination and evaluation based on vehicle-mounted Gravity accelerometer.
Background technology
In the last few years, highway in China construction achieves the achievement of advancing by leaps and bounds, the high-grade highway put into effect and use increases year by year, but from service condition, the economic loss produced by bumping at bridge-head and traffic hazard are but progressively risen, especially even more serious in the region of some soft soil foundations, bring great difficulty to maintenance and administrative authority.The vehicle bump at bridge ends road and bridge non-uniform settling that to be bridges and culverts structure etc. produce under the effect of dead weight and traffic load throughout the year, causes road and bridge joints to occur end of the bridge step, when the porpoising phenomenon of the vehicle of running at high speed by producing during back filling behind abutment place.
At present, the research of bumping at bridge-head mainly concentrates on its Producing reason, harm and countermeasure aspect, and the monitoring lacked bumping at bridge-head development degree and judgement.Only rely on engineering prevention and control, be difficult to meet improvement to vehicle bump at bridge ends, it can only be that passive utilizing works working measure improves the disease occurred, and cannot prevent or the generation of prevention accident.And can not accident harm be reduced when accident occurs, should initiative be given full play in the operation process of reality, reasonably carry out detecting and punishing for vehicle bump at bridge ends, trouble-saving generation in advance.
Traditional bumping at bridge-head detection mode is mostly based on the detection method of road evenness, as three meters of ruler methods, level gage measurement method, continuous formation degree instrument, jolt accumulating instrument etc., these methods not only troublesome poeration, uses and maintenance cost costliness, and requires high to measurement environment.The difference of elevation parameter measured also is difficult to provide effective Data support directly perceived to maintenance.Therefore a kind of quick, economy, intuitively bumping at bridge-head checking and appraising technology is needed.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of bumping at bridge-head method of determination and evaluation based on vehicle-mounted Gravity accelerometer, car detection method time and effort consuming is jumped for solving traditional end of the bridge, the problems such as cost intensive, and propose new evaluating be used for accurate evaluation bumping at bridge-head produce impact.The technical matters that specifically will solve is, modeling analysis is carried out to the data that vehicle-mounted Gravity accelerometer gathers, find and affect the sex key parameter of human body ride comfort, and the method quantizing these impacts is provided, set up detection method and the evaluating of versatility.
The bumping at bridge-head method of determination and evaluation based on vehicle-mounted Gravity accelerometer that the present invention proposes, utilize vehicle-mounted acceleration transducer collection vehicle acceleration information and then evaluate bumping at bridge-head, utilizing root mean square of weighed acceleration and travel worried rate to characterize the comfortableness impact of bumping at bridge-head generation; Theoretical according to system responses, set up vehicle spring and carry acceleration change and the correlation model of taking turns end acceleration change, and then solve equivalent coefficient of impact to characterize the permanance damage impact of bumping at bridge-head, concrete steps are as follows:
(1) choose suitable Gravity accelerometer, range meets ± 8g requirement, and sample frequency is 20Hz, described Gravity accelerometer is placed in position directly over the left and right trailing wheel in car;
(2) suitable Zigbee remote transmission module and GPS device is chosen; Described Zigbee remote transmission module and Gravity accelerometer interconnected, for send Gravity accelerometer gather car in acceleration information; Utilize GPS device collection position information data and system time;
(3) according to traffic flow situation, determine to test the speed of a motor vehicle, ensure that testing vehicle is stable at such speeds and travel, the suggestion speed of a motor vehicle is 50-60km/h;
(4) vehicle is detected to test the road and bridge extradition fragment position that the speed of a motor vehicle crosses bumping at bridge-head generation, be captured in Z axis acceleration and the GPS information of these road and bridge extradition section traveling by Gravity accelerometer, and rely on Zigbee remote transmission device that detection data are carried out real-time transmission and storage to computer;
(5) utilize wavelet transformation to decompose the Z axis acceleration information collected in step (4), filtering high-frequency data, retain low frequency acceleration collection of illustrative plates, determine acceleration change maximal value, namely bumping at bridge-head jolts generation point;
(6) according to Wei Na-Xin Qin formula, calculate the autocorrelation function of the acceleration information collected in a front and back 1.5s that jolts, and by fourier transform, obtain acceleration power spectral density;
(7) utilize the method for 1/3rd octaves to step (6) obtain power spectrum density and carry out bandpass filtering, integration is carried out to each wave band, and calculated product divides evolution value, solves the power spectrum density root-mean-square value between different frequency domain:
In formula: be ipower spectrum density root-mean-square value in individual wave band, for lower-frequency limit in wave band, for upper frequency limit in wave band, for acceleration power spectral density;
(8) carry out data weighting according to axial, the site weighting coefficient that propose in international standard ISO2631, solve root mean square of weighed acceleration:
In formula, for root mean square of weighed acceleration, for frequency weighting coefficient, for axial weighting coefficient, j=1,2,3 represent respectively x, y, zthree axles, for wave band number, generally get n=23;
(9) according to root mean square of weighed acceleration and human feeling's sex differernce distribution function, solve and travel worried rate:
In formula, for concept membership function, characterize the sensitivity difference of human body, for worried rate;
(10) solve Z axis acceleration power spectral density root-mean-square value in car, according to the mechanical characteristics of 1/4th vehicle models, utilize system responses model, estimate the equivalent amplitude of wheel end acceleration information, set up bumping at bridge-head system responses model;
In formula, for in car zthe power spectral density function of axle acceleration, for the Laplace transformation coefficient of system responses, for spectral density mean square value, for the discreet value of wheel end acceleration, for angular velocity.
(11) equivalent coefficient of impact is defined as maximum vertical power that when bumping at bridge-head occurs, vehicle produces bridge structure than the enhancement coefficient of the vertical power of smooth-ride before upper bridge, brings in calculating formula by middle for step (10) equation:
In formula, for equivalent coefficient of impact, for maximum vertical wheel end acceleration, for acceleration at the bottom of the vertical wheel of automobile during smooth-ride, mfor vehicle mass, , for calibration coefficient, when testing vehicle does not change, this variable is constant, if measure first, needs to demarcate, for acceleration power spectral density when bumping at bridge-head occurs, for acceleration power spectral density during smooth-ride;
(12) if measuring speed is not at 50-60 km/hin scope, then need to utilize speed correction factor to carry out calibration of the output results.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is: described method not only proposes the comfort index of bumping at bridge-head from driving experience angle, and from vehicle bump at bridge ends, index is damaged to the permanance that the angle that abutment produces additional impact effect proposes abutment, achieve the comprehensive evaluation of bumping at bridge-head.Described detection method is based on vehicle-mounted Gravity accelerometer, simple to operate, convenient and efficient, economical rationality, obtains parameter accurate and visual, is applicable to large-scale road-bridge transition section and jumps the evaluation of car phenomenon.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is a kind of bumping at bridge-head method of determination and evaluation process flow diagram based on vehicle-mounted Gravity accelerometer;
Fig. 2 is bumping at bridge-head position wavelet transformation diagram; Wherein: (a) is Z axis acceleration raw-data map, and (b) is the data plot after wavelet transformation;
Fig. 3 is the weighting coefficient of different frequency;
Fig. 4 is 1/4th vehicle models.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention is elaborated.
Embodiment
(1) determine to test the speed of a motor vehicle, and selected acceleration transducer and sample frequency.For meeting measuring accuracy requirement, select Gravity accelerometer amount to become ± 8g, accuracy of detection is 0.0025mg, and sample frequency is 20Hz, and the test speed of a motor vehicle is 50 km/h.
(2) select part typical bumping at bridge-head that position occurs at Huzhou City, utilize road maintenance vehicle, model is Nissan: TLH5023XKCWJ2 carry out data acquisition.Placement sensor directly over the trailing wheel of left and right, in order to avoid the impact of engine luggine, vibrating to ensure that sensor and car body are worked in coordination with, adopting bonding mode, sensor device is affixed to fixed position in inspection vehicle.Test carriage, with standard detection speeds, utilizes sensor to gather acceleration information breath.Testing vehicle starts apart from bridge 500m position, guarantees have enough operating ranges to make it accelerate to 50km/h, and at the uniform velocity drives through this region.
(3) by Matlab software, import the acceleration information collected, utilize the method for wavelet transformation, analyze vertical acceleration change, find the action site that bumping at bridge-head occurs, as shown in Figure 2.To get the 1.5s responsively time before and after this site respectively, the acceleration information intercepting this section carries out auto-correlation and Fourier transform obtains acceleration power spectral density, utilize the method bandpass filtering of 1/3rd octaves, solve the acceleration root-mean-square value in each wave band respectively.Then utilize weighting coefficient to be weighted, the distribution of frequency weighting coefficient as shown in Figure 3, can obtain the root mean square of weighed acceleration of left and right wheels respectively, calculate its average to characterize the comprehensive impact of this position, and carry out classification according to table 1 to its comfortableness.
The subjectivity sense comfortableness table of comparisons of table 1 root mean square of weighed acceleration and people
Root mean square of weighed acceleration ( The subjective comfortableness sensation of people
< 0.315 Not uncomfortable
0.315-0.63 Some is uncomfortable
0.5-1.0 Uncomfortable
0.8-1.6 Quite uncomfortable
1.25-2.5 Very uncomfortable
> 2.0 Extremely uncomfortable
(4) because the perception of human body for vibration there are differences, thus result in when carrying out comfortableness classification, there is crossover values between different brackets, as 0.6 .For quantizing the difference of this sensitivity, and making root mean square of weighed acceleration and a certain subjective characteristics one_to_one corresponding, thus refer to the concept of worried rate in experimental psychology, be used for characterizing the benefit that a certain vibrating effect produces.By the root mean square of weighed acceleration of calculating in (3) as independent variable, bring in the calculating formula of worried rate respectively, the worried rate of traveling of this position can be solved.When root mean square of weighed acceleration is more than 2 time, worried rate reaches 100%, namely illustrates that the bumping at bridge-head of this position can cause the driver of 100% can not accept it, therefore must renovate.
(5) will import in Matlab without acceleration vertical in the car of 1/3rd octave process, according to definition expression and the mechanical model of 1/4th vehicle models, as Fig. 3, can find that it meets linear time invariant system, then can utilize the method for system responses in stochastic process, push away road surface reaction accekeration by accekeration in car is counter.According to the concept of equivalent coefficient of impact, power spectrum density when occurring with jumping car when solving stable traveling respectively, solves its root-mean-square value respectively, and does to compare.Obtain according to calibration experiment / =0.78, bring result into expression formula, obtain the equivalent coefficient of impact of this position.
(6) test speed is the principal element affecting bumping at bridge-head severe degree, if therefore test is not carried out under unified speed, the parameter of acquisition then lacks comparability.For ensureing that the measurement result under friction speed can compare, have employed speed correction factor and result is revised, utilizing above-mentioned testing apparatus same discrepancy in elevation section (about 30mm) respectively with 20-55 km/height velocity gradients carry out control variable measurement, and calculate the root mean square of weighed acceleration under friction speed and equivalent coefficient of impact respectively, result is as shown in table 2, utilizes different likelihood function matching to provide the correction result of maximum likelihood, as table 3 respectively.
Table 2 friction speed gradient is through each Parameters variation of same section (30mm)
Measuring speed Root mean square of weighed acceleration Worried rate Equivalent coefficient of impact
20 1.35085 68.21% 0.344899
25 1.92114 85.21% 0.961843
30 2.11023 89.74% 1.130859
35 2.48207 97.57% 1.262694
40 2.72373 100% 1.481661
45 3.43031 100% 1.545188
50 3.57408 100% 1.696978
55 4.70459 100% 1.839702
Table 3 root mean square of weighed acceleration (on), equivalent coefficient of impact (under) from the different model of fit of speed
Model of fit Fitting result SSE RMSE
Linear fit y= 0.08558x-0.4221 0.952 0.388 0.944 0.2543
Power function fitting y=0.03545 0.958 0.3389 0.9511 0.2377
Exponential function matching y=0.7994 0.9753 0.1998 0.9711 0.1825
Logarithmic function matching y= 2.907ln(x)-7.599 0.8996 0.8109 0.8829 0.3676
Model of fit Fitting result SSE RMSE
Linear fit y= 0.03715x-0.11 0.9076 0.1474 0.8922 0.1568
Power function fitting y=0.02986 0.9034 0.1541 0.8873 0.1603
Exponential function matching y=0.4528 0.8364 0.2611 0.8092 0.2086
Logarithmic function matching y= 1.335ln(x)-3.4873 0.9603 0.06343 0.9536 0.1028
With the test speed of 50km/h for the standard speed of a motor vehicle, then speed correction factor result of calculation is as follows:
In formula, with for standardization equivalent root mean square of weighed acceleration and standardization equivalent coefficient of impact, with for in speed vunder the two parameter value that records.
(7) can obtain human body subjectivity parameter weighting acceleration root-mean-square value and worried rate by the method above based on onboard sensor, the permanance that simultaneously also can obtain bridge damages parameter equivalent coefficient of impact.Through test of many times, result of calculation is stablized.May be used for engineering maintenance and detect use.
The above; be only the typical embodiment of the present invention, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, is anyly familiar with those skilled in the art in the technical scope that the present invention discloses; the change that can expect easily or replacement, all should be encompassed within protection scope of the present invention.Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with the protection domain of claim.

Claims (1)

1. the bumping at bridge-head method of determination and evaluation based on vehicle-mounted Gravity accelerometer, it is characterized in that utilizing vehicle-mounted acceleration transducer collection vehicle acceleration information and then evaluating bumping at bridge-head, utilize root mean square of weighed acceleration and travel worried rate to characterize the comfortableness impact of bumping at bridge-head generation; Theoretical according to system responses, set up vehicle spring and carry acceleration change and the correlation model of taking turns end acceleration change, and then solve equivalent coefficient of impact to characterize the permanance damage impact of bumping at bridge-head, concrete steps are as follows:
(1) choose suitable Gravity accelerometer, range meets ± 8g requirement, and sample frequency is 20Hz, described Gravity accelerometer is placed in position directly over the left and right trailing wheel in car;
(2) suitable Zigbee remote transmission module and GPS device is chosen; Described Zigbee remote transmission module and Gravity accelerometer interconnected, for send Gravity accelerometer gather car in acceleration information; Utilize GPS device collection position information data and system time;
(3) according to traffic flow situation, determine to test the speed of a motor vehicle, ensure that testing vehicle is stable at such speeds and travel, the suggestion speed of a motor vehicle is 50-60km/h;
(4) vehicle is detected to test the road and bridge extradition fragment position that the speed of a motor vehicle crosses bumping at bridge-head generation, be captured in Z axis acceleration and the GPS information of these road and bridge extradition section traveling by Gravity accelerometer, and rely on Zigbee remote transmission device that detection data are carried out real-time transmission and storage to computer;
(5) utilize wavelet transformation to decompose the Z axis acceleration information collected in step (4), filtering high-frequency data, retain low frequency acceleration collection of illustrative plates, determine acceleration change maximal value, namely bumping at bridge-head jolts generation point;
(6) according to Wei Na-Xin Qin formula, calculate the autocorrelation function of the acceleration information collected in a front and back 1.5s that jolts, and by fourier transform, obtain acceleration power spectral density;
(7) utilize the method for 1/3rd octaves to step (6) obtain power spectrum density and carry out bandpass filtering, integration is carried out to each wave band, and calculated product divides evolution value, solves the power spectrum density root-mean-square value between different frequency domain:
In formula: be ipower spectrum density root-mean-square value in individual wave band, for lower-frequency limit in wave band, for upper frequency limit in wave band, for acceleration power spectral density;
(8) carry out data weighting according to axial, the site weighting coefficient that propose in international standard ISO2631, solve root mean square of weighed acceleration:
In formula, for root mean square of weighed acceleration, for frequency weighting coefficient, for axial weighting coefficient, j=1,2,3 represent respectively x, y, zthree axles, for wave band number, generally get n=23;
(9) according to root mean square of weighed acceleration and human feeling's sex differernce distribution function, solve and travel worried rate:
In formula, for concept membership function, characterize the sensitivity difference of human body, for worried rate;
(10) solve Z axis acceleration power spectral density root-mean-square value in car, according to the mechanical characteristics of 1/4th vehicle models, utilize system responses model, estimate the equivalent amplitude of wheel end acceleration information, set up bumping at bridge-head system responses model;
In formula, for in car zthe power spectral density function of axle acceleration, for the Laplace transformation coefficient of system responses, for spectral density mean square value, for the discreet value of wheel end acceleration, for angular velocity;
(11) equivalent coefficient of impact is defined as maximum vertical power that when bumping at bridge-head occurs, vehicle produces bridge structure than the enhancement coefficient of the vertical power of smooth-ride before upper bridge, brings in calculating formula by middle for step (10) equation:
In formula, for equivalent coefficient of impact, for maximum vertical wheel end acceleration, for acceleration at the bottom of the vertical wheel of automobile during smooth-ride, mfor vehicle mass, , for calibration coefficient, when testing vehicle does not change, this variable is constant, if measure first, needs to demarcate, for acceleration power spectral density when bumping at bridge-head occurs, for acceleration power spectral density during smooth-ride;
(12) if measuring speed is not at 50-60 km/hin scope, then need to utilize speed correction factor to carry out calibration of the output results.
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CN109798869A (en) * 2019-03-12 2019-05-24 河北锐驰交通工程咨询有限公司 A kind of device and its working method of the distribution of measurement bumping at bridge-head height difference
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