CN104756745A - Weeding-free transplanting method for sugarcane detoxification original seedling - Google Patents

Weeding-free transplanting method for sugarcane detoxification original seedling Download PDF

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CN104756745A
CN104756745A CN201510204141.XA CN201510204141A CN104756745A CN 104756745 A CN104756745 A CN 104756745A CN 201510204141 A CN201510204141 A CN 201510204141A CN 104756745 A CN104756745 A CN 104756745A
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transplanting
original seed
furrow
seed seedling
sugarcane
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CN104756745B (en
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武媛丽
杨本鹏
蔡文伟
杨学
张树珍
曾军
伍苏然
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Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences
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Abstract

The invention relates to the field of biotechnology and discloses a weeding-free transplanting method for sugarcane detoxification original seedlings. By adopting the method, the survival rate of the transplanted sugarcane detoxification original seedlings can reach above 99%, after the transplantation, the recovery growth of the sugarcane detoxification original seedlings is fast, the seedling cost and daily management cost are greatly saved, and the problems of weeding, irrigation, weeding labor and the like in the growing process of the sugarcane detoxification original seedlings are well solved.

Description

A kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling exempts careless transplanting method
Technical field
The present invention relates to biological technical field, refer to that a kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling exempts careless transplanting method especially.
Background technology
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is of paramount importance sugar [yielding and energy crop.Being the first economic crops in China tropical and subtropical region, is these areas (sugarcane district majority the belongs to old revolutionary base areas, areas inhabited by minority nationalities) main source of peasant economy income, the important component part of local finance.China is one of main Chan Tang state of the world, and sugarcane is then the primary raw material of China's sugaring, and sugarcane sugar accounts for about about 94% in the total amount of China's sugar.Sugar is one of necessary edible product of the mankind, is also one of important source material of the food industry such as candy, food and beverage.Therefore, development sugarcane production, to improving the quality of life of the people, promoting the development of agricultural and related industry, and even all has consequence and effect to the development of whole national economy.
China sugarcane is mainly distributed in the torrid zone on the south north latitude 24 ° and subtropical zone, with provinces and regions such as Guangxi, Yunnan, Guangdong and Hainan for major production areas." 12 " planning is pointed out, the area under cultivation of sugar material sugarcane will be stabilized in 2,900 ten thousand mu, and gross yield reaches more than 1.4 hundred million tons, to ensure that the consumption of domestic sugar is substantially self-supporting.
In sugarcane production, much more all to adopt vegetative propagation, after perennial root cultivation for many years, be easily subject to repeatedly infecting of multiple pathogen, make kind of a sexual involution, cause Sugar Content in Sugarcane and production declining.Wherein serious with the impact of mosaic disease and ratoon stunting disease, and common physicochemical method is difficult to eradicate, and becomes the principal element of restriction China's sugarcane per unit area yield and sugar content raising.
The employing combined with heat treatment axillalry bud sediment diversion ratio technology proposed by China tropic Agriculture Academy Sciences tropic Biotechnology Research Institute, from the comprehensive detoxification of cane stalk section, study 5 aspects such as numerous, cause of disease fast detecting, field proliferating and corresponding cultivation techniques soon without sudden change, test shows that the sugarcane detoxication health seedling obtained by above step is not containing pathogen, sugarcane per unit area yield can be made to improve more than 20%, sugar content improves more than 0.5 percentage point, saves sowing quantity 60%.Successfully solve the technical barrier in China's sugarcane kind sexual involution and stock breeding.
The sugarcane detoxication original seed method for transplanting of current routine has: (1) adopts green house, utilizes plastic sack or polypots nursery and naked nursery two kinds in canopy.Advantage is that original seed transplantation of seedlings survival rate is high, but cost of transportation is high, and during field transplanting, survival rate reduces, and restoration ecosystem is slow; (2) the outdoor transplanting of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling is heeled in, and this method, without green house, is carried out transplanting in the open and heeled in.This law advantage is nursery nearby, convenient and simple.Shortcoming is that weeds are many, and during seedling, uprooting weed recruitment is many, causes management cost to improve, simultaneously due to similar to monocotyledon weed during sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling seedling and original seed transplantation of seedlings density greatly, easily there is the problem of pulling out wrong seedling, extracting seedling.
Summary of the invention
The present invention proposes a kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling and exempt careless transplanting method, on the basis of original outdoor transplanting method, solve the problems such as the weeding in sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling process of growth, irrigation and weeding recruitment preferably.
Technical scheme of the present invention is achieved in that
A kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling exempts careless transplanting method, it is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
(1) outdoor seedbed prepares: carried out by selected nursery lot making preparation for ploughing and sowing, playing furrow, raked in furrow face;
(2) process in furrow face: after fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer and insecticide being mixed, applies in the soil of furrow face; One deck material which can retain moisture is covered again in furrow face;
(3) preparation in seedbed: first install water spray facility on the furrow face being coated with material which can retain moisture, after in furrow face laying plastic; Mulch film surrounding is real by soil pressure; 1-2 days before transplanting, drips seedbed;
(4) process of original seed transplantation of seedlings: the packed or bottled sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling of having been taken root by individual plant, after hardening, cleaning and sterilization process, is transplanted in the material which can retain moisture in seedbed respectively by individual plant; To drench in time after transplanting normal root water;
(5) short-term heat and moisture preserving: after transplanting, above seedbed, covered with sunshade net carries out sunshade, moisturizing; When temperature is lower than 15 DEG C, then adds a cover 1 layer of plastic film and be incubated;
(6) water-fertilizer-pesticide management process: comprise water management, Nutrition Management, Pest Management 3 processes;
Water management: be sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling trickle by described water spray facility;
Nutrition Management: namely start pouring for one week after transplanting and execute liquid manure;
Pest Management: after removing outer layer plastic film and sunshade net, sprays insecticide control insect;
(7) go out the process in garden: the former seedling early growth 40-75 days of sugarcane detoxication, original seed seedling grows to 20-30 centimetre high, and original seed seedling starts to occur tillering, and can go out garden.
Further, in described step (1), concrete operations of making preparation for ploughing and sowing are: rotary tillage 20-30 centimetre, dark plough 35-45 centimetre, rotary tillage 20-30 centimetre; Playing furrow specification is: furrow height 0.1-0.15 rice, seedbed furrow face width 0.8-1.0 rice, long 10-15 rice, furrow furrow width 0.5-0.7 rice, smashes furrow face soil block, rake.
Further, in described step (2), fertilizer refers to people or feces of livestock and poultry, or the cake fertilizer be made up of above-mentioned ight soil, selected ight soil is carried out stack retting, fermentation before using, during use, use by every 10 square metres of furrow faces the fertilizer 15-20 kilogram that stack retting becomes thoroughly decomposed; Described inorganic fertilizer refers to urea, potash fertilizer and superphosphate, amount of application to be every 10 square metres of furrow face amounts of application be urea 0.2-0.4 kilogram, potassium chloride 0.2-0.4 kilogram, superphosphate 0.1-0.2 kilogram; Described agricultural chemicals is selected to kill and is used together with soil insect and ground insect two kinds of agricultural chemicals; Described material which can retain moisture refers to coconut palm chaff, bagasse or wooden chaff; Thin slag after described wooden chaff and sawmilling; Above-mentioned material which can retain moisture needs stack retting to use to fully fermentation is rear; Material which can retain moisture is 3-5 centimetre at furrow face cladding thickness.
Further, the described agricultural chemicals killed except soil insect chooses 5% phoxim granule or 8% malicious pungent granule, and 3.6% Dimehypo Fg chosen by the agricultural chemicals killed except ground insect; Amount of application spreads fertilizer over the fields each 0.1-0.2 kilogram of above-mentioned agricultural chemicals by every 10 square metres of furrow faces.
Further, after fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer and the insecticide mixing in described step (2), mix thoroughly with the dark soil in 8-12 centimetre, furrow face and use.
Further, in described step (3), described water spray facility is 2-3 bar spray band or dropper.
Further, described spray band is placed in distance both sides, furrow face 20-25 centimeters respectively, and the distance between spray bag is 40-50 centimetre; Described dropper is placed in distance both sides, furrow face 10-15 centimeters respectively, and the distance between dropper is 30-35 centimetre.
Further, in described step (4), the hardening of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling is operating as: the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling of being taken root by individual plant takes out from culturing room, be placed on shady and cool ventilation place hardening 2-3 days near ground of transplanting seedlings, avoid drenching with rain and solar light irradiation, then cut off the sack of culture bag or open the bottle cap of blake bottle, then placing hardening 2-3 days; Described sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling cleaning and sterilization is operating as: taken out by the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling after hardening, deduct the blade of seedling 2-3 centimetre, be placed in plastic big basin, with the clear water of flowing, medium is cleaned up, then with mass concentration be 50% carbendazim or mass concentration to be 75% tpn or mass concentration be 65% Difar 800 times of liquid root immersion 3-5 minute, take out and dry moisture in the cool; The transplantation of seedlings of described sugarcane detoxication original seed is operating as: by mulch film puncture during transplanting, plants in material which can retain moisture, deeply about 1.5-2 centimetre, then compacting by the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling that cleaning treatment is crossed by individual plant; Transplanting plant spacing is 8-10 centimetre, and line-spacing is 10-12 centimetre.
Further, described step (5), the installation method of sunshade net is: the bamboo let long with 3-3.5 rice or iron wire are converted into arc, is inserted in both sides, seedbed, covers sunshade net; During covered plastic film, divide in side, top and take leave of the ventilating opening that 2.0-2.5 rice, two ends opens a diameter 15-20 centimetre, open ventilating opening large equally in the centre of opposite side; After 15-20 days, temperature, higher than the plastic foil withdrawing to add a cover when 20 DEG C, withdraws from sunshade net in 15-20 days.
Further, in described step (6) Nutrition Management, described liquid manure drenches for every 5 days executes 1 time, and execute with the urea water liquid pouring that mass concentration is 0.092% for the 1-3 time, namely every 100 kg of water add the urea of 0.092 kilogram; After the 4th, all drench with the compound rich water liquid that mass concentration is 0.5% and execute, in described composite fertilizer, the ratio of N, P, K is 15:15:15, emerges no longer to drench for first 10 days and executes liquid manure; In described Pest Management, after removing outer layer plastic film, sunshade net, spray insecticide 1 time, go out garden and spray 1 time again the last week.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
(1) sugarcane detoxication original seed transplantation of seedlings survival rate is high.99% is reached with the sugarcane detoxication original seed shoot survival percent that this method is transplanted, all higher than the survival rate of transplanting (98%) with outdoor naked transplanting (95%) and green house.
(2) when sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling is heeled in, restoration ecosystem is fast.Ensure owing to supplying water, matrix is moistening, ground temperature equilibrium (especially winter), is conducive to original seed seedling root growth, directly enters vegetative period after the transplantation of seedlings of sugarcane detoxication original seed at about 3 days.And outdoor naked transplant and green house transplanting after, through the convalescence of 5-7 days.
(3) during the plantation of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling field transplanting, restoration ecosystem is fast.Because original seed transplantation of seedlings is that seedbed is carried out in the open, general transplanting is just carried out full exposure for 20 days afterwards and is penetrated, original seed seedling has adapted to local growth conditions, after being transplanted to land for growing field crops, changes in environmental conditions is little, the easy restoration ecosystem of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling, the height of seedling more than 5 percentage points that its survival rate (more than 95%) is transplanted than green house.
(4) cost-saving.With the original seed seedling that this law is transplanted, through adjusting, every ten thousand strains need 1740 yuan, and every ten thousand strain 2200 yuan is heeled in outdoor common transplanting; Green house is transplanted and is heeled in every ten thousand strain more than 3200 yuan.Adopt method provided by the invention to transplant original seed seedling, every ten thousand strain original seed transplantation of seedlings are heeled in and can be reduced expenses 460.0 yuan than outdoor common transplanting, every strain cost-saving 20.9%; Saving 45.6% is transplanted than green house.
The sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling that the present invention proposes exempts careless transplanting method, without the need to carrying out nursery at green house, and solving the problems such as the weeding in sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling process of growth, irrigation and weeding recruitment preferably, is the novel transplanting method integrating hardening, transplant domestication, heel in.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the embodiment of the present invention, be clearly and completely described the technical scheme in the present invention, obviously, described embodiment is only the present invention's part embodiment, instead of whole embodiments.Based on the embodiment in the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art, not making the every other embodiment obtained under creative work prerequisite, belong to the scope of protection of the invention.
Embodiment 1
A kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling exempts careless transplanting method, comprises the following steps:
(1) outdoor seedbed prepares: selected nursery lot is carried out rotary tillage 20 centimetres, dark plough 35 centimetres, rotary tillage 20 centimetre, furrow; Playing furrow specification is: furrow are high 0.1 meter, seedbed furrow face width 0.8 meter, and long 10 meters, furrow furrow width 0.5 meter, rakes furrow face, and furrow face soil block is smashed, raked;
(2) process in furrow face: after fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer and insecticide being mixed, applies in the soil of furrow face; One deck material which can retain moisture is covered again in furrow face;
Described fertilizer refers to the feces of livestock and poultry such as people or pig, ox, sheep, chicken, or the cake fertilizer be made up of above-mentioned ight soil, and using first 3 months need carry out stack retting, fermentation by selected ight soil; During use, use by every 10 square metres of furrow faces the fertilizer 15 kilograms that stack retting becomes thoroughly decomposed;
Described inorganic fertilizer refers to urea, potash fertilizer and superphosphate, and amount of application is that every 10 square metres of furrow faces use that content is 0.2 kilogram, 0.2 kilogram, potassium chloride, superphosphate 0.1 kilogram;
Described agricultural chemicals is selected and is killed except soil insect and insect two kinds of applications of pesticide on the ground, and the phoxim granule that mass concentration is 5% chosen by the described agricultural chemicals killed except soil insect, and the Dimehypo Fg that mass concentration is 3.6% chosen by the agricultural chemicals killed except ground insect; Amount of application spreads fertilizer over the fields each 0.1 kilogram of above-mentioned agricultural chemicals by every 10 square metres of furrow faces;
After the mixing of above-described fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer and insecticide, mix thoroughly with the dark soil in 8 centimetres, furrow face and use;
Described material which can retain moisture refers to coconut palm chaff, bagasse, wooden chaff, the thin slag etc. after described wooden chaff and sawmilling; Above-mentioned material which can retain moisture needs stack retting more than 3 months, and just can use to abundant fermentation, during use, material which can retain moisture is 3 centimetres at furrow face cladding thickness;
(3) preparation in seedbed: first be coated with 2 15 hole/rice are installed in the middle of the furrow face of material which can retain moisture spray band as water spray facility, after in furrow face laying plastic; Mulch film surrounding is real by soil pressure; 1-2 days before transplanting, drips material which can retain moisture; Spray band is placed in distance both sides 20, furrow face centimeters respectively, and two spray band intermediate distances are 40 centimetres;
(4) process of original seed transplantation of seedlings: by the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling of individual plant after hardening, cleaning and sterilization process, be transplanted into the material which can retain moisture in seedbed respectively; To drench in time after transplanting normal root water;
The hardening of described sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling is operating as: the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling of being taken root by individual plant takes out from culturing room, to be placed near ground of transplanting seedlings shady and cool ventilation place hardening 2 days, avoid drenching with rain and solar light irradiation, then cut off the sack of culture bag or open the bottle cap of blake bottle, then placing hardening 2 days;
Described sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling cleaning and sterilization is operating as: taken out by the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling after hardening, deduct the blade of seedling 2 centimetres, be placed in plastic big basin, with the clear water of flowing, medium is cleaned up, then be carbendazim 800 times of liquid root immersions 3 minutes of 50% by mass concentration, take out and dry moisture in the cool;
The transplantation of seedlings of described sugarcane detoxication original seed is operating as: during transplanting with hand by mulch film puncture gently, after pushing material which can retain moisture 2-3 centimetre under mulch film aside, plant in material which can retain moisture by the individual plant sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling that cleaning treatment is crossed, planting depth is 1.5-2 centimetre, then with pointing compacting gently; Spacing in the rows is 8-10 centimetre, and line-spacing is 10-12 centimetre;
(5) short-term heat and moisture preserving: after transplanting, above seedbed, covered with sunshade net carries out sunshade; When temperature is lower than 15 DEG C, add a cover that 1 layer of plastic film carries out being incubated, moisturizing; After 15 days, generally when temperature is more than 20 DEG C, withdraw from the plastic foil of adding a cover; Transplant and withdraw from sunshade net after 15-20 days;
The installation method of sunshade net is, is converted into arc, is inserted in both sides, seedbed, covers sunshade net with the bamboo lets of 3 meters long or iron wire; During covered plastic film, divide in side, top and take leave of the ventilating opening that a diameter 15 centimetres is opened at, 2.0 meters, two ends, open ventilating opening large equally in the centre of opposite side;
(6) water-fertilizer-pesticide management process: comprise water management, Nutrition Management, Pest Management 3 processes;
Water management: look weather condition, every 3-5 days opens spray band pouring water;
Nutrition Management: namely start pouring for one week after transplanting and execute liquid manure, every 5 days 1 time; When liquid manure is executed in pouring, execute with the urea water liquid pouring that mass concentration is 0.092% for the 1-3 time, namely every 100 kg of water add the urea of 0.092 kilogram; Drench with the compound rich water liquid that mass concentration is 0.5% after the 4th and execute, in described composite fertilizer, the ratio of N, P, K is 15:15:15; Drench every 5 days concentration by the 4th and consumption later and execute 1 time, emerge no longer to drench for first 10 days and execute liquid manure;
Pest Management: after removing outer layer plastic film and sunshade net, spray the insecticide such as Du Rui, Du Pont Kang Kuan 1 time, for preventing and treating snout moth's larva, going out garden sprays 1 time the last week again; Spraying concentration performs according to operation instruction;
(7) go out the process in garden: the former seedling early growth of sugarcane detoxication 40 days, original seed seedling grows to 20-30 centimetre high, and original seed seedling starts to occur tillering, and can go out garden; Go out garden and want trickle the previous day, to keep the loosing soil in seedbed.
Embodiment 2
A kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling exempts careless transplanting method, comprises the following steps:
(1) outdoor seedbed prepares: selected nursery lot is carried out rotary tillage 30 centimetres, dark plough 45 centimetres, rotary tillage 30 centimetre, furrow; Playing furrow specification is: furrow are high 0.15 meter, seedbed furrow face width 1.0 meters, and long 15 meters, furrow furrow width 0.7 meter, rakes furrow face, and furrow face soil block is smashed, raked;
(2) process in furrow face: after fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer and insecticide being mixed, applies in the soil of furrow face; One deck material which can retain moisture is covered again in furrow face;
Described fertilizer refers to the feces of livestock and poultry such as people or pig, ox, sheep, chicken, or the cake fertilizer be made up of above-mentioned ight soil, and using first 3 months need carry out stack retting, fermentation by selected ight soil; During use, use by every 10 square metres of furrow faces the fertilizer 20 kilograms that stack retting becomes thoroughly decomposed;
Described inorganic fertilizer refers to urea, potash fertilizer and superphosphate, and amount of application is that every 10 square metres of furrow faces use that content is 0.4 kilogram, 0.4 kilogram, potassium chloride, superphosphate 0.2 kilogram;
Described agricultural chemicals is selected and is killed except soil insect and insect two kinds of applications of pesticide on the ground, and 8% malicious pungent granule chosen by the described agricultural chemicals killed except soil insect, and the Dimehypo Fg that mass concentration is 3.6% chosen by the agricultural chemicals killed except ground insect; Amount of application spreads fertilizer over the fields each 0.15 kilogram of above-mentioned agricultural chemicals by every 10 square metres of furrow faces;
After the mixing of above-described fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer and insecticide, mix thoroughly with the dark soil in 8 centimetres, furrow face and use;
Described material which can retain moisture refers to coconut palm chaff, bagasse or wooden chaff, the thin slag etc. after wooden chaff and sawmilling; Above-mentioned material which can retain moisture needs stack retting more than 3 months, and just can use to abundant fermentation, during use, material which can retain moisture is 5 centimetres at furrow face cladding thickness;
(3) preparation in seedbed: first be coated with 2 25 hole/rice are installed in the middle of the furrow face of material which can retain moisture spray band as water spray facility, after in furrow face laying plastic; Mulch film surrounding is real by soil pressure; 1-2 days before transplanting, drips material which can retain moisture; Spray band is placed in distance both sides 25, furrow face centimeters respectively, and two spray band intermediate distances are 50 centimetres;
(4) process of original seed transplantation of seedlings: by the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling of individual plant after hardening, cleaning and sterilization process, be transplanted into the material which can retain moisture in seedbed respectively; To drench in time after transplanting normal root water;
The hardening of described sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling is operating as: the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling of being taken root by individual plant takes out from culturing room, to be placed near ground of transplanting seedlings shady and cool ventilation place hardening 3 days, avoid drenching with rain and solar light irradiation, then cut off the sack of culture bag or open the bottle cap of blake bottle, then placing hardening 3 days;
Described sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling cleaning and sterilization is operating as: taken out by the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling after hardening, deduct the blade of seedling 3 centimetres, be placed in plastic big basin, with the clear water of flowing, medium is cleaned up, then be tpn 800 times of liquid root immersions 5 minutes of 75% by mass concentration, take out and dry moisture in the cool;
The transplantation of seedlings of described sugarcane detoxication original seed is operating as: during transplanting with hand by mulch film puncture gently, after pushing the material which can retain moisture of 2-2 centimetre under mulch film aside, plant in material which can retain moisture by the individual plant sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling that cleaning treatment is crossed, deeply about 1.5-2 centimetre, then with pointing compacting gently; Spacing in the rows is 8-10 centimetre, and line-spacing is 10-12 centimetre;
(5) short-term heat and moisture preserving: after transplanting, above seedbed, covered with sunshade net carries out sunshade; When temperature is lower than 15 DEG C, add a cover that 1 layer of plastic film carries out being incubated, moisturizing; After 20 days, generally when temperature is more than 20 DEG C, withdraw from the plastic foil of adding a cover; Transplant and withdraw from sunshade net in 20 days;
The installation method of sunshade net is, is converted into arc, is inserted in both sides, seedbed, covers sunshade net with the bamboo lets of 3.5 meters long or iron wire; During covered plastic film, divide in side, top and take leave of the ventilating opening that a diameter 20 centimetres is opened at, 2.5 meters, two ends, open ventilating opening large equally in the centre of opposite side;
(6) water-fertilizer-pesticide management process: comprise water management, Nutrition Management, Pest Management 3 processes;
Water management: look weather condition, every 3-5 days opens dropper or spray band pouring water;
Nutrition Management: namely start pouring for one week after transplanting and execute liquid manure, every 5 days 1 time; When liquid manure is executed in pouring, execute with the urea water liquid pouring that mass concentration is 0.092% for the 1-3 time, namely every 100 kg of water add the urea of 0.092 kilogram; Drench with the compound rich water liquid that mass concentration is 0.5% after the 4th and execute, in described composite fertilizer, the ratio of N, P, K is 15:15:15; Drench every 5 days concentration by the 4th and consumption later and execute 1 time, emerge no longer to drench for first 10 days and execute liquid manure;
Pest Management: after removing outer layer plastic film and sunshade net, spray the insecticide such as Du Rui, Du Pont Kang Kuan 1 control snout moth's larva, going out garden sprays 1 time the last week again; Spraying concentration performs according to operation instruction;
(7) go out the process in garden: the former seedling early growth of sugarcane detoxication 75 days, original seed seedling grows to 20-30 centimetre high, and original seed seedling starts to occur tillering, and can go out garden; Go out garden and want trickle the previous day, to keep the loosing soil in seedbed.
Embodiment 3
A kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling exempts careless transplanting method, its step is identical with embodiment 1, distinguishing characteristics is, the water spray facility installed in described step (3) is the dropper of 35 holes/rice, and dropper is placed in distance both sides 10, furrow face centimeters respectively, dropper spacing is 30 centimetres; In described step (4) in detoxification sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling cleaning and sterilization, to soak root medicament used be mass concentration is 65% Difar, 800 times of liquid.
Embodiment 4
A kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling exempts careless transplanting method, its step is identical with embodiment 2, distinguishing characteristics is, the water spray facility installed in described step (3) is the dropper of 37 holes/rice, and dropper is placed in distance both sides 15, furrow face centimeters respectively, dropper spacing is 35 centimetres.
Different transplanting method is on the impact of sugarcane detoxication original seed transplantation of seedlings survival rate
Choose same batch, the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling that is more or less the same of upgrowth situation, average mark does 6 groups, adopt release grass transplanting method, outdoor naked transplanting method and the green house transplanting method proposed in the embodiment of the present invention 1 to embodiment 4 to carry out transplanting experiment respectively, more different transplanting method is on the impact of sugarcane detoxication original seed shoot survival percent.It the results are shown in Table 1.
The different transplanting method of table 1 is on the impact of sugarcane detoxication original seed transplantation of seedlings survival rate
As can be seen from Table 1, adopt the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling described in the present invention's 4 embodiments to exempt careless transplanting method and transplant sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling, survival rate can reach more than 99%, transplants (98.0%) survival rate all high than outdoor naked transplanting (95.1%) and green house.
Different transplanting method is on the impact of the former seedling early growth of sugarcane detoxication
Choose same batch, the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling that is more or less the same of upgrowth situation, average mark does 6 groups, the method that the release grass transplanting method adopting the present invention to propose respectively, outdoor naked transplanting and green house are transplanted, carry out transplanting experiment, and observe the growing state of transplanting rear sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling, more different transplanting method is on the impact of the former seedling early growth of sugarcane detoxication.It the results are shown in Table 2.
The different transplanting method of table 2 is on the impact of the former seedling early growth of sugarcane detoxication
As can be seen from Table 2, the release grass transplanting method described in the present invention's 4 embodiments is adopted, after transplanting, sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling directly can recover normal time through 2-4 days, and other transplanting method, sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling needs the convalescence through about one week, just can restore normal growth.Illustrate that the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling that the present invention proposes exempts careless transplanting method, little to the injury of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling in transplanting process, less to the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling growth effect after transplanting, be conducive to the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling restoration ecosystem as early as possible after transplanting, shorten growing-seedling period.
Different transplanting method is on the impact of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling field-transplanting survival rate
The sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling of above-mentioned 6 processed group gained, after adopting identical method to be transplanted to land for growing field crops, add up the survival rate of its sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling respectively, it the results are shown in Table 3.
The different transplanting method of table 3 is on the impact of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling field-transplanting survival rate
As can be seen from Table 3, the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling of the present invention's 4 embodiment gained, after being transplanted to land for growing field crops, heeling in due to original seed transplantation of seedlings is that seedbed is carried out in the open, general transplanting is just carried out full exposure for 20 days afterwards and is penetrated, and original seed seedling has adapted to local growth conditions, easy restoration ecosystem during field transplanting plantation, its survival rate can reach more than 95%, higher more than 5 percentage points than the sugarcane detoxication original seed shoot survival percent adopting green house to transplant.And outdoor naked sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling of transplanting, because sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling is grow under environment in the open equally, field-transplanting survival rate and 4 embodiments are without significant difference, but because in outdoor naked transplanting process, sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling lethality is higher, therefore, consider two links, the loss of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling is still high than the careless transplanting method of release of the present invention.
The transplanting method that the present invention proposes is on the impact of sugarcane detoxication original seed transplantation of seedlings cost
Transplanting cost and saving labor is one of main advantage of the present invention.The original seed seedling of the transplanting adopting the present invention to propose, every ten thousand strains only need to increase irrigation material (spray band or dropper) expense 42.0 yuan, and daily tending management (liquid manure etc. is executed in artificial uprooting weed, artificial pouring) expense saves 5 works (2014 inventor location each work day 100 yuan) meter 500.0 yuan.Through adjusting, every ten thousand strains need 1740 yuan, and every ten thousand strain 2200 yuan is heeled in outdoor common transplanting; Green house is transplanted and is heeled in every ten thousand strain more than 3200 yuan.Adopt method provided by the invention to transplant original seed seedling, every ten thousand strain original seed transplantation of seedlings are heeled in and can be reduced expenses 460.0 yuan than outdoor common transplanting, every strain cost-saving 20.9%; Saving 45.6% is transplanted than green house.
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment done, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling exempts a careless transplanting method, it is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
(1) outdoor seedbed prepares: carried out by selected nursery lot making preparation for ploughing and sowing, playing furrow, raked in furrow face;
(2) process in furrow face: after fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer and insecticide being mixed, applies in the soil of furrow face; One deck material which can retain moisture is covered again in furrow face;
(3) preparation in seedbed: first install water spray facility on the furrow face being coated with material which can retain moisture, after in furrow face laying plastic; Mulch film surrounding is real by soil pressure; 1-2 days before transplanting, opens water spray facility and to be drenched in seedbed water;
(4) process of original seed transplantation of seedlings: the packed or bottled sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling of having been taken root by individual plant, after hardening, cleaning and sterilization process, is transplanted in the material which can retain moisture in seedbed respectively by individual plant; To drench in time after transplanting normal root water;
(5) short-term heat and moisture preserving: after transplanting, above seedbed, covered with sunshade net carries out sunshade, moisturizing; When temperature is lower than 15 DEG C, then adds a cover 1 layer of plastic film and be incubated;
(6) water-fertilizer-pesticide management process: comprise water management, Nutrition Management and Pest Management;
Water management: be sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling trickle by described water spray facility;
Nutrition Management: namely start pouring for one week after transplanting and execute liquid manure;
Pest Management: after removing outer layer plastic film and sunshade net, sprays insecticide control damage by disease and insect;
(7) go out the process in garden: the former seedling early growth 40-75 days of sugarcane detoxication, original seed seedling grows to 20-30 centimetre high, and original seed seedling starts to occur tillering, and can go out garden.
2. a kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling according to claim 1 exempts careless transplanting method, it is characterized in that: in described step (1), concrete operations of making preparation for ploughing and sowing are: rotary tillage 20-30 centimetre, dark plough 35-45 centimetre, rotary tillage 20-30 centimetre; Playing furrow specification is: furrow height 0.1-0.15 rice, seedbed furrow face width 0.8-1.0 rice, long 10-15 rice, furrow furrow width 0.5-0.7 rice, smashes furrow face soil block, rake.
3. a kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling according to claim 1 exempts careless transplanting method, it is characterized in that: in described step (2), fertilizer refers to people or feces of livestock and poultry, or the cake fertilizer be made up of above-mentioned ight soil, before using, selected ight soil is carried out stack retting, fermentation, during use, use by every 10 square metres of furrow faces the fertilizer 15-20 kilogram that stack retting becomes thoroughly decomposed; Described inorganic fertilizer refers to urea, potash fertilizer and superphosphate, and amount of application is that every 10 square metres of furrow faces use that content is urea 0.2-0.4 kilogram, potassium chloride 0.2-0.4 kilogram, superphosphate 0.1-0.2 kilogram; Described agricultural chemicals is selected to kill and is used together with soil insect and ground insect two kinds of agricultural chemicals; Described material which can retain moisture refers to coconut palm chaff, bagasse or wooden chaff, the thin slag after described wooden chaff and sawmilling; Above-mentioned material which can retain moisture needs stack retting to use to fully fermentation is rear; Material which can retain moisture is 3-5 centimetre at furrow face cladding thickness.
4. a kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling according to claim 3 exempts careless transplanting method, it is characterized in that: the described agricultural chemicals killed except soil insect chooses 5% phoxim granule or 8% malicious pungent granule, 3.6% Dimehypo Fg chosen by the agricultural chemicals killed except ground insect; Amount of application spreads fertilizer over the fields each 0.1-0.15 kilogram of above-mentioned agricultural chemicals by every 10 square metres of furrow faces.
5. a kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling according to claim 1 exempts careless transplanting method, it is characterized in that: after fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer and the insecticide mixing in described step (2), mix thoroughly use with the dark soil in 8-12 centimetre, furrow face.
6. a kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling according to claim 1 exempts careless transplanting method, it is characterized in that: in described step (3), and described water spray facility is 2-3 bar spray band or dropper.
7. a kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling according to claim 6 exempts careless transplanting method, it is characterized in that: described spray band is placed in distance both sides, furrow face 20-25 centimeters respectively, and the distance of spray interband is 40-50 centimetre; Described dropper is placed in distance both sides, furrow face 10-15 centimeters respectively, and the distance between dropper is 30-35 centimetre.
8. a kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling according to claim 1 exempts careless transplanting method, it is characterized in that, in described step (4), the hardening of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling is operating as: the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling of being taken root by individual plant takes out from culturing room, be placed on shady and cool ventilation place hardening 2-3 days near ground of transplanting seedlings, avoid drenching with rain and solar light irradiation, then cut off the sack of culture bag or open the bottle cap of blake bottle, then placing hardening 2-3 days; Described sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling cleaning and sterilization is operating as: taken out by the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling after hardening, deduct the blade of seedling 2-3 centimetre, be placed in container, with the clear water of flowing, medium is cleaned up, then use 50% carbendazim, 75% tpn or 65% Difar 800 times of liquid root immersion 3-5 minute, take out and dry moisture in the cool; The transplantation of seedlings of described sugarcane detoxication original seed is operating as: by mulch film puncture during transplanting, plants in material which can retain moisture, deeply about 1.5-2 centimetre, then compacting by the sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling that cleaning treatment is crossed by individual plant; Transplanting plant spacing is 8-10 centimetre, and line-spacing is 10-12 centimetre.
9. a kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling according to claim 1 exempts careless transplanting method, and it is characterized in that, described step (5), the installation method of sunshade net is: the bamboo let long with 3.0-3.5 rice or iron wire are converted into arc, is inserted in both sides, seedbed, covers sunshade net; During covered plastic film, divide in side, top and take leave of the ventilating opening that 2.0-2.5 rice, two ends opens a diameter 15-20 centimetre, open ventilating opening large equally in the centre of opposite side; After 15-20 days, temperature, higher than the plastic foil withdrawing to add a cover when 20 DEG C, withdraws from sunshade net in 15-20 days.
10. a kind of sugarcane detoxication original seed seedling according to claim 1 exempts careless transplanting method, it is characterized in that: in described step (6) Nutrition Management, and described liquid manure drenches for every 5 days executes 1 time, executes for the 1-3 time with the urea water liquid pouring that mass concentration is 0.092%; After the 4th, all drench with the compound rich water liquid that mass concentration is 0.5% and execute, in described composite fertilizer, the ratio of N, P, K is 15:15:15, emerges no longer to drench for first 10 days and executes liquid manure; In described Pest Management, after removing outer layer plastic film and sunshade net, spray insecticide 1 time, go out garden and spray 1 time again the last week.
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