CN104699953B - A kind of wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical model - Google Patents

A kind of wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical model Download PDF

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CN104699953B
CN104699953B CN201510045439.0A CN201510045439A CN104699953B CN 104699953 B CN104699953 B CN 104699953B CN 201510045439 A CN201510045439 A CN 201510045439A CN 104699953 B CN104699953 B CN 104699953B
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CN104699953A (en
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周冠华
牛春跃
杨文娜
徐武健
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北京航空航天大学
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical model.Its step is as follows:Input scene basic parameter, elementary cell is used as using cylinder;Area component in visual field is divided into more than the water surface and the following two parts of the water surface, the area of each component in the presence of only one of which elementary cell is calculated;The area of each component in the number of consideration elementary cell and mutual occlusion test visual field;Calculate the brightness of each component;The water surface only considers that it is transmitted, and calculates the weighted average of each component intensities in visual field;The influence of water-reflected is superimposed, the bidirectional reflectanD of aquatic vegetation scene is calculated.The present invention can realize under the conditions of different aquatic vegetation Crown canopy parametres, position of sun and observation position etc. that the accurate description of aquatic vegetation direction reflection characteristic is the effective tool for analyzing aquatic vegetation direction reflection characteristic and its influence factor.In addition the present invention is a kind of geometric optical model of foundation on Vegetation canopy structural form, has the advantages that highly versatile, arithmetic speed are fast.

Description

A kind of wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical model

(1) art

The present invention relates to a kind of wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical model, belong to optical remote sensing field, in wetland remote sensing skill It is significant in terms of art research and aquatic vegetation Reflection Characteristic Analysis.

(2) background technology

The wetland aquatic vegetation of nature according to its habit can be divided into very water vegetation, swim vegetation and submerged vegetation Three classes.The spatial distribution of aquatic vegetation is often more complicated under nature, shows different types of aquatic vegetation and water more The situation that body is interspersed, and water body and different types of aquatic vegetation have different reflection characteristics.Therefore natural situation Under wetland Region be often typical non-homogeneous atural object, need to consider ground when carrying out earth's surface information extraction using remote sensing image The influence of apparent bearing reflection characteristic.With respect to water body, the water surface and aquatic vegetation have of a relatively high reflectivity and obvious side To reflection characteristic.Therefore, the direction reflection characteristic of scientific knowledge aquatic vegetation, classification, variation monitoring to aquatic vegetation etc. are real Border application has very important significance.

The present invention uses for reference land vehicles canopy geometric optics modeling method, it is proposed that a kind of consideration water body and the water surface influence Processing method, establishes a kind of wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical model, for being computed correctly aquatic vegetation side in wetland remote sensing To reflection characteristic, the classification and variation monitoring for realizing aquatic vegetation have important scientific meaning and application value.

(3) content of the invention

The present invention relates to a kind of wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical model.Technical solution is:Input scene is joined substantially Number, elementary cell is used as using cylinder;Area component in visual field is divided into more than the water surface and the following two parts of the water surface, calculated only There is the area of each component in the presence of an elementary cell;Consider elementary cell number and mutual occlusion test visual field in each The area of component;Calculate the brightness of each component;The water surface only considers that it is transmitted, and the weighting for calculating each component intensities in visual field is put down ;The influence of water-reflected is superimposed, the bidirectional reflectanD of aquatic vegetation scene is calculated.It is comprised the following steps that:

1 a kind of wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical model, it is characterised in that comprise the steps of:

(1) input scene basic parameter, elementary cell is used as using cylinder;

(2) the area component in visual field is divided into more than the water surface and the following two parts of the water surface, calculates only one of which substantially single The area of each component in the presence of member;

(3) number of elementary cell and the area ratio of each component in mutual occlusion test visual field are considered;

(4) brightness of each component is calculated;

(5) water surface only considers that it is transmitted, and calculates the weighted average of each component intensities in visual field;

(6) influence of water-reflected is superimposed, the bidirectional reflectanD of aquatic vegetation scene is calculated.

A kind of 2 wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical models according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In step (1) Described " input scene basic parameter, elementary cell is used as using cylinder ", specific calculating process is as follows:Input scene size, The depth of water, cylinder height, cylinder bottom surface radius, cylinder number, the size of each cylinder it is identical and in scene with Machine is distributed.

A kind of 3 wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical models according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In step (2) Described " is divided into the area component in visual field more than the water surface and the following two parts of the water surface, calculates only one of which elementary cell and deposit When each component area ", specific calculating process is as follows:

The first step:Only consider a cylinder, the area in visual field is divided into:Illumination canopy waterborne, shade waterborne hat Layer, the illumination water surface, the shade water surface, Underwater Optical are according to canopy, shade canopy, the illumination bottom, shade are water-bed under water;

Second step:Consider water surface above section, calculate illumination canopy waterborne, shade canopy waterborne, the illumination water surface, shade water The area in face;

3rd step:Consider part below the water surface, calculate Underwater Optical and shine canopy, under water shade canopy, the illumination bottom, shade water The area at bottom.

A kind of 4 wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical models according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In step (3) Described " the area ratio of each component in the number of consideration elementary cell and mutual occlusion test visual field ", its calculating process is such as Under:

The first step:Calculate the area ratio on illumination ground

Wherein, a unit is respectively Γ in the area of ground cast shadow along direction of illumination and observed directionsWith Γo, O For the overlapping area of two shades, Γ is the union of two shades, and λ is the number of the elementary cell on unit area;

Second step:Calculate the area ratio of illumination canopy component

Wherein, β is the weight that is distributed in vertical direction of unit center position, and value is from completely random 0 to highly identical 1;f To cover coefficient;ΓcFor visual plane of illumination area;

3rd step:Computational shadowgraph canopy and the area on shade ground ratio

Wherein, KtFor the area ratio of shade canopy, KzFor the area ratio on shade ground.

A kind of 5 wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical models according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In step (4) Described " brightness for calculating each component ", specific calculating process is as follows:The brightness of water surface above canopy part is input parameter, The brightness of the illumination water surface is calculated according to rough water reflection model, and the brightness of the following component of the water surface needs to consider water surface transmission and water The influence of body decay.

A kind of 6 wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical models according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In step (5) Described " water surface only considers that it is transmitted, and calculates the weighted average of each component intensities in visual field ", specific calculating process is as follows:Do not examine When considering water-reflected, the brightness that sensor is received can be expressed as

L0=CKc+TKt+CwKcw+TwKtw+GwKgw+ZwKzw

Wherein, C, T, Cw、Tw、Gw、ZwBe respectively illumination canopy waterborne, shade canopy waterborne and consider the water surface transmission and Underwater Optical when water body is decayed is according to canopy, shade canopy, illumination under water is water-bed and shade bottom brightness;Kc、Kt、Kcw、Ktw、 Kgw、KzwUnderwater Optical when being respectively illumination canopy waterborne, shade canopy waterborne and considering water surface transmission and water body decay is according to hat Layer, under water shade canopy, the area ratio that illumination is water-bed and the shade bottom is in visual field;These brightness and the face in each comfortable visual field Product is summed again than being multiplied.

A kind of 7 wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical models according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In step (6) Described " influence of superposition water-reflected, calculate the bidirectional reflectanD of aquatic vegetation scene ", specific calculating process is as follows:Will step Suddenly what is calculated in (5) does not consider that brightness during water-reflected is superimposed the influence of water-reflected

L=L0+GKg+ZKz

Wherein, G, Z are the brightness of the illumination water surface and the shade water surface respectively, and L0 is the brightness that sensor is received, KgWith KzPoint It is not the area ratio of the illumination water surface and the shade water surface;The illumination water surface is multiplied with respective area ratio respectively with the brightness of the shade water surface It is added to again in brightness when not considering water-reflected, that is, obtains the reflectivity of whole scene.

The advantage of the present invention compared with prior art is:

(1) academic circles at present lacks the geometric optical model of description aquatic vegetation direction reflection characteristic, and the present invention is filled up The blank in this field, with significant novelty, enriches Vegetation canopy remote sensing theoretical.

(2) present invention uses for reference land vehicles canopy geometric optical model, it is contemplated that the influence of the water surface and water body, compared to one Radiative transfer model is tieed up, the present invention considers the discontinuity and heterogeneity of earth's surface, clear physics conception, highly versatile, meter Calculate convenient.

(4) illustrate

Fig. 1 is techniqueflow chart of the invention.Fig. 2 is illumination shade, observation shade and the shade faying surface in step (2) Long-pending schematic diagram.

(5) embodiment

In order to which a kind of wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical model of the present invention is better described, the mould of the present invention is utilized Type is tested and analyzed, and achieves good effect, and specific implementation method is as follows:

(1) input scene basic parameter, elementary cell is used as using cylinder;

(2) the area component in visual field is divided into more than the water surface and the following two parts of the water surface, calculates only one of which substantially single The area of each component in the presence of member;

(3) number of elementary cell and the area ratio of each component in mutual occlusion test visual field are considered;

(4) brightness of each component is calculated;

(5) water surface only considers that it is transmitted, and calculates the weighted average of each component intensities in visual field;

(6) influence of water-reflected is superimposed, the bidirectional reflectanD of aquatic vegetation scene is calculated.

Experimental result as shown in figure 3, based on the present invention model, can with Quantitative Discussion unit area elementary cell The factors such as number, solar zenith angle, the depth of water, the size of elementary cell to influence from aquatic vegetation two to reflection characteristic.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of wetland aquatic vegetation geometric optical model, it is characterised in that comprise the steps of:
(1) input scene basic parameter, elementary cell is used as using cylinder;Specific calculating process is as follows:Input scene size, water Depth, cylinder height, cylinder bottom surface radius, cylinder number, the size of each cylinder are identical and random in scene Distribution;
(2) the area component in visual field is divided into more than the water surface and the following two parts of the water surface, calculates only one of which elementary cell and deposit When each component area;Specific calculating process is as follows:
The first step:Only consider a cylinder, the area in visual field is divided into:Illumination canopy waterborne, shade canopy waterborne, light Canopy is shone according to the water surface, the shade water surface, Underwater Optical, shade canopy, the illumination bottom, shade are water-bed under water;
Second step:Consider water surface above section, illumination canopy waterborne, shade canopy waterborne, the illumination water surface, shade water are calculated respectively The area in face;
3rd step:Consider part below the water surface, Underwater Optical is calculated respectively and shines canopy, under water shade canopy, the illumination bottom, shade water The area at bottom;
(3) number of elementary cell and the area ratio of each component in mutual occlusion test visual field are considered;Its calculating process is as follows:
The first step:The area ratio on illumination ground is calculated,
<mrow> <msub> <mi>K</mi> <mi>g</mi> </msub> <mo>=</mo> <msup> <mi>e</mi> <mrow> <mo>-</mo> <mi>&amp;lambda;</mi> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <msub> <mi>&amp;Gamma;</mi> <mi>s</mi> </msub> <mo>+</mo> <msub> <mi>&amp;Gamma;</mi> <mi>o</mi> </msub> <mo>-</mo> <mi>O</mi> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow> </msup> <mo>=</mo> <msup> <mi>e</mi> <mrow> <mo>-</mo> <mi>&amp;lambda;</mi> <mi>&amp;Gamma;</mi> </mrow> </msup> </mrow>
Wherein, a unit is respectively Γ in the area of ground cast shadow along direction of illumination and observed directionsWith Γo, O is two The overlapping area of shade, Γ is the union of two shades, and λ is the number of the elementary cell on unit area;
Second step:The area ratio of illumination canopy component is calculated,
<mrow> <msub> <mi>K</mi> <mi>c</mi> </msub> <mo>=</mo> <mi>&amp;beta;</mi> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <msub> <mi>&amp;lambda;&amp;Gamma;</mi> <mi>c</mi> </msub> <mo>-</mo> <mi>f</mi> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <msub> <mi>&amp;lambda;&amp;Gamma;</mi> <mi>o</mi> </msub> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mo>+</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>1</mn> <mo>-</mo> <mi>&amp;beta;</mi> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mfrac> <msub> <mi>&amp;Gamma;</mi> <mi>c</mi> </msub> <mi>&amp;Gamma;</mi> </mfrac> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>1</mn> <mo>-</mo> <msub> <mi>K</mi> <mi>g</mi> </msub> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow>
Wherein, β is the weight that unit center position is distributed in vertical direction, and value is shade from completely random 0 to highly identical 1, f Cover coefficient;
3rd step:Computational shadowgraph canopy and the area on shade ground ratio,
<mfenced open = "{" close = ""> <mtable> <mtr> <mtd> <mrow> <msub> <mi>K</mi> <mi>t</mi> </msub> <mo>=</mo> <msup> <mi>e</mi> <mrow> <mo>-</mo> <msub> <mi>&amp;lambda;&amp;Gamma;</mi> <mi>c</mi> </msub> </mrow> </msup> <mo>-</mo> <msup> <mi>e</mi> <mrow> <mo>-</mo> <msub> <mi>&amp;lambda;&amp;Gamma;</mi> <mi>o</mi> </msub> </mrow> </msup> </mrow> </mtd> </mtr> <mtr> <mtd> <mrow> <msub> <mi>K</mi> <mi>z</mi> </msub> <mo>=</mo> <mn>1</mn> <mo>-</mo> <msub> <mi>K</mi> <mi>g</mi> </msub> <mo>-</mo> <msub> <mi>K</mi> <mi>c</mi> </msub> <mo>-</mo> <msub> <mi>K</mi> <mi>t</mi> </msub> </mrow> </mtd> </mtr> </mtable> </mfenced>
Wherein, KtFor the area ratio of shade canopy, KzFor the area ratio on shade ground;
(4) brightness of each component is calculated;Specific calculating process is as follows:The brightness of water surface above canopy part is input parameter, The brightness of the illumination water surface is calculated according to rough water reflection model, and the brightness of the following component of the water surface needs to consider water surface transmission and water The influence of body decay;
(5) water surface only considers that it is transmitted, and calculates the weighted average of each component intensities in visual field;Specific calculating process is as follows:Do not examine When considering water-reflected, the brightness that sensor is received can be expressed as
L0=CKc+TKt+CwKcw+TwKtw+GwKgw+ZwKzw
Wherein, C, T, Cw、Tw、Gw、ZwIt is respectively illumination canopy waterborne, shade canopy waterborne and considers that water surface transmission and water body decline Underwater Optical when subtracting is according to canopy, shade canopy, the brightness that illumination is water-bed and shade is water-bed under water;Kc、Kt、Kcw、Ktw、Kgw、KzwPoint Underwater Optical when not being illumination canopy waterborne, shade canopy waterborne and considering water surface transmission and water body decay is according to canopy, under water Shade canopy, the area ratio that illumination is water-bed and the shade bottom is in visual field;These brightness compare phase with the area in each comfortable visual field Multiply and sum again;
(6) influence of water-reflected is superimposed, the bidirectional reflectanD of aquatic vegetation scene is calculated, specific calculating process is as follows:Will step Suddenly what is calculated in (5) does not consider that brightness during water-reflected is superimposed the influence of water-reflected,
L=L0+GKg+ZKz
Wherein, G, Z are the brightness of the illumination water surface and the shade water surface respectively, and L0 is the brightness that sensor is received, KgWith KzIt is respectively The area ratio of the illumination water surface and the shade water surface;The illumination water surface is folded again with respective area than being multiplied respectively with the brightness of the shade water surface It is added to the reflectivity that whole scene is obtained in brightness when not considering water-reflected.
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