CN104748130B - Oil-bearing solid waste resource utilization device and method - Google Patents

Oil-bearing solid waste resource utilization device and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104748130B
CN104748130B CN201510116779.8A CN201510116779A CN104748130B CN 104748130 B CN104748130 B CN 104748130B CN 201510116779 A CN201510116779 A CN 201510116779A CN 104748130 B CN104748130 B CN 104748130B
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China
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oil
gas
air
pyrolysis
preheater
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CN201510116779.8A
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CN104748130A (en
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向文国
周浩
陈晓平
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东南大学
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/027Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage
    • F23G5/0273Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage using indirect heating
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G7/00Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, e.g. chemicals
    • F23G7/06Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, e.g. chemicals of waste gases or noxious gases, e.g. exhaust gases

Abstract

The invention discloses an oil-bearing solid waste resource utilization device and method. The device comprises a hopper, a feeding device, a fluidized bed pyrolytic reaction distiller, a dust collector, an air pre-heater, a booster fan, a combustor, a buried pipe heat exchanger, a condenser, a fluidizing air pre-heater and an air chamber. The method includes the steps that oil in solid waste is pyrolyzed and distilled, pyrolyzed and distilled gas serves as an inert circulating medium, pyrolytic gas is cooled and liquefied in the air pre-heater and the condenser and separated to obtain fluid oil, reclamation is achieved, and noncondensing gas serves as pyrolytic fuel; after fresh air is heated in the air pre-heater, the fresh air, the noncondensing gas and make-up fuel combust and become high-temperature gas to provide heat for the fluidized bed pyrolytic reaction distiller. According to the device, oil in the oil-bearing solid waste is separated, solid waste resource utilization is achieved, and the effects of reducing environmental pollution and improving solid waste reclamation are achieved at the same time.

Description

A kind of oil-containing solids waste resource utilization device and method

Technical field

The present invention relates to the application such as oil, chemical industry, energy and in particular in a kind of solid waste contained oil heat Solution distillation is refined, liquefaction is collected to realize device of recycling and preparation method thereof.

Background technology

Currently, fossil energy resource enrichness is unbalanced, and development difficulty is larger, the high-grade energy such as verified oil, natural gas Reserves wretched insufficiency.Along with energy utilization technology falls behind, energy resource structure is uneven, using low, in economic rapid growth Under the conditions of, than other countries more faster, the threat of lack of energy may come earlier the depletion rate of China's energy, more serious.

Oil-containing solids garbage is mainly derived from the production and consumption activity to oil for the mankind.People are developing oil And during manufacture oil product, all can inevitably produce oil-containing solids garbage.Produce in oil exploitation refining Oily solid sludge be put into " National Hazard waste register ", its source and physicochemical properties are complicated, oil, water, mud Proportional difference is notable.If in addition harmless treatment not in time, and the landfill that selects directly to dig pit, generation seepage, can cause soil, Lower water source and its pollution in periphery river, have a strong impact on ecological environment.

It is many that oil-containing solids garbage shows to the harm of the mankind, is in particular in:

1st, a large amount of soils are taken.Oil-containing solids garbage is pressed appointed place heap according to environmental requirement by a lot of cities at present Put, no matter finally how to process, accumulating amount certainly will be caused in stacking process increasing, take up an area also just more and more, according to estimating Calculate, often pile up 10000t waste, about need to take up an area one mu.These rubbish not only occupy substantial amounts of soil, directly affect agriculture life Produce, hamper urban environmental hygiene, and cover large quantities of green plantss, the large-area vegetation destroying earth surface, break It is broken the graceful landscape of natural environment it is often more important that destroying the ecological balance of the Nature.

2nd, contaminated soil.During banking up, its harmful light components easily infiltrates into ground to oil-containing solids garbage, causes Soil pollution.These have infiltrative oil product and mostly belong to lightweight nonaqueous phase liquid (lnapl), and it has volatile, viscosity The features such as little, migration velocity is fast.Soil near polluting first in the case of revealing, and then penetrate into ground water regime, to people The health of class causes greatly to endanger.The engineering technology being widely used in light oil pollution improvement in developed countries such as America and Europes has soil to steam Vapour extraction, air injection, bio- ventilation etc., all have good operability, and achieved with significant regulation effect.Although but So, the bazardous waste of solid-state has long-term anelasticity and not dilutable, once causing environmental pollution, is often difficult to remedy Recover.Wherein, the Transport And Transformation of pollutant component, such as migration in soil for the leachate is a slow process, and its harm can Could be able to find after the several years to many decades.

3rd, polluted-water.Oil-containing solids garbage can flow to river, lake with natural rainfall, or is racked with smaller particle Move, fall into waters, cause the pollution of the surface water;Can be seeped in soil with oozing dewatering, enter subsoil water, make subsoil water contaminated;Useless If slag is directly discharged into river, lake or ocean, its harm is self-evident.

4th, atmosphere pollution., under suitable temperature and humidity, some Organic substances that it contains are micro- for oil-containing solids garbage Biological decomposition, discharges part harmful gass, thus causing the pollution to air.Particulate, powder are exposed to the weather simultaneously, The dust pollution of air can be increased.

Process for oil-containing solids garbage and disposal, common at present mainly has landfill, burning, solidification and chemistry steady The methods such as fixed process.

1st, landfill method can be divided into sea disposal and disposal by land two big class again: sea disposal be broadly divided into ocean dumping with remote Two methods are burned in ocean, and the method for disposal by land has multiple, including landfill, soil cultivating, deep well injection etc..

2nd, burning method: under the high temperature conditions, make oxidation operation resolve into small molecule.In order to reach complete oxidation it is necessary to Prevent it may happen that oxidation not exclusively or the reaction such as synthesis, to avoid and to control imperfect combustion product and harmful gass (such as co、hc、hcl、soxDeng) cause secondary pollution.Burn the heat energy producing, can be used to produce steam or electric energy it can also be used to heat Or the needs producing.Common incinerator has open type and multiple-chamber type.The former is applied to easy decomposition, the easily evaporation processing high heat Garbage, prevent from exploding in combustion.The latter (carrying out in the presence of high temperature and anaerobic or very little oxygen) can be relatively Economic utilization heat.

For the process of oil-containing solids garbage, using pyrolysismethod than burning method advantageously.Because pyrolysismethod is airtight Under the conditions of carry out, seldom produce pollution problem, disposal ability is big, fuel can be solved by itself, the product such as also recyclable oils, Its expense is about the 27% of burning expense.

3rd, solidification and chemically stable are processed: fixed harmful solid waste by physico-chemical process or be included in inertia One of curing substrate innocent treatment procedure.The purpose of cured is to make all pollutant components in garbage assume chemistry Inertia or inclusive, to transport, utilizing or to dispose.Preferably cured product should have good permeability resistance, well Mechanical property, and anti-leaching, anti-dry and wet, freeze thawing resistance characteristic.Such cured product can be directly in safe landfill Field is disposed.It also is used as the roadbed material of the basic material or road built.In China, curing is mainly for the treatment of radiation Property garbage.For processing oil-containing solids garbage still among research.

Now, the dual-pressure of facing mankind economic growth and environmental conservation.Find more environmentally-friendly New Energy positive Source, while development new forms of energy city, enforcement novel energy strategy, we also more need on the basis of existing fossil energy Reduce and waste, reduce environmental pollution.Recycling is realized to oil-containing solids garbage, for alleviating resource scarcity, reducing environment Certain positive role is played in pollution.

Use aspect in technology in recirculating fluidized bed, China has complete intellectual property, has powerful stock of knowledge And application power.The effect of lard oil can be reached with fluidized bed pyrolysis distillation technique on solid waste.

This invention, not only can be processed because of solid waste oily sludge problem during drilling well, and can achieve that oil-containing is solid The recycling of body garbage, for promoting sustainable development, realizes resource regeneration and recycling economy extra earning plays promotion Effect.

Content of the invention

Technical problem: the technical problem to be solved is: a kind of oil-containing solids utilization of waste as resource is provided Method and apparatus, carries out pyrolysis distillation using this device, reduces environmental pollution, realize the resource of oil-containing solids garbage to oil Using, both played alleviation energy-intensive positive role, again promote ecological environment protection.

Technical scheme: the oil-containing solids waste resource utilization device of the present invention includes feed bin, charging gear, pipe laying change Hot device, air compartment, fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device, dust arrester, air preheater, condenser, burner, fluidized wind preheater And booster fan one and booster fan two;

Described feed bin bottom is connected on the top of charging gear entrance, the feed-stock outlet of charging gear and fluid bed heat The charging aperture of solution reaction distillation device is connected, and fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device bottom arranges buried tube heat exchanger, and air compartment is arranged in bottom, It is provided with deslagging outlet in the middle of air compartment;It is connected with the top of dust arrester in fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device upper outlet, dedusting The top of device is connected with air preheater by pipeline, and dust arrester bottom is provided with ash discharging hole;Lead in air preheater side Cross air line and be connected with increasing blower fan one, the air line after air preheater is connected with burner, in air preheat The bottom arrangement oil extraction outlet of device;Pass through pipeline and another booster fan two import phase in the bottom of air preheater simultaneously Even, divide two-way in the pipeline of the outlet of booster fan two, a road pipeline is connected with condenser, a road and fluidized wind preheater phase Even;In condenser tubes outlet, it is connected with burner side by pipeline, arrange outlet in condenser;Burner base cloth Put supplementary fuel inlet, burner outlet is connected with the lower inlet of buried tube heat exchanger by pipeline;Buried tube heat exchanger top goes out Mouth is connected with the top of fluidized wind preheater by pipeline, the bottom plenum by pipeline and fluid bed for the fluidized wind preheater outlet Bottom is connected.

The oil-containing solids utilization of waste as resource method of the present invention comprises the steps:

Deposit oil-containing solids garbage inside feed bin, through charging gear, oil-containing solids garbage is sent into fluidized bed pyrolysis In reaction distillation device, after buried tube heat exchanger heat-shift, oil is pyrolyzed distillation, and solid waste residue exports outside exclusion stove through deslagging;

It is pyrolyzed the oil gas distilling out and exports extraction together with ash from fluid bed, in fluid bed outlet, ash is because of action of gravity After cyclone separator gas solid separation in ash handling equipment, discharge from ash discharging hole;

Oil gas, with pipeline air inlet preheater, connects fresh air in air intake, and pyrolysis gas transfer heat to cold sky After gas, temperature reduces, and the higher pyrolysis gas of boiling point first liquefy, and are collected in oil extraction outlet device;

Remaining pyrolysis gas are divided into two-way with pipeline, and a part is further separated into condenser and continues liquefaction, enters in outlet Row is collected, and another part pyrolysis gas enter fluidized wind preheater and deliver to fluid bed air compartment as inertia circulatory mediator;

Deliver to burner and the high temperature air out from air preheater from condenser incondensable gas out with pipeline And from supplementing the fuel mixing that fuel inlet is sent, burnt, the high-temperature fuel gas of generation enter buried tube heat exchanger with pipeline, enter Row heat exchange, provides thermal source for fluidized bed pyrolysis distillation reactor;

Low temperature combustion gas after heat exchange delivers to fluidized wind preheater with outlet conduit, carries out UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN, and enters to become a mandarin After the pyrolysis gas of wind-transformation preheater carry out heat exchange, pollution-free harmless treatment empties with combustion gas emptying outlet.

Oil-containing solids garbage is sent in fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor distillator through charging gear, is heated point in fluid bed Solution distills out pyrolysis gas, in fluid bed lower disposed buried tube heat exchanger so as to carry out heat exchange, required control in bed Temperature is planted contained substance according to oil and is determined, is beneficial in oil different organic substances and is pyrolyzed as gas, disengaging solid waste distillation Go out.

From fluid bed export out pyrolyzed mixture gas, realize pyrolysis gas and separate with ash, in fluid bed Outlet one ash exhauster of arrangement, contained cyclone separator, remove the solid ash in pyrolysis gas.

Pyrolysis gas physical ability after ash exhauster obtains being liquefied as fluid oil, and pyrolysis gas flow into air preheat by pipeline Device, transfers heat to from extraneous fresh air by heat exchanger tube, and its own temperature reduces, and guarantees that air preheater goes out Pyrolysis gas temperature at mouthful can be reduced to below 250 DEG C of temperature so that high boiling gas liquefaction in pyrolysis gas, is easy to collect; Meanwhile, air preheater heating inlet air, improves the ignition condition of burner, improves burning quality and efficiency.

Pyrolysis gas after air preheater are capable of a part of gas as inertia circulatory mediator, to maintain system to follow Inscription of loop, a part of pyrolysis gas are further separated into condenser and continue cooling condensation to collect more fluid oils, incondensable gas conduct The fuel of burner, at the pyrolysis feed channel after air preheater setting increase blower fan and pipeline is divided into two-way, one tunnel heat Entrance fluidized wind preheater of venting one's spleen carries out preheating and makees inertia circulatory mediator, and pre-heating temperature elevation is run with maintaining system circulation;One tunnel heat Entrance condenser of venting one's spleen liquefies, and incondensable gas sends into burner as fuel.

Realize air in the burner to burn with fuel stabilization, provide high-temperature fuel gas, fuel mix one for buried tube heat exchanger Part comes from the incondensable gas after condenser, and a part is fed by the external world;And air preheater will be pre- by pipeline Hot-air is supplied to burner, maintains burning.

Pyrolysis retort gass distill circulatory mediator as inertia, maintain system circulation to run, realize buried tube heat exchanger simultaneously The UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN of middle low temperature combustion gas, burner provides high-temperature fuel gas to buried tube heat exchanger, and after heat-shift, low temperature combustion gas is through pipe Road is passed through fluidized wind preheater, is that the Low Temperature Thermal after air preheater does thermal source, to improve the temperature of inertia circulated air Degree, harmless to environment processes emptying.

Fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device bottom is provided with scum pipe and connects bed body, through fluid bed bottom air compartment, after removing oil Solid material can discharge from scum pipe, inertia distillation circulatory mediator enter fluidized bed bottom air compartment, through air distribution plate enter fluidisation In bed pyrolytic reaction distillator, maintain solid material and the mixed flow state circulating pyrolysis gas in fluid bed.

Beneficial effect: compared with prior art, the present invention has the advantage that

1st, current China, to fluidization theoretical research and practical application all comparative maturities, fluidization is applied to The pyrolysis distillation of oil-containing solids garbage, technology maturation, meanwhile, fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction pyrolysis distillator effectively improves stove interior-heat Amount exchange efficiency, accelerates oil pyrolysis distillation, improves oil-containing solids changing rejected material to useful resource yield.

2nd, realize oil-containing solids changing rejected material to useful resource by being pyrolyzed distillation, generation environment pollution problem is few, burner fires Material is solved by itself, the product such as also recyclable oils, and its expense substantially reduces than existing burning expense.

3rd, the combustion gas entrance fluidized wind preheater after buried tube heat exchanger heat exchange carries out UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN, not only reduces smoke evacuation and damages Losing, improve efficiency of combustion, also improve fluidisation air temperature simultaneously, being distilled with the pyrolysis benefiting oil-containing solids garbage, thus carrying High oil recovery rate.

Brief description

Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the present invention.

In figure has: feed bin 1, charging gear 2, buried tube heat exchanger 3, air compartment 4, fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device 5, dedusting dress Put 6, air preheater 7, condenser 10, burner 11, fluidized wind preheater 10, booster fan 1, booster fan 29.

Deslagging outlet 401, ash discharging hole 601, fresh air inlet 801, oil extraction outlet 701, outlet 1001, supplementary fuel Import 1101, combustion gas emptying outlet 1201.

Specific embodiment

The oil-containing solids waste resource utilization device providing referring to Fig. 1, the present invention, this device includes feed bin 1, feed Device 2, buried tube heat exchanger 3, air compartment 4, fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device 5, dust arrester 6, air preheater 7, condenser 10, Burner 11, fluidized wind preheater 12 and booster fan 1 and booster fan 29.

Described feed bin 1 bottom is connected on the top of charging gear 2 entrance, the feed-stock outlet of charging gear 2 and fluidisation The charging aperture of bed pyrolytic reaction distillator 5 is connected, and fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device 5 bottom arranges buried tube heat exchanger 3, bottom cloth Put air compartment 4, in the middle of air compartment, be provided with deslagging outlet 401;In fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device 5 upper outlet and dust arrester 6 Top is connected, and the top of dust arrester 6 is connected with the top 7 of air preheater by pipeline, and dust arrester 6 bottom is provided with ash discharge Mouth 601;Pass through air line in air preheater 7 side to be connected with increasing blower fan 1, the air after air preheater 7 Pipeline is connected with burner 11, arranges oil extraction outlet device 701 in the bottom of air preheater 7;Simultaneously in air preheater 7 Bottom is connected with another booster fan 29 import by pipeline, divides two-way in the pipeline of the outlet of booster fan 29, a road Pipeline is connected with condenser 10, and a road is connected with fluidized wind preheater 12;In condenser 10 pipe outlet, by pipeline and burning Device 11 side is connected, and arranges outlet 1001 in condenser 10;Burner 11 bottom arrangement supplements fuel inlet 1101, burner 11 outlets are connected with the lower inlet of buried tube heat exchanger 3 by pipeline;Buried tube heat exchanger 3 upper outlet passes through pipeline and fluidized wind The top of preheater 12 is connected, and fluidized wind preheater 12 outlet is connected with bottom plenum 4 bottom of fluid bed by pipeline.

Present invention also offers a kind of oil-containing solids utilization of waste as resource method, the method comprises the steps:

Deposit oil-containing solids garbage inside feed bin, through charging gear, oil-containing solids garbage is sent into fluidized bed pyrolysis In reaction distillation device, after buried tube heat exchanger heat-shift, oil is pyrolyzed distillation, and solid waste residue is through deslagging outlet 401 exclusion stove Outward.It is pyrolyzed the oil gas distilling out and exports extraction together with ash from fluid bed, in fluid bed outlet, ash is because action of gravity is through whirlwind After separator gas solid separation in ash handling equipment, discharge from ash discharging hole 601.Oil gas with pipeline air inlet preheater, in air Entrance 801 connects fresh air, and after pyrolysis gas transfer heat to cold air, temperature reduces, and the higher pyrolysis gas of boiling point first liquefy, It is collected in outlet 701.Remaining pyrolysis gas are divided into two-way with pipeline, and a part is further separated into condenser and continues liquid Change, be collected in outlet 1001, another part pyrolysis gas enter fluidized wind preheater and deliver to as inertia circulatory mediator Fluid bed air compartment;Deliver to burner from condenser incondensable gas out with pipeline empty with the high temperature out from air preheater Gas and the fuel sent from supplementary fuel inlet 1101 mix, and are burnt, and the high-temperature fuel gas of generation enter pipe laying with pipeline and change Hot device, carries out heat exchange, provides thermal source for fluidized bed pyrolysis distillation reactor;Low temperature combustion gas after heat exchange is with outlet Fluidized wind preheater is delivered in road, carries out UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN, carries out after heat exchange with the pyrolysis gas entering fluidized wind preheater, no dirty Dye harmless treatment empties with outlet 1201.

Oil-containing solids garbage is sent in fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor distillator through charging gear, is heated point in fluid bed Solution distills out pyrolysis gas, in fluid bed lower disposed buried tube heat exchanger so as to carry out heat exchange, required control in bed Temperature is planted contained substance according to oil and is determined, is beneficial in oil different organic substances and is pyrolyzed as gas, disengaging solid waste distillation Go out.

From fluid bed export out pyrolyzed mixture gas, realize pyrolysis gas and separate with ash, in fluid bed Outlet one ash exhauster of arrangement, contained cyclone separator, remove the solid ash in pyrolysis gas.

Pyrolysis gas physical ability after ash exhauster obtains being liquefied as fluid oil, and pyrolysis gas flow into air preheat by pipeline Device, transfers heat to from extraneous fresh air by heat exchanger tube, and its own temperature reduces, and guarantees that air preheater goes out Pyrolysis gas temperature at mouthful can be reduced to below 250 DEG C of temperature so that high boiling gas liquefaction in pyrolysis gas, is easy to collect; Meanwhile, air preheater heating inlet air, improves the ignition condition of burner, improves burning quality and efficiency.

Pyrolysis gas after air preheater are capable of a part of gas as inertia circulatory mediator, to maintain system to follow Inscription of loop, a part of pyrolysis gas are further separated into condenser and continue cooling condensation to collect more fluid oils, incondensable gas conduct The fuel of burner, at the pyrolysis feed channel after air preheater setting increase blower fan 29 and pipeline is divided into two-way, a road Pyrolysis gas entrance fluidized wind preheater carries out preheating and makees inertia circulatory mediator, and pre-heating temperature elevation is run with maintaining system circulation;One tunnel Pyrolysis gas enter condenser liquefaction, and incondensable gas sends into burner as fuel.

Realize air to burn with fuel stabilization in burner 11, provide high-temperature fuel gas, fuel mix for buried tube heat exchanger A part comes from the incondensable gas after condenser, and a part is fed by the external world;And air preheater will by pipeline Preheated air is supplied to burner, maintains burning.

Pyrolysis retort gass distill circulatory mediator as inertia, maintain system circulation to run, realize buried tube heat exchanger simultaneously The UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN of middle low temperature combustion gas, burner provides high-temperature fuel gas to buried tube heat exchanger, and after heat-shift, low temperature combustion gas is through pipe Road is passed through fluidized wind preheater, is that low grade fever after air preheater is vented one's spleen and done thermal source, to improve the temperature of inertia circulated air, Harmless to environment processes emptying.

Fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device bottom is provided with scum pipe and connects bed body, through fluid bed bottom air compartment, after removing oil Solid material can discharge from scum pipe, inertia distillation circulatory mediator enter fluidized bed bottom air compartment, through air distribution plate enter fluidisation In bed pyrolytic reaction distillator, maintain solid material and the mixed flow state circulating pyrolysis gas in fluid bed.

By oil in solid waste, pyrolysis distillation, makees inertia to be pyrolyzed retort gass to the method at a certain temperature Circulatory mediator, pyrolysis gas liquefy and separate and obtain fluid oil in air preheater, condenser cooling, realize resource, non-condensing Gas is as pyrolysing fuel;After fresh air heats up in air preheater, after incondensable gas and supplementary fuel combustion Become high-temperature fuel gas, provide heat for fluidized bed pyrolysis distillation reactor;In order to make full use of process waste heat, if fluidized wind preheating Device, heats fluidized wind using waste heat gas;Fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device bottom air distribution plate, inside are provided with buried tube heat exchanger, Recycle stream wind-transformation enters fluidized bed pyrolysis distillation reactor from air compartment through air distribution plate, leads to high-temperature fuel gas in pipe laying.This device is from containing Isolate oil in oily solid waste, realize solid waste resource recovery and utilize, reduce environmental pollution and improve solid Changing rejected material to useful resource Joint effect.

1st, deposit oil-containing solids garbage inside feed bin, through charging gear, oil-containing solids garbage is sent into fluid bed heat Solution reaction distillation device, plants according to oil and selects suitably to be pyrolyzed vapo(u)rizing temperature (200 DEG C -800 DEG C), be beneficial in oil different Organic substances Matter (oily ether, light oil, kerosene, diesel oil, heavy oil etc.) can depart from solid waste pyrolysis and distill out.In fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction Pyrolysis distillator bottom setting buried tube heat exchanger, bottom arranges air compartment,

2nd, in buried tube heat exchanger, combustion gas trend is set to effectively improve the heat transfer effect of heat exchanger from bottom to top, can be more preferably Pyrolysis distillation reaction condition in bed must be maintained, improve system operation, the solid residue after pyrolysis distillation discharges out of the furnace.

3rd, fluid bed exit arrange ash exhauster, from pyrolysis distillation reactor be pyrolyzed the pyrolysis gas distilling out and Ash flows out from pyrolysis distillator outlet with fluidized wind, in ash handling equipment, through cyclone separator, in gravity and centrifugal force Effect falls into collection apparatus for ash, thus reaching dedusting effect, effectively removes the granule foreign in pyrolysis gas.

4th, the pyrolysis gas after dedusting access air preheater by connecting pipe, are provided with heat exchanger tube, warp in air heat exchanger Heat exchange delivers heat to fresh air so that the temperature of pyrolysis gas reduces.The therefore higher pyrolysis gas of boiling point are (as heavy oil and coal Oil) first it is liquefied as fluid oil and be easy to collect it should be noted that oil component is different, the liquid oil mass of liquefaction is also different, but equally Reach the effect of oil-containing solids changing rejected material to useful resource, meanwhile, the raising of air themperature be beneficial to improve burner thereafter Fiery condition, improves burning quality and efficiency.

5th, the pyrolysis gas through air preheater cooling are pressurized through blower fan, are divided into two-way, a road is further separated into condenser, makes Pyrolysis gas are lowered the temperature (not higher than 50 DEG C) again, and in order to collect, remaining incondensable gas is picked into burner with pipeline for liquefaction, With the high temperature air from air preheater and by burner outside supplementary fuel mixing active combustion, to improve fuel availability And efficiency of combustion;Other road pyrolysis gas send into fluidized wind preheater by pipeline, as inertia circulatory mediator after raising temperature, Sending into air compartment maintains system circulation to run.

6th, in fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device, from high-temperature fuel gas heat release in buried tube heat exchanger of burner, export Low temperature combustion gas by pipeline access fluidized wind preheater, waste heat gas are obtained by, and are provided with heat exchanger tube in fluidized wind preheater, Waste heat gas preheating, from the circulation pyrolysis gas of air preheater, preheats purpose to fluidized wind and is to improve the temperature of fluidized wind, Not only increase the Btu utilization that burner produces, and the pyrolysis also improving whole fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction pyrolysis distillator is steamed Evaporate condition.

7th, the low temperature combustion gas after fluidized wind preheater, carries out vent gas treatment it is ensured that after environmentally safe is innoxious Emptied.

8th, fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device bottom is provided with scum pipe connection bed body, through fluid bed bottom air compartment, removing oil Solidss afterwards can expect to discharge from scum pipe, and inertia distillation circulatory mediator enters fluidized bed bottom air compartment, through entering through air distribution plate In fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device, maintain solid material and the mixed flow state circulating pyrolysis gas in fluid bed.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of oil-containing solids waste resource utilization device is it is characterised in that this device includes feed bin (1), charging gear (2), buried tube heat exchanger (3), air compartment (4), fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device (5), dust arrester (6), air preheater (7), Condenser (10), burner (11), fluidized wind preheater (12) and booster fan one (8) and booster fan two (9);
Described feed bin (1) bottom is connected on the top of charging gear (2) entrance, the feed-stock outlet of charging gear (2) and stream The charging aperture changing bed pyrolytic reaction distillator (5) is connected, and fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device (5) bottom arranges buried tube heat exchanger (3), bottom arrangement air compartment (4), is provided with deslagging outlet (401) in the middle of air compartment;Go out on fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device (5) top Mouth is connected with the top of dust arrester (6), and the top of dust arrester (6) is connected with air preheater (7) by pipeline, and dedusting fills Put (6) bottom and be provided with ash discharging hole (601);Pass through air line in air preheater (7) side to be connected with increasing blower fan one (8), Air line after air preheater (7) is connected with burner (11), goes out in the arrangement oil extraction of the bottom of air preheater (7) Mouth (701);It is connected with another booster fan two (9) import by pipeline in the bottom of air preheater (7), in supercharging simultaneously The pipeline of the outlet of blower fan two (9) divides two-way, and a road pipeline is connected with condenser (10), a road and fluidized wind preheater (12) phase Even;In condenser (10) pipe outlet, it is connected with burner (11) side by pipeline, arrange outlet in condenser (10) (1001);Burner (11) bottom arrangement supplements fuel inlet (1101), and pipeline and imbedded pipe heat-exchanging are passed through in burner (11) outlet The lower inlet of device (3) is connected;Buried tube heat exchanger (3) upper outlet passes through the top phase of pipeline and fluidized wind preheater (12) Even, fluidized wind preheater (12) outlet is connected with bottom plenum (4) bottom of fluid bed by pipeline.
2. a kind of oil-containing solids utilization of waste as resource method of device as claimed in claim 1 is it is characterised in that the method Comprise the steps:
Deposit oil-containing solids garbage inside feed bin, through charging gear, oil-containing solids garbage is sent into fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction In distillator, after buried tube heat exchanger heat-shift, oil is pyrolyzed distillation, and solid waste residue is excluded outside stove through deslagging outlet (401);
It is pyrolyzed the oil gas distilling out and exports extraction together with ash from fluid bed, in fluid bed outlet, ash is because action of gravity is through rotation After wind separator gas solid separation in ash handling equipment, discharge from ash discharging hole (601);
Oil gas, with pipeline air inlet preheater, connects fresh air in air intake (801), pyrolysis gas transfer heat to cold sky After gas, temperature reduces, and the higher pyrolysis gas of boiling point first liquefy, and is collected in oil extraction outlet (701);
Remaining pyrolysis gas are divided into two-way with pipeline, and a part is further separated into condenser and continues liquefaction, in outlet (1001) It is collected, another part pyrolysis gas enter fluidized wind preheater and deliver to fluid bed air compartment as inertia circulatory mediator;
From condenser incondensable gas out with pipeline deliver to burner with from air preheater high temperature air out and from Supplement the fuel mixing that fuel inlet (1101) is sent, burnt, the high-temperature fuel gas of generation enter buried tube heat exchanger with pipeline, Carry out heat exchange, provide thermal source for fluidized bed pyrolysis distillation reactor;
Low temperature combustion gas after heat exchange delivers to fluidized wind preheater with outlet conduit, carries out UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN, with entrance fluidized wind After the pyrolysis gas of preheater carry out heat exchange, pollution-free harmless treatment empties with combustion gas emptying outlet (1201).
3. oil-containing solids utilization of waste as resource method according to claim 2 is it is characterised in that oil-containing solids are discarded Thing is sent in fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor distillator through charging gear, and in fluid bed, decomposes distill out pyrolysis gas, So as to carry out heat exchange, in bed, required control temperature plants contained substance according to oil to fluid bed lower disposed buried tube heat exchanger Determine, be beneficial in oil different organic substances and be pyrolyzed as gas, depart from solid waste and distill out.
4. oil-containing solids utilization of waste as resource method according to claim 3 is it is characterised in that export from fluid bed Out pyrolyzed mixture gas, realize pyrolysis gas and separate with ash, fluid bed export arrangement one ash exhauster, Contained cyclone separator, removes the solid ash in pyrolysis gas.
5. oil-containing solids utilization of waste as resource method according to claim 4 is it is characterised in that through ash exhauster Pyrolysis gas physical ability afterwards obtains being liquefied as fluid oil, and pyrolysis gas flow into air preheater by pipeline, are passed heat by heat exchanger tube Pass from extraneous fresh air, its own temperature reduces, and guarantee that the pyrolysis gas temperature in air preheater exit can drop So that high boiling gas liquefaction in pyrolysis gas below as little as 250 DEG C temperature, it is easy to collect;Meanwhile, air preheater heat into Mouth air, improves the ignition condition of burner, improves burning quality and efficiency.
6. oil-containing solids utilization of waste as resource method according to claim 5 is it is characterised in that through air preheater Pyrolysis gas afterwards are capable of a part of gas as inertia circulatory mediator, to maintain system circulation to run, a part of pyrolysis gas It is further separated into condenser and continues cooling condensation to collect more fluid oils, as the fuel of burner, air is pre- for incondensable gas The booster fan two (9) of setting and pipeline is divided into two-way at pyrolysis feed channel after hot device, road pyrolysis gas enter fluidized wind Preheater carries out preheating and makees inertia circulatory mediator, and pre-heating temperature elevation is run with maintaining system circulation;One road pyrolysis gas enter condenser Liquefaction, incondensable gas sends into burner as fuel.
7. oil-containing solids utilization of waste as resource method according to claim 6 is it is characterised in that in burner (11) In realize air and fuel stabilization and burn, provide high-temperature fuel gas for buried tube heat exchanger, a fuel mix part comes from through supercool Incondensable gas after condenser, a part is fed by the external world;And preheated air is supplied to burning by pipeline by air preheater Device, maintains burning.
8. oil-containing solids utilization of waste as resource method according to claim 7 is it is characterised in that be pyrolyzed retort gass Distill circulatory mediator as inertia, maintain system circulation to run, realize the UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN of low temperature combustion gas in buried tube heat exchanger simultaneously, Burner provides high-temperature fuel gas to buried tube heat exchanger, and low temperature combustion gas after heat-shift is passed through fluidized wind preheater through piping, is Low Temperature Thermal after air preheater does thermal source, and to improve the temperature of inertia circulated air, harmless to environment processes emptying.
9. oil-containing solids utilization of waste as resource method according to claim 8 is it is characterised in that fluidized bed pyrolysis are anti- Answer distillator bottom to be provided with scum pipe and connect bed body, through fluid bed bottom air compartment, the solid material after removing oil can be from scum pipe Discharge, inertia distillation circulatory mediator enters fluidized bed bottom air compartment, enters in fluidized bed pyrolysis reaction distillation device through air distribution plate, dimension Hold solid material and the mixed flow state circulating pyrolysis gas in fluid bed.
CN201510116779.8A 2015-03-17 2015-03-17 Oil-bearing solid waste resource utilization device and method CN104748130B (en)

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