CN104730551B  Spaceground bistatic differential interferometry baseline coordinate and deformation quantity measurement method  Google Patents
Spaceground bistatic differential interferometry baseline coordinate and deformation quantity measurement method Download PDFInfo
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 CN104730551B CN104730551B CN201510107459.6A CN201510107459A CN104730551B CN 104730551 B CN104730551 B CN 104730551B CN 201510107459 A CN201510107459 A CN 201510107459A CN 104730551 B CN104730551 B CN 104730551B
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 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01S—RADIO DIRECTIONFINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCEDETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
 G01S19/00—Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
 G01S19/38—Determining a navigation solution using signals transmitted by a satellite radio beacon positioning system
 G01S19/39—Determining a navigation solution using signals transmitted by a satellite radio beacon positioning system the satellite radio beacon positioning system transmitting timestamped messages, e.g. GPS [Global Positioning System], GLONASS [Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System] or GALILEO
 G01S19/40—Correcting position, velocity or attitude
 G01S19/41—Differential correction, e.g. DGPS [differential GPS]
Abstract
Description
Technical field
The invention belongs to Radar Signal Processing Technology field.
Background technology
Differential GPS (DGPS) arranges measurement by the use of aeronautical satellite as flat pad at the position for needing to measure coordinate Standing differential GPS, the differential GPS of base station being arranged in another location, two DGPS receive navigation signal simultaneously, using ionosphere, right Fluid layer time delay and the common mode characteristic of ephemeris equal error, using highprecision carrier phase, eliminate commonmode error by difference processing, So as to the high accuracy for realizing measured value coordinate is estimated, then the deformation carried out by time difference to measuring station relative to base station is entered Row is monitored in real time.
Multiple measuring stations although a base station can be arranged in pairs or groups, due to measuring during coordinate, are required in each measuring station One DGPS equipment of arrangement.And DGPS equipment costs are higher, extensively application is not easy to.
Therefore, a kind of deformation monitoring method of low cost is developed, it is significant for high accuracy distortion measurement field.
The content of the invention
In view of this, the invention provides a kind of baseline coordinate measuring method of bistatic differential interferometry, using transponder The measurement of baseline coordinate is realized, its high precision, low cost and Time Continuous.In order to achieve the above object, technical side of the invention Case is：
Using S satellite to base station and measuring station transmission signal, needing to carry out at measurement of coordinates, placing measuring station, base Quasi station is set to radar, receives the directpath signal that every aeronautical satellite is sent；Measuring station is set to transponder, and transponder is received The signal of every aeronautical satellite, the signal are forwarded to base station as measuring station signal；Space is set up as origin using base station Coordinate system, the method are comprised the following steps that：
Step one：In base station, the phase place of directpath signal is mixed with base station Radar Localoscillator signal phase Process, obtain directpath signal phase history.
The phase place of measuring station signal and base station Radar Localoscillator signal phase are carried out into Frequency mixing processing, measuring station signal is obtained Phase history.
Step 2：Respectively directpath signal phase history is matched with measuring station signal phase history using ranging code The signal phase at peak value is filtered and extracted, the orientation signal S of directpath signal is obtained respectively_{R1}With the orientation of measuring station signal To signal S_{t1}。
Step 3：By S_{R1}And S_{t1}Conjugate multiplication, to realize the space difference between base station and measuring station.
Step 4：Signal obtained in step 3 is carried out into matched filtering process, and obtains the phase place at peak value, as Space differential phase.
Step 5：An aeronautical satellite is selected as reference satellite, by the sky of other aeronautical satellites except reference satellite Between differential phase deduct the space differential phase of reference satellite, that is, it is poor between the star between aeronautical satellite and reference satellite to realize Point, obtain DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS between star.
Step 6：For DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS between star, one baseline caused by the distance of base station to measuring station of compensation prolongs Slow corresponding phase place.
Step 7：For the space DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS after step 6 compensation carries out integer least square estimation, baseline is obtained The estimate of coordinate.
Further, in step 4, using the rough measure position according to measuring station and the ginseng of reference satellite placement configurations Examining the signal obtained in function pair step 3 carries out matched filtering process.
Invention also provides a kind of deformation measuring method of bistatic differential interferometry, realizes deformation using transponder Measurement function, with high accuracy, low cost, the advantage of Time Continuous is that high accuracy distortion measurement improves technical support.
In order to achieve the above object, the technical scheme is that：Using S satellite to base station and measuring station transmitting letter Number, at required measurement deformation, measuring station is set, base station is set to radar, receives the direct wave letter that every aeronautical satellite is sent Number；Measuring station is set to transponder, and transponder receives the signal of every aeronautical satellite, and the signal is forwarded to as measuring station signal Base station；Space coordinates are set up as origin using base station, the method is comprised the following steps that：
Step 1：The phase place of directpath signal and base station Radar Localoscillator signal phase are carried out into Frequency mixing processing, is gone directly Ripple signal phase history.
The phase place of measuring station signal is carried out into Frequency mixing processing with base station Radar Localoscillator signal phase, measuring station letter is obtained Number phase history.
Step 2：Respectively directpath signal and measuring station signal are carried out by matched filtering and extracted at peak value using ranging code Signal phase, respectively obtain directpath signal orientation signal S_{R1}With the orientation signal S of measuring station signal_{t1}。
Step 3：By S_{R1}And S_{t1}Conjugate multiplication, to realize the space difference between base station and measuring station.
Step 4：Signal obtained in step 3 is carried out into matched filtering and takes phase place at peak value, as space parallax splitphase Position.
Step 5：By the space differential phase obtained in step 4, difference is carried out to the space differential phase of time adjacent segments, Obtain time difference equation group.
Step 6：For time difference equation group, a baseline delay caused due to the distance of satellite to measuring station is compensated Corresponding phase place.
Step 7：The baseline coordinate of measuring station is obtained using method as claimed in claim 1, and in the base of known base line coordinate On plinth, time difference equation group is solved, obtain deformation quantity coordinate.
Further, in step 4, the essence of the measuring station obtained using baseline coordinate measuring method as claimed in claim 1 Really the reference function of position and reference satellite position jointly constructs is carried out at matched filtering to the signal obtained in step 3 Reason.
Beneficial effect：
1st, the present invention proposes a kind of bistatic differential interferometry baseline coordinate measuring method in star ground based on aeronautical satellite, should The signal of many aeronautical satellites is turned using transponder by technical scheme by placing transponder at the position for needing to measure coordinate Base station is sent to, base station carries out space parallax to many received aeronautical satellite directpath signals and transponder signal simultaneously Divide and time integral, fully to eliminate commonmode error and improve signal to noise ratio, then by differential configuration doubledifference equation between star, solve To the estimate of baseline coordinate.
2nd, the present invention proposes a kind of bistatic differential interferometry deformation measuring method in star ground based on aeronautical satellite, the skill The signal of many aeronautical satellites is forwarded using transponder by art scheme by placing transponder at the position for needing to measure deformation To base station, base station carries out space difference to many received aeronautical satellite directpath signals and transponder signal simultaneously And time integral, fully to eliminate commonmode error and improve signal to noise ratio, then built with regard to deformation quantity by time difference again Doubledifference equation, resolves to the doubledifference equation of multisatellite composition, realizes that highprecision deformation is estimated.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is system configuration schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is algorithm general flow chart.
Fig. 3 is that baseline coordinate estimates flow chart
Fig. 4 is that deformation quantity estimates flow chart
Specific embodiment
Develop simultaneously embodiment below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, describes the present invention.
Embodiment 1, as shown in figure 1, using S satellite to base station and measuring station transmission signal, base is carried out to measuring station Directrix measurement of coordinates, base station are set to radar, receive the directpath signal that every aeronautical satellite is sent；Measuring station is set to turn Device is sent out, transponder receives the signal of every aeronautical satellite, and the signal is forwarded to base station as measuring station signal；Made with base station Space coordinates are set up for origin, the flow process of this method is illustrated in figure 2, the method includes two parts, respectively measuring station Coordinate estimates the estimation flow process of flow process and deformation quantity, and wherein step one～step 7 estimates flow process such as Fig. 3 for the coordinate of measuring station, The method is comprised the following steps that：
Step one, the phase place of directpath signal and base station Radar Localoscillator signal phase are carried out Frequency mixing processing, obtain straight Arrived wave signal phase history；By the phase place of measuring station signal and Frequency mixing processing is carried out with base station Radar Localoscillator signal phase, obtain Obtain measuring station signal phase history.
The present embodiment is illustrated to the step one with specific transmission signal：
If the phase place of transmission signal is：
Wherein, t is the time, f_{0}For nominal carrier frequency, Δ f_{T}(τ) it is time varying frequency error, τ is integration parameter,For first Phase.
The signal phase that transponder is received is：
Wherein,Represent the error of the introducings such as ionosphere, troposphere, ephemeris.R_{m}T () arrives measuring station for satellite Distance.
Radar Localoscillator signal phase is：
Wherein, Δ f_{1}(τ) it is the timevarying error of receiver local frequency.For the initial phase of receiver local oscillator.
The satellite directpath signal that radar is received is：
Wherein,Represent the error of the introducings such as emitter local oscillator, ionosphere, troposphere, ephemeris, R_{ref}T () is Distance of the radar to satellite.
After the signal for receiving is mixed, phase history is：
Wherein, the phase place that the time delay from satellite to radar is introduced：
The synchronous error that radar receiver is introduced：
The synchronous error that emitter is introduced：
Radar receives the signal phase of transponder：
Wherein, τ_{td}For transponder time delay, R_{t}T () is distance of the radar to transponder.
After the transponder signal for receiving is mixed, phase history is obtained：
Expansion can be obtained：
Wherein：
The phase place that the time delay from satellite to transponder is introduced is represented, can be written as：
The phase place that the time delay from radar to transponder is introduced is represented, can be written as：
Represent the phase place that transponder device time delay is caused.
For launching the phase place that local frequency error is introduced, can be written as：
Step 2：Respectively directpath signal and measuring station signal are carried out by matched filtering and extracted at peak value using ranging code Signal phase, respectively obtain directpath signal orientation signal S_{R1}With the orientation signal S of measuring station signal_{t1}。
In the present embodiment, direct wave phase history and transponder echosignal phase history are matched using CA codes Filter and extract the signal phase at peak value.If the corresponding signal phase of direct wave is：
Wherein, w_{R1}T () is the noise in the corresponding signal phase of direct wave, N_{R1}T () is the corresponding signal phase of direct wave In integer ambiguity.
Signal phase at transponder migration curve location is：
Wherein, w_{t1}The noise of (t) for the signal phase at transponder migration curve location, N_{t1}T () is that transponder migration is bent The integer ambiguity of the signal phase at line position.
Ignore amplitude, the orientation signal of direct wave is：
Transponder is：
Step 3：By S_{R1}And S_{t1}Conjugate multiplication, to realize the space difference between base station and measuring station.
If：
Wherein,
Wherein, by the synchronous error of emitter introducing it is：
As the local oscillator stability of satellite is very high, and between Jing stands after difference, the time of integration of formula is very short, therefore can recognize ForThis also indicates that difference can eliminate satellite clock correction well between station.
Distance between base station and transponder very close in the case of, ionosphere etc. in transponder and directpath signal Error be believed that it is identical, i.e.,：
So, have：
It can be seen that, space difference eliminates the first phase of transmittingreceiving local oscillator, the synchronous error of transmittingreceiving local oscillator and radar station and forwarding Corresponding ionospheric error of device etc..But remain the error of transponder device latencies introducing.And the geometric position information of transponder Then it is retained inIn.
Step 4：Signal obtained in step 3 is carried out into matched filtering and takes phase place at peak value, as space difference Phase place.
In the present embodiment, if the rough position of transponder is：
Actual position (before deformation) is：
Satellite reference position is：
Position and reference satellite placement configurations reference function according to transponder is：
S_{1_ref}(t)=exp [j θ_{ref_c}(t)] (27)
Wherein, θ_{ref_c}T () is the corresponding phase place of dual station range difference；
Using S_{1_ref}T () is as reference function to S_{1}T () carries out matched filtering process, obtain phase place at peak value and be：
Wherein, t_{1}Represent aperture center moment, w_{peak}(t_{1}) it is t_{1}Moment peak noise, N_{peak}(t_{1}) it is t_{1}Moment S_{1}(t) peak Integer ambiguity at value.
Within another time period, through same treatment, obtaining peak phase is：
Wherein, t_{2}Represent aperture center moment, w_{peak}(t_{2}) it is t_{2}Moment peak noise, N_{peak}(t_{2}) it is t_{2}Moment S_{1}(t) peak Integer ambiguity at value.
Step 5：An aeronautical satellite is selected as reference satellite, by the sky of other aeronautical satellites except reference satellite Between differential phase deduct the space differential phase of reference satellite, that is, it is poor between the star between aeronautical satellite and reference satellite to realize Point, obtain DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS between star.
It is reference satellite for example to choose satellite j, to the peak phase θ after the matched filtering of satellite i and j_{peak}(t_{1}) poor Office is managed, and obtains：
It can be seen that, between star, difference eliminates the phase place that the phase place of transponder time delay introducing and baseline are introduced.
Step 6：For DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS between star, one baseline caused by the distance of base station to measuring station of compensation prolongs Slow corresponding phase place.
In the present embodiment, in the signal received due to base station, the corresponding phase place of distance of satellite to transponder is：
I.e. many baseline delay times, analysis understand that the time can cause the error of most about 1.2cm, for For highprecision estimation, should compensate.
Formula (30) is carried out transplanting and can be obtained：
If：
So, have：
Step 7：For the space DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS after step 6 compensation carries out integer least square estimation, baseline is obtained The estimate of coordinate.
The equation left side is observation, the item of arteface and can estimate the item for obtaining when processing, on the right of equation and DGPS Double difference it is the same.Therefore, the processing method that can apply mechanically DGPS is estimated to survey station coordinate, due to being ripe algorithm, Here omit.
Embodiment 2, as shown in figure 1, using S satellite to base station and measuring station transmission signal, shape is carried out to measuring station Become measurement, base station is set to radar, receives the directpath signal that every aeronautical satellite is sent；Measuring station is set to transponder, Transponder receives the signal of every aeronautical satellite, and the signal is forwarded to base station as measuring station signal；Using base station as original Point sets up space coordinates, is illustrated in figure 2 the flow process of this method, and the method includes two parts, the respectively coordinate of measuring station Estimate the estimation flow process of flow process and deformation quantity, the measurement procedure of deformation quantity such as Fig. 4 in the present embodiment, wherein step 1～step 4 and Step one in embodiment 2～step 4 correspondent equal, step 5～step 7 are respectively：
Step 5：It is by the space differential phase obtained in step 4, poor to the space differential phase of time adjacent segments Point, obtain time difference equation group；
After estimation obtains baseline coordinate, that is, carry out deformation quantity estimation.In the step, difference and matched filtering part between standing Repeat with measurement survey station coordinate schemes, difference is only that, in survey station coordinate schemes, transponder position used is rough position, And used in distortion measurement be transponder more accurate position, therefore repeat no more, repeating part be referred to as into distortion measurement Pretreatment.
Time difference is carried out to the phase place after matched filtering, is obtained：
Wherein：
N_{peak}(t_{1},t_{2})=N_{peak}(t_{1})N_{peak}(t_{2}) (37)
w(t_{1},t_{2})=w_{peak}(t_{1})w_{peak}(t_{2}) (38)
SEE time difference eliminates the delay of transponder introducing.Time difference is remainedThis contains Deformation data.
If t_{2}Relative to t_{1}Deformation is there occurs, deformation vector is：
If the position vector that transponder has error is：
May certify that, when the site error of time interval, survey station meets certain condition, it is believed that：
N_{peak}(t_{1},t_{2})=N_{peak}(t_{1})N_{peak}(t_{2})=0 (41)
Now have：
Step 6：For time difference equation group, a baseline delay caused by the distance of base station to measuring station is compensated Corresponding phase place.
In the signal received due to base station, the corresponding phase place of distance of satellite to transponder is：
I.e. many baseline delay times, the time can cause certain error, affect estimated accuracy, therefore should enter Row compensation.
If：
If：
Wherein, subscript i represents satellite number.
(45) are substituted into (46) to obtain：
It can be seen that, in formula (47), containing delay errorItem is not contained delay errorReplaced.
Step 7：Solved for time difference equation group, obtained deformation quantity coordinate.
Formula (47) is launched and is done approximately obtain：
Wherein：
Then leastsquares estimation is：
Wherein：
To sum up, presently preferred embodiments of the present invention is these are only, is not intended to limit protection scope of the present invention.It is all Within the spirit and principles in the present invention, any modification, equivalent substitution and improvements made etc. should be included in the protection of the present invention Within the scope of.
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US5384574A (en) *  19820301  19950124  Western Atlas International, Inc.  System for determining position from suppressed carrier radio waves 
CN1238868A (en) *  19960712  19991215  鹰眼技术公司  Method and apparatus for precision geolocation 
CN101770027A (en) *  20100205  20100707  河海大学  Ground surface threedimensional deformation monitoring method based on InSAR and GPS data fusion 
CN101833090A (en) *  20100312  20100915  中国科学院遥感应用研究所  Airborne ocean microwave remote sensing system utilizing signal sources of global satellite positioning system 
CN103412310A (en) *  20130826  20131127  电子科技大学  Bistatic forwardlooking synthetic aperture radar ground moving target detecting method and imaging method 

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Patent Citations (5)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

US5384574A (en) *  19820301  19950124  Western Atlas International, Inc.  System for determining position from suppressed carrier radio waves 
CN1238868A (en) *  19960712  19991215  鹰眼技术公司  Method and apparatus for precision geolocation 
CN101770027A (en) *  20100205  20100707  河海大学  Ground surface threedimensional deformation monitoring method based on InSAR and GPS data fusion 
CN101833090A (en) *  20100312  20100915  中国科学院遥感应用研究所  Airborne ocean microwave remote sensing system utilizing signal sources of global satellite positioning system 
CN103412310A (en) *  20130826  20131127  电子科技大学  Bistatic forwardlooking synthetic aperture radar ground moving target detecting method and imaging method 
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