CN104686172B - A method of for improveing hillside fields interplanting rich selenium vegetables and fruit - Google Patents

A method of for improveing hillside fields interplanting rich selenium vegetables and fruit Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104686172B
CN104686172B CN201510107556.5A CN201510107556A CN104686172B CN 104686172 B CN104686172 B CN 104686172B CN 201510107556 A CN201510107556 A CN 201510107556A CN 104686172 B CN104686172 B CN 104686172B
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fertilizer
common vetch
year
vetch dish
selenium
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CN104686172A (en
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王寿南
胡刘满
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Hunan Jiangyu Agricultural Development Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Fertilizers (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The method that the present invention relates to a kind of to interplant rich selenium vegetables and fruit for improveing hillside fields, it refer to the method for planting common vetch dish, thorn China fir, fig in hillside forest land, it include the transformation using the improvement soil rich in Organic Selenium to hillside forest land, pierce the plant of China fir, common vetch dish, fig, pierce China fir, fig the training seedling pruned with common vetch dish, fertilising, irrigation, the cultivation of common vetch dish, rye grass are broadcasted sowing, and apply organic selenium fertilizer.Above-mentioned technical proposal can significantly improve the yield and quality of common vetch dish, and common vetch dish can be picked every year after third year, organic selenium content is high in the common vetch dish of picking, and the single plant yield of fig will the significantly larger than large stretch of yield individually planted of tradition, and Se content height in fig.

Description

A method of for improveing hillside fields interplanting rich selenium vegetables and fruit
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural productions, and in particular to a kind of side for improveing hillside fields interplanting rich selenium vegetables and fruit Method.
Background technology
Common vetch dish, scientific name purple dustpan, belongs to perennial pteridophyte, has extensive presence in Dabie Mountain mountain area.Containing rich in common vetch dish Various trace elements, the common vetch dishes such as rich protein, vitamin and potassium, calcium, squama not only can be made into delicious dish, with more anti- Cancer, heat-clearing, removing toxic substances, weight-reducing, beauty and other effects, while the viruses such as influenza, encephalitis B are significantly inhibited, it is long Phase outlet, be in great demand overseas vegetables, is especially exported to Japan.
Currently, common vetch dish is field acquisition mostly, and although also there is place experiment artificial growth, its low output, acquisition Common vetch dish stem is thin, poor quality, and common vetch dish will withered or no longer bract bud after picking one, two year.
Invention content
The method that it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of to interplant rich selenium vegetables and fruit for improveing hillside fields, can be effective Solve the above problems, the yield of common vetch dish is high, and common vetch dish is sturdy, and quality is good, can pick for a long time, will not the underproduction, fig Single plant yield is high, improves the economic benefit of agricultural planting.
To achieve the above object, present invention employs following technical schemes:
1, a kind of method for improveing hillside fields interplanting rich selenium vegetables and fruit refers in hillside forest land plantation common vetch dish, thorn China fir, fig method, specifically include following operating procedure:
S1:By hillside forest land site preparation at staged, each planting site after site preparation is opened up along the contour on hillside respectively, adjacent It is built a dam the ridge using stone heap on the outside of slope surface between planting site, each planting site middle part offers ditch, length of the ditch along planting site Degree direction opens up and ditch is separated into each sink by interval setting compartment, compartment along its length in ditch, and the two of each sink The first and second flowing water mouth is respectively set on the compartment of end, opens up third flowing water mouth on the cell wall on the outside of sink, third stream on same sink The height of the height at the mouth of a river flowing water mouth smaller with height in the first and second flowing water mouth is consistent, the third stream on adjacent ditch The mouth of a river arranges that the top ditch in hillside forest land is connected with water supply installation, and the upper outside of Ba Geng is provided in interleaved shape The sparge pipe of horizontal shape arrangement is arranged at intervals with hole for water spraying/nozzle on the pipe shaft of sparge pipe, and the water outlet direction of hole for water spraying/nozzle is oblique To the side wall for being directed toward Ba Geng, planting site is divided into the first planting site on the inside of ditch and the on the outside of ditch by ditch Two planting sites, the first planting site using improvement soil fill out it is whole form, improvement soil be dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fire Loam is according to 1:1:0.4:0.2~1.2:1:0.8:0.4 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains, and dry land soil is that rice terrace drains dry field The paddy soils taken after 3~June do not sow crop during dry field and dig 2~3 times, and fiery loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, weeds The fire ash of firing is with forest land soil according to 1:2~3 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains;Selenium-rich batch mixing be 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 5~10g sodium selenites are obtained through compost maturity;
S2:Spring current year plants 4~5 years raw thorn Chinese fir seedlings of interval plant on the ground at second kind, and thorn China fir seedling will thorn after surviving The trunk of Chinese fir seedling is clipped and carries out preservative treatment to truncated position, pierces tufted at the tree stump of China fir and grows thorn China fir seedling, in thorn Chinese fir The planting pit that 50~55cm depths are dug on the outside of seedling applies the decomposed fertilizer of 5~8kg in planting pit, by the fig skewer with soil Seedlings plugging is transplanted in planting pit, and root water is watered with, and fig spacing in the rows is 1.5~2.0m, will along 20~22cm of cuttage seeding height Fig is cut, and carries out shaping to fig using three major branch natural open centre shapes/Y shape training type, decomposed fertilizer is 150~155 Parts by weight green manure, the poultry muck of 30~35 parts by weight, the dry land soil of the lime of 5~8 parts by weight and 10~15 parts by weight are decomposed Processing obtains, and 20d, which is poured, after cuttage applies primary dilute rich water, contains 5% ammonium sulfate in dilute rich water, the same year autumn by artificial breeding Grow/wild common vetch dish seedling plants at first kind and transplanted on the ground close to interval at the bottoms Ba Geng, and pour water in ditch, in ditch Water surface elevation be less than the first planting site 12~17cm of ground level, after the Frost's Descent stop irrigate and in the earth's surface of the first planting site One layer of leaf of bedding;
S3:Second year starts to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and 4~May, common vetch dish started bract bud, and daily night opening is sprayed water after bract bud Spray/the mist that spreads that hole/nozzle carries out 3~5min sprays, and bract bud First Year is not picked common vetch dish, trims, protects to thorn Chinese fir A major branch is stayed, remaining thorn China fir seedling, which carries out plucking top, makes its height between 1.4~1.6m;The major branch of fig is repaiied It cuts, keeps 50~55cm of major branch length, 3~4 are retained above each major branch newly slightly, the prosperous long-term application of young sprout growth is primary multiple With fertilizer, the applied amount of compounding fertilizer is that 90~100kg, compounding fertilizer are 20 parts by weight nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizers, 30 parts by weight poultrys per acre The urea mixed configuration of muck and 5 parts by weight obtains, and as a result carries out vegetables and fruits afterwards;Second year autumn plants at first kind broadcasts sowing purple on the ground Yun Ying, receipts and leaf are cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation, and bedding stops irrigating after the Frost's Descent in the earth's surface of the first planting site together;From Start within 2 years, planted at first kind before Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding and spread fertilizer over the fields selenium-rich clay fertilizer on the ground, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of selenium-rich clay fertilizer is per acre First planting site spreads fertilizer over the fields 120~150kg, and selenium-rich clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 3.5kg cake fertilizer It is obtained through compost maturity with 3~5g sodium selenites;
S4:Since third year, repeat to operate as follows every year:Start to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and common vetch dish is applied in 3, April Once help bud fertile, the spray/mist that spreads of night opening hole for water spraying/3~5min of nozzle progress sprays daily after bract bud, and 4~May is to common vetch dish Picking 3~4 times, the dwarf branch item to piercing Chinese fir are trimmed, its height is made to be no more than 1.5m;Fig side shoot is trimmed, Make the length of 30~35cm, 1~2 is retained on each side shoot newly slightly, trims and makes new of length no more than 20cm slightly, the 4th The young sprout sent out the new slightly branch of result, select and remain 1~2 growing way stalwartness less on side shoot is wiped out after year every year, young sprout is grown prosperous For a long time, apply a compounding fertilizer before falling leaves respectively, each applied amount of compounding fertilizer is 70~75kg per acre;At the beginning of fruit expanding period Phase applies fruit tree punching fertilising, and the latter stage of fruit expanding period sprays organic selenium fertilizer;Autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch, purple cloud in the first planting site Receipts and leaf are cut after Yingcheng is ripe, and bedding stops irrigating after the Frost's Descent in the earth's surface of the first planting site together, and it is fire fertilizer to help bud fertilizer Soil and people's retention of urine liquid/urea mixed preparing obtain;
Poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized and mixed by 1 mass ratio matches Fermentation substrate is made, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio, The product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
The plantation of common vetch dish, most important is exactly the control of liquid manure, and the happiness of common vetch dish happiness water is cloudy, but also flood afraid of water, and to life Long soil is extremely harsh.The irrigation system that the present invention is made up of the transformation in above-mentioned hillside forest land, ditch, enables to flow equal The entire hillside forest land of even irrigation, at the same the water level control in ditch be less than first planting site 12~17cm of earth's surface, ensure common vetch The happiness water of dish irrigates and is not in waterlogging, and common vetch dish is planted close to the bottoms Ba Geng, to be got well more than level land planting effect, common vetch Dish is influenced by Ba Geng so that new cauline leaf is grown to far from the sides Ba Geng so that is sprouted the plant hormone stimulation root in it More gemma are sent out, yield, while the setting of Ba Geng are improved, the first can be made to plant flow above ground and not planted from first kind The earth's surface on ground is trickled and is penetrated into ditch from its underpart, and common vetch dish waterlogging is prevented, in addition, the Ba Geng that stone heap is built, it can be in forest land The initial stage of transformation plays fixed function, and landslide causes hillside forest land to be ruined when preventing rainy season;Hole for water spraying/nozzle sprays in short-term at night Leaching, Simulated rainwater day so that rainwater sparse spray in part promotes the growth of common vetch dish bud so that common vetch dish bud is more on common vetch dish bud It is sturdy;The improvement soil of above-mentioned preparation simultaneously is supported in acidity and fertilizer and is more matched with the best demand of common vetch dish growth so that common vetch Dish is more sturdy, and in addition Chinese milk vetch can vegetate in the soil property of the first planting site, and the Chinese milk vetch of harvesting, leaf are covered Lid so that common vetch dish can be preferably overwintering, ensure the common vetch dish coming year germinate spore, Chinese milk vetch, leaf rot and help bud fertilizer apply Add the fertility that can be good at supplementing the first planting site and adjust acidity so that common vetch dish can be picked every year.Pierce Chinese fir The cost of breeding is low, survival rate is high, growth is fast, after cutting down its major branch, can go out a large amount of new talent in tree stump director, can be quick The fence of shading is formed in the periphery of common vetch dish, ensures demand of the common vetch dish to growing environment, while shortening the week of entire forest land transformation Phase.Certainly, above-mentioned only simply to illustrate the main function that each factor is individually played the role of, by the mutually coordinated of each factor, Common vetch dish is enable all to carry out the picking of high yield every year, and the common vetch dish picked is sturdy, quality is good.
And common vetch colza plant is carried out using above-mentioned improvement soil and selenium-rich clay fertilizer, Organic Selenium can effectively be absorbed by common vetch dish, The Se content in common vetch dish can be effectively improved, Se content about improves 3~4 times in the dry common vetch dish of harvest, and compost maturity is exactly that agricultural is raw The means of common green manure compost maturity in production.
Detailed scheme is:
The height of Ba Geng is 60~80cm, and it is 30~35cm that improvement soil, which fills out whole thickness, and improvement soil is filled out under flood Side is provided with sandy soils, and the bottoms Ba Geng extend in sandy soils.Plantation tea tree, tea tree on the ground are planted after second year at second kind to be located at Pierce Chinese fir inside and with thorn Chinese fir it is interval-staggered.It is that 50kg fire loam and 10L people's retention of urine liquid are prepared to obtain to help bud fertilizer.The After 2 years, pierce Chinese fir trunk is larger and also tree stump at dwarf branch item it is also in great numbers, like the outside in ditch forms a hedge Larger tea seedling is planted on column on the inside of it at this time, and tea tree happiness is cloudy, can be good at growing, can be by second if plantation tea tree Relatively larger than the first planting site ground level of the ground level setting on ground is planted, more crop interplantings improve entire economic benefit.And And thorn Chinese fir, common vetch dish are all the crops that insect pest will not occur, and by interplanting, can eliminate large stretch of Tea planting and be easy to happen disease The phenomenon that insect pest, improves the economic benefit of entire agricultural.
Fig can be interplanted with thorn China fir, common vetch dish very well, the yield of raising single plant fig, the resistance to fertilizer of fig, no Pest and disease damage is will produce, drawing branch can be carried out to fig during plantation, avoid fig fruit tree excessively high.
In addition, feces of livestock and poultry and weeds, lime rich in Organic Selenium, the ripe obtained selenium-rich fertilizer of cake fertilizer mixed compaction heap and The application of fruit expanding period organic selenium fertilizer, Organic Selenium can effectively be absorbed by fig so that the Se content in fig is general More than the three times of logical fig, become health fruit.Fruit tree punching fertilising should be compared with using before organic selenium fertilizer, and fruit tree punching fertilising can be effective Promote absorption of the fruit tree to organic selenium fertilizer, in addition may also function as it is hyperchromic it is sweetened, premunition is strong, anti-fruit-cracking, ripe early, fruit circle Profit, resistance to storage and other effects.
Above-mentioned technical proposal can significantly improve the yield and quality of common vetch dish, and after third year every year can to common vetch dish into The single plant yield of row picking, fig is high, and the economic benefit of entire agricultural planting is significantly increased.
Description of the drawings
The structural schematic diagram in ditch is opened up in Fig. 1 slope surfaces;
Fig. 2 is the sectional schematic diagram of slope surface.
Specific implementation mode
In order to make objects and advantages of the present invention be more clearly understood, the present invention is carried out specifically with reference to embodiments It is bright.It should be appreciated that following word is only used to one or more of specific embodiments of the description present invention, not to the present invention The protection domain specifically asked carries out considered critical.
Following Examples 1 to 2 are in my company (ten thousand grass of Anqing, thousand wooden agricultural science and technology Co., Ltd) and Wuhu perseverance promise energy Technology Co., Ltd., Yuexi County Hong Sheng agricultural science and technologys Co., Ltd joint development cool breeze farm (Yuexi County lotus flower village cool breeze group) Middle progress, gemma refer to that tender white gemma is sent out on the common vetch dish root and stem of certain plants, and gemma is picked after growing up to common vetch dish, loose stool water behaviour retention of urine Liquid and 2 times of water mixed preparings obtain, and urea water is that 100~200g urea and 1L water are prepared to obtain.It is unknown in following embodiments 1,2 The specific amount of application of fertilizer really illustrated, those skilled in the art can in right amount be made according to the effect of fertilizer and use age With ensureing the reliable plant of crops, in addition, in entire planting process, be required for carrying out weeding every year, loosen the soil, the behaviour such as desinsection Make.In the present invention unless otherwise instructed, the percentage of component is mass concentration.
It is to be made in embodiment 3~6 that soil is improved used in embodiment 1,2, and selenium-rich clay fertilizer is to be made in embodiment 7~9 , the improvement in hillside forest land is specifically as shown in Figure 1, 2.
The fruit tree punching fertilising that fruit expanding period initial stage applies is that the cloud of Zhengzhou Yun Geng agricultural science and technologys Co., Ltd production ploughs board Fruit tree punching fertilising, application method are that trickle irrigation is applied in 800-1200 times of punching of dilution, and dropper punching per acre applies 1.2 kilograms;Fruit expanding period The organic selenium fertilizer of latter stage sprinkling, which is the source board fruit tailored version of the selenium of the carefree modern agriculture Science and Technology Ltd. production of Anhui selenium, to be had Machine selenium fertilizer, application method are 500 times of liquid of dilution, are uniformly sprayed on crop leaf, and interval sprays twice, every minor tick 7 days;Spray The amount of applying is tree-like, the age of tree is big depending on the tree-like and age of tree, and the amount of spraying accordingly increases, generally per acre 1L~1.3L.Certainly it can also adopt The fruit tree punching fertilising produced with other companies and organic selenium fertilizer are used, and same effect has been obtained.Poultry muck is that raising is raiseeed The excrement that fowl is collected;According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are crushed and are hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate by 1 mass ratio, according to 1:5 Mass ratio by yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing, add water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C, by the product of fermentation and feed into Row is mixed for raising livestock and poultry, is collected to the excrement of livestock and poultry.
Embodiment 1
Fire line is held successfully in selected hillside forest land and carries out refining mountain, selects fine day handle ground is burned to grill thoroughly, by tree root, the careless root and stem of certain plants behind burning ground It roots out, by hillside forest land site preparation at staged, each planting site 11 after site preparation is opened up along the contour on hillside respectively, adjacent plantation It is built a dam the ridge 12 using stone heap on the outside of slope surface between ground 11, offers ditch 13 in the middle part of each planting site 11, ditch 13 is along plantation The length direction on ground 11 opens up and ditch 13 is separated by interval setting compartment 131, compartment 131 along its length in ditch 13 Each sink is respectively set the first and second flowing water mouth 132 on the both ends compartment 131 of each sink, third is opened up on the cell wall on the outside of sink Flowing water mouth 133, the height of the third flowing water mouth 133 flowing water mouth smaller with height in the first and second flowing water mouth 132 on same sink Height is consistent that (height at such as first-class mouth of a river is less than the height at the second mouth of a river, then the height of third flowing water mouth 133 and the The height at the first-class mouth of a river is consistent), the third flowing water mouth 133 on adjacent ditch 13 is arranged in interleaved shape, adjacent ditch 13 On compartment 131 arrange that the top ditch 13 in hillside forest land is connected with water supply installation in interleaved shape, the top on the dam ridge 12 Outside is provided with the sparge pipe 14 of horizontal shape arrangement, and hole for water spraying, the water side of hole for water spraying are arranged at intervals on the pipe shaft of sparge pipe 14 To the oblique side wall for being directed toward the dam ridge 12, planting site 11 is divided into 111 He of the first planting site positioned at 13 inside of ditch by ditch 13 The second planting site 112 positioned at 13 outside of ditch, the first planting site 111 fill out whole form using improvement soil;The height on the dam ridge 12 For 60~80cm, it is 30~35cm that improvement soil, which fills out whole thickness, and improvement soil, which is filled out on the downside of flood, is provided with sandy soils 15, dam 12 bottom of the ridge extends in sandy soils 15, and the width of the first planting site 111 is 30~40cm, and the width of the second planting site 112 is 2 ~2.2m;
Spring current year be spaced on the second planting site 112 plant 4~5 years raw thorn Chinese fir seedlings, spacing in the rows 1.5m, thorn China fir seedling at The trunk for piercing Chinese fir seedling is clipped after work and preservative treatment is carried out to truncated position, tufted at the tree stump of China fir is pierced and grows thorn China fir seedling, The planting pit that 50~55cm depths are dug on the outside of thorn Chinese fir seedling, applies the decomposed fertilizer of 5~8kg in planting pit, will be with soil Fig cuttage seeding (nursery station is commercially available) is transplanted in planting pit, and root water is watered with, and fig spacing in the rows is 1.5~2.0m, Fig is cut along 20~22cm of cuttage seeding height, using three major branch natural open centre shapes/Y shape training type to fig into Row shaping, the decomposed fertile dry land for 155 parts by weight green manure, the lime and 10 parts by weight of the poultry muck of 30 parts by weight, 8 parts by weight The decomposed processing of soil obtains, and 20d, which is poured, after cuttage applies primary dilute rich water, contains 5% ammonium sulfate in dilute rich water.The same year autumn by people The common vetch dish seedling 11a of work breeding is transplanted on the first planting site 111 close to interval at 12 bottom of the dam ridge, and the width for planting plant hole is 20~25 centimetres, size is 20 × 20cm, and by spacing in the rows 15cm plants, when transplanting, common vetch dish seedling 11a answers transplantation with soil, does not hinder root system, Root water is poured after cultivation, and is poured water in ditch 13, and the water surface elevation in ditch 13 is less than the ground level of the first planting site 111 12~17cm stopped irrigating and in one layer of leaf of the earth's surface bedding of the first planting site 111, the tree that optional miscellaneous tree descends slowly and lightly after the Frost's Descent Leaf and pine needle carry out bedding;
Second year starts to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and 4~May, common vetch dish started bract bud, after bract bud daily night open hole for water spraying into 3~5min's of row spreads spray, before gemma and carries out top dressing with loose stool water or urea water after gemma and carries seedling, bract bud First Year is not to common vetch dish Picked, thorn Chinese fir trimmed, a major branch is retained, remaining thorn China fir seedling pluck top make its height 1.4~ Between 1.6m, second year trims the major branch of fig, keeps 50~55cm of major branch length, retains 3 above each major branch ~4 it is new slightly, compounding fertilizer of prosperous long-term applications for young sprout growth, the applied amount of compounding fertilizer is 90kg per acre, compounding fertilizer 20 The urea mixed configuration of parts by weight nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, 30 parts by weight poultry mucks and 5 parts by weight obtains, and as a result carries out vegetable afterwards Fruit;Second year autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch on the first planting site 111, and receipts and leaf are cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation, and bedding exists together The earth's surface of first planting site 111 stopped irrigating after the Frost's Descent;Since second year, planted at first kind before Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding Selenium-rich clay fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields on the ground, and the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of selenium-rich clay fertilizer is that the first planting site spreads fertilizer over the fields 120~150kg per acre.
Since third year, repeat to operate as follows every year:Start to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and one is applied to common vetch dish in 3, April It is secondary to help bud fertile, carries out top dressing with loose stool water or urea water before gemma or after gemma and carries seedling, night opening hole for water spraying daily after bract bud Carry out 3~5min spreads spray, and 4~May picks common vetch dish 3~4 times, and when picking does not injure root, and loose stool is applied after picking every time Water is primary, and the dwarf branch item to piercing Chinese fir is trimmed, its height is made to be no more than 1.5m.Fig side shoot is trimmed, it is made Length is 30~35cm, 1~2 is retained on each side shoot newly slightly, trimming makes new of length no more than 20cm slightly, after the 4th year The annual young sprout wiped out the new slightly branch of result of less hair on side shoot, select and remain 1~2 growing way stalwartness (on each branch), young sprout are given birth to Apply a compounding fertilizer respectively before long prosperous long-term, fallen leaves, each applied amount of compounding fertilizer is 70~75kg per acre;Fig fruit The initial stage of real expanding stage applies fruit tree punching fertilising, and the latter stage of fruit expanding period sprays organic selenium fertilizer;Autumn is in the first planting site 111 Chinese milk vetch is broadcasted sowing, receipts and leaf are cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation, and bedding stops in the earth's surface of the first planting site 111 after the Frost's Descent together It irrigates, it is that 50kg fire loam and 10L people's retention of urine liquid are prepared to obtain to help bud fertilizer.
Embodiment 2
Fire line is held successfully in selected hillside forest land and carries out refining mountain, selects fine day handle ground is burned to grill thoroughly, by tree root, the careless root and stem of certain plants behind burning ground It roots out, by hillside forest land site preparation at staged, each planting site 11 after site preparation is opened up along the contour on hillside respectively, adjacent plantation It is built a dam the ridge 12 using stone heap on the outside of slope surface between ground 11, offers ditch 13 in the middle part of each planting site 11, ditch 13 is along plantation The length direction on ground 11 opens up and ditch 13 is separated by interval setting compartment 131, compartment 131 along its length in ditch 13 Each sink is respectively set the first and second flowing water mouth 132 on the both ends compartment 131 of each sink, third is opened up on the cell wall on the outside of sink Flowing water mouth 133, the height of the third flowing water mouth 133 flowing water mouth smaller with height in the first and second flowing water mouth 132 on same sink Height is consistent that (height at such as first-class mouth of a river is less than the height at the second mouth of a river, then the height of third flowing water mouth 133 and the The height at the first-class mouth of a river is consistent), the third flowing water mouth 133 on adjacent ditch 13 is arranged in interleaved shape, adjacent ditch 13 On compartment 131 arrange that the top ditch 13 in hillside forest land is connected with water supply installation in interleaved shape, the top on the dam ridge 12 Outside is provided with the sparge pipe 14 of horizontal shape arrangement, is arranged at intervals with nozzle on the pipe shaft of sparge pipe 14, the water outlet direction of nozzle is oblique To the side wall for being directed toward the dam ridge 12, planting site 11 is divided into the first planting site 111 on the inside of ditch 13 and is located at by ditch 13 Second planting site 112 in the outside of ditch 13, the first planting site 111 using improvement soil fill out it is whole form, the height on the dam ridge 12 is 60 ~80cm, it is 30~35cm that improvement soil, which fills out whole thickness, and improvement soil, which is filled out, is provided with sandy soils on the downside of flood, 12 bottom of the dam ridge Portion extends in sandy soils, and the width of the first planting site 111 is 30~40cm, and the width of the second planting site 112 is 2~2.2m;
Spring current year be spaced on the second planting site 112 plant 4~5 years raw thorn Chinese fir seedlings, spacing in the rows 1.5m, thorn China fir seedling at The trunk for piercing Chinese fir seedling is clipped after work and preservative treatment is carried out to truncated position, tufted at the tree stump of China fir is pierced and grows thorn China fir seedling, The planting pit that 50~55cm depths are dug on the outside of thorn Chinese fir seedling, applies the decomposed fertilizer of 5~8kg in planting pit, will be with soil Fig cuttage seeding (nursery station is commercially available) is transplanted in planting pit, and root water is watered with, and fig spacing in the rows is 1.5~2.0m, Fig is cut along 20~22cm of cuttage seeding height, using three major branch natural open centre shapes/Y shape training type to fig into Row shaping, the decomposed fertile dry land for 150 parts by weight green manure, the lime and 15 parts by weight of the poultry muck of 35 parts by weight, 5 parts by weight The decomposed processing of soil obtains, and 20d, which is poured, after cuttage applies primary dilute rich water, contains 5% ammonium sulfate in dilute rich water.It will be wild in the autumn in the same year Raw common vetch dish seedling 11a is transplanted on the first planting site 111 close to interval at 12 bottom of the dam ridge, plant plant hole width be 20~ 25 centimetres, size is 20 × 20cm, and by spacing in the rows 15cm plants, when transplanting, common vetch dish seedling 11a answers transplantation with soil, does not hinder root system, after cultivation Pour root water, and pour water in ditch 13, and the water surface elevation in ditch 13 less than the first planting site 111 ground level 12~ 17cm, stops irrigating after the Frost's Descent and in one layer of leaf of the earth's surface bedding of the first planting site 111, leaf that optional miscellaneous tree descends slowly and lightly and Pine needle carries out bedding;
Second year starts to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and 4~May, common vetch dish started bract bud, and daily night opening nozzle carries out 3 after bract bud The mist of~5min sprays, and carrying out top dressing with loose stool water or urea water before gemma and after gemma carries seedling, bract bud First Year not to common vetch dish into Row picking trims thorn Chinese fir, retains a major branch, remaining thorn China fir seedling, which carries out plucking top, makes its height in 1.4~1.6m Between, second year trims the major branch of fig, keeps 50~55cm of major branch length, retains 3~4 above each major branch Newly slightly, the applied amount of compounding fertilizer of prosperous long-term application for young sprout growth, compounding fertilizer is that 100kg, compounding fertilizer are 20 weight per acre The urea mixed configuration of part nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, 30 parts by weight poultry mucks and 5 parts by weight obtains, and as a result carries out vegetables and fruits afterwards;The 2 year autumn broadcasted sowing Chinese milk vetch on the first planting site 111, cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation receipts and leaf together bedding first The earth's surface of planting site 111 stopped irrigating after the Frost's Descent;Since second year, planted on the ground at first kind before Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding Selenium-rich clay fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of selenium-rich clay fertilizer is that the first planting site spreads fertilizer over the fields 120~150kg per acre.
Since third year, repeat to operate as follows every year:Start to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and one is applied to common vetch dish in 3, April It is secondary to help bud fertile, carries out top dressing with loose stool water or urea water before gemma and after gemma and carries seedling, after bract bud daily night opening nozzle into The mist of 3~5min of row sprays, and 4~May picks common vetch dish 3~4 times, and when picking does not injure root, applies loose stool water after picking every time Once, the dwarf branch item for piercing Chinese fir is trimmed, its height is made to be no more than 1.5m.Fig side shoot is trimmed, its length is made Degree is 30~35cm, 1~2 is retained on each side shoot newly slightly, trimming is every after the 4th year so that new of length no more than 20cm slightly The young sprout wiped out the new slightly branch of result of less hair on side shoot year, select and remain 1~2 growing way stalwartness, young sprout growth it is prosperous for a long time, fall Apply a compounding fertilizer before leaf respectively, each applied amount of compounding fertilizer is 70~75kg per acre;At the beginning of fig fruit expanding stage Phase applies fruit tree punching fertilising, and the latter stage of fruit expanding period sprays organic selenium fertilizer;Autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch in the first planting site 111, Receipts and leaf are cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation, and bedding stops irrigating after the Frost's Descent, helps bud fertile in the earth's surface of the first planting site 111 together It is fiery loam and urea according to 100:5 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains, prepare before urea is dissolved with water after again with fire Loam carries out mixed preparing.
In above-described embodiment 1,2, the plantation amount of common vetch dish is 2000~2500 plants per acre, produces 350 kilograms of fresh common vetch dishes per year per acre, The length for picking fresh common vetch dish is 15~20cm, and the root diameter (RD) of fresh common vetch dish root is 0.8~1.2cm, the fibrosis journey of fresh common vetch dish Spend low, Se content in common vetch dish is high, and Se content is about 3~4 times of common common vetch dish in dry common vetch dish obtained.
The plantation amount of traditional level land plantation, mu common vetch dish is 4500~6000 plants, produces 300 kilograms of fresh common vetch dishes, picking per year per acre The length of fresh common vetch dish is 15~20cm, and the root diameter (RD) of fresh common vetch dish root is 0.3~0.6cm, the fibrosis journey on fresh common vetch dish surface Degree is high.
After third year, every plant of fig can 2.5~3.0kg of knot fig, individually plant nothing higher than large stretch of area The yield of 2.0~2.5kg of single plant of flowers and fruits, Se content is in common fig more than the three times of Se content in fig.In addition, 4~5 times of agricultural planting economic benefit can be improved by interplanting.
Embodiment 3
By dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fiery loam according to 1:1:0.4:0.2 weight ratio mixed preparing is changed Good soil, dry land soil are not sowed crop during dry field and are digged 2 times by the paddy soils that is taken after rice terrace draining dry field June, fire Loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, the fire ash of weeds firing and forest land soil (hillside forest land native country) are according to 1:2 weight ratio mixed preparing It obtains;Selenium-rich batch mixing is 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 5g sodium selenites through compost corruption Ripe to obtain, poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are crushed mixed preparing by 1 mass ratio At fermentation substrate, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio, will The product and feed of fermentation carry out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 4
By dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fiery loam according to 1.2:1:0.8:0.4 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains Soil is improved, dry land soil drains the paddy soils taken after dry field March for rice terrace, does not sow crop during dry field and dig 3 times, Fiery loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, the fire ash of weeds firing and forest land soil according to 1:3 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains;Selenium-rich is mixed Material is that 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 10g sodium selenites are obtained through compost maturity, poultry Muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are crushed and are hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate by 1 mass ratio, According to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio, by the product of fermentation and Feed carries out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 5
By dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fiery loam according to 1:1:0.8:0.4 weight ratio mixed preparing is changed Good soil, dry land soil are not sowed crop during dry field and are digged 3 times by the paddy soils that is taken after rice terrace draining dry field April, fire Loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, the fire ash of weeds firing and forest land soil according to 1:2.5 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains;Selenium-rich is mixed Material is that 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 8g sodium selenites are obtained through compost maturity, poultry Muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are crushed and are hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate by 1 mass ratio, According to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio, by the product of fermentation and Feed carries out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 6
By dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fiery loam according to 1.2:1:0.4:0.4 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains Soil is improved, dry land soil drains the paddy soils taken after dry field April for rice terrace, does not sow crop during dry field and dig 2 times, Fiery loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, the fire ash of weeds firing and forest land soil according to 1:2.5 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains;Selenium-rich Batch mixing is that 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 8g sodium selenites are obtained through compost maturity, fowl Animal manure fertilizer obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are crushed and are hybridly prepared into fermentation bottom by 1 mass ratio Object, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C, by the production of fermentation by 5 mass ratio Object and feed carry out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
The improvement soil produced in above-described embodiment 3~6, acid-base value and fertility are all particularly suitable for the production of common vetch dish, because This, the common vetch dish shoot survival percent of transplanting is high, and fertilizer efficiency persistently improves the yield of common vetch dish, and wherein Organic Selenium can effectively be inhaled by common vetch dish It receives, improves the organic selenium content in finished product common vetch dish.
Embodiment 7
Selenium-rich clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3~5g sodium selenites warp Compost maturity obtains;Poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:1 mass ratio crushes sorghum, wheat, soybean mixed Conjunction is configured to fermentation substrate, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio The product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry by it, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 8
Selenium-rich clay fertilizer is 8kg green manure, 1.0kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3~5g sodium selenites warp Compost maturity obtains;Poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:1 mass ratio crushes sorghum, wheat, soybean mixed Conjunction is configured to fermentation substrate, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio The product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry by it, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 9
Selenium-rich clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 1.2kg lime, 6.0kg poultry mucks, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3~5g sodium selenites warp Compost maturity obtains;Poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:1 mass ratio crushes sorghum, wheat, soybean mixed Conjunction is configured to fermentation substrate, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio The product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry by it, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
It is larger to the loss of soil after common vetch dish grows harvesting every year, thus it is annual need to soil carry out fertility supplement and Acid-base value is adjusted, and the selenium-rich clay fertilizer produced in above-described embodiment 7~9, acid-base value is higher than the normal growth conditions of common vetch dish, It uses, effectively the acid-base value of soil can be adjusted, while supplementing fertility and Organic Selenium before bedding herbage and leaf, ensured The annual high yield output of selenium-rich common vetch dish.
The above is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that for the ordinary skill people of the art For member, after knowing content described in the present invention, without departing from the principle of the present invention, it can also be made several Same transformation and replacement, these convert and substitute on an equal basis and also should be regarded as belonging to the scope of protection of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of method for improveing hillside fields interplanting rich selenium vegetables and fruit refers in hillside forest land plantation common vetch dish, thorn China fir, nothing The method of flowers and fruits specifically includes following operating procedure:
S1:By hillside forest land site preparation at staged, each planting site after site preparation is opened up along the contour on hillside respectively, adjacent plantation It is built a dam the ridge using stone heap on the outside of slope surface between ground, each planting site middle part offers ditch, and ditch is along the length side of planting site To opening up and ditch is separated into each sink by interval setting compartment, compartment along its length in ditch, the both ends of each sink every The first and second flowing water mouth is respectively set in section, opens up third flowing water mouth on the cell wall on the outside of sink, third flowing water mouth on same sink Height and the height of the smaller flowing water mouth of height is consistent in the first and second flowing water mouth, the third flowing water mouth on adjacent ditch It is arranged in interleaved shape, the top ditch in hillside forest land is connected with water supply installation, and the upper outside of Ba Geng is provided with horizontal shape The sparge pipe of arrangement is arranged at intervals with hole for water spraying/nozzle, the oblique finger in water outlet direction of hole for water spraying/nozzle on the pipe shaft of sparge pipe To the side wall of Ba Geng, planting site is divided into the first planting site on the inside of ditch and second on the outside of ditch by ditch Plant ground, the first planting site using improvement soil fill out it is whole form, improvement soil be dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fire loam According to 1:1:0.4:0.2~1.2:1:0.8:0.4 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains, and dry land soil is that rice terrace drains dry field 3~6 The paddy soils that are taken after month do not sow crop during dry field and dig 2~3 times, and fiery loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, weeds firing Fire ash with forest land soil according to 1:2~3 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains;Selenium-rich batch mixing be 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 5~10g sodium selenites are obtained through compost maturity;
S2:Spring current year plants 4~5 years raw thorn Chinese fir seedlings of interval plant on the ground at second kind, and thorn Chinese fir seedling will pierce China fir after surviving The trunk of sapling is clipped and carries out preservative treatment to truncated position, pierces tufted at the butt of China fir and grows thorn China fir seedling, in thorn Chinese fir seedling Outside dig the planting pits of 50~55cm depths, apply the decomposed fertilizer of 5~8kg in planting pit, will the native fig cuttage of band Seedling is transplanted in planting pit, is watered with root water, fig spacing in the rows is 1.5~2.0m, along 20~22cm of cuttage seeding height by nothing Flowers and fruits are cut, and carry out shaping to fig using three major branch natural open centre shapes/Y shape training type, decomposed fertilizer is 150~155 weights Measure the decomposed place of dry land soil of part green manure, the poultry muck of 30~35 parts by weight, the lime of 5~8 parts by weight and 10~15 parts by weight Reason obtains, and 20d, which is poured, after cuttage applies primary dilute rich water, contains 5% ammonium sulfate in dilute rich water, the same year autumn by artificial propagation/open country Raw common vetch dish seedling is planted at first kind is transplanted close to interval at the bottoms Ba Geng on the ground, and is poured water in ditch, the water in ditch Face height is less than 12~17cm of ground level of the first planting site, stops irrigating and in the earth's surface bedding of the first planting site after the Frost's Descent One layer of leaf;
S3:Second year starts to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and 4~May, common vetch dish started bract bud, and night opens hole for water spraying/spray daily after bract bud Spray/the mist that spreads that head carries out 3~5min sprays, and bract bud First Year is not picked common vetch dish, is trimmed to thorn Chinese fir, retains one Major branch, remaining thorn China fir seedling, which carries out plucking top, makes its height between 1.4~1.6m;The major branch of fig is trimmed, is kept 50~55cm of major branch length, 3~4 young sprouts are retained above each major branch, and compounding fertilizer of prosperous long-term applications for young sprout growth is answered Applied amount with fertilizer is that 90~100kg, compounding fertilizer are 20 parts by weight nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizers, 30 parts by weight poultry mucks and 5 per acre The urea mixed configuration of parts by weight obtains, and as a result carries out vegetables and fruits afterwards;Second year autumn plants at first kind broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch on the ground, purple Receipts and leaf are cut after cloud Yingcheng is ripe, and bedding stops irrigating after the Frost's Descent in the earth's surface of the first planting site together;It is opened from second year Begin, planted at first kind before Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding and spread fertilizer over the fields selenium-rich clay fertilizer on the ground, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of selenium-rich clay fertilizer be per acre the first It plants ground and spreads fertilizer over the fields 120~150kg, selenium-rich clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3~5g Sodium selenite is obtained through compost maturity;
S4:Since third year, repeat to operate as follows every year:Start to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and one is applied to common vetch dish in 3~April Secondary to help bud fertile, the spray/mist that spreads of night opening hole for water spraying/3~5min of nozzle progress sprays daily after bract bud, is adopted to common vetch dish for 4~May It plucks 3~4 times, the dwarf branch item to piercing Chinese fir is trimmed, its height is made to be no more than 1.5m;Fig side shoot is trimmed, is made The length of 30~35cm retains 1~2 young sprout on each side shoot, trimming so that young sprout of length no more than 20cm, the 4th year The young sprout wiped out the branch of less hair young sprout result on side shoot every year afterwards, select and remain 1~2 growing way stalwartness, the prosperous length of young sprout growth Apply a compounding fertilizer before phase, fallen leaves respectively, each applied amount of compounding fertilizer is 70~75kg per acre;The initial stage of fruit expanding period Apply fruit tree punching fertilising, the latter stage of fruit expanding period sprays organic selenium fertilizer;Autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch, Chinese milk vetch in the first planting site Receipts and leaf are cut after maturation, and bedding stops irrigating after the Frost's Descent in the earth's surface of the first planting site together, and it is fiery loam to help bud fertilizer It is obtained with people and animals' urine/urea mixed preparing;
Poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are crushed and are hybridly prepared by 1 mass ratio Fermentation substrate, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C, will sent out by 5 mass ratio The product and feed of ferment carry out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
2. the method according to claim 1 for improveing hillside fields interplanting rich selenium vegetables and fruit, it is characterised in that:Ba Geng Height be 60~80cm, it is 30~35cm that improvement soil, which fills out whole thickness, and improvement soil is filled out and is provided with sand on the downside of flood Layer, the bottoms Ba Geng extend in sandy soils.
3. the method according to claim 1 for improveing hillside fields interplanting rich selenium vegetables and fruit, it is characterised in that:Help bud Fertilizer is that 50kg fire loam and 10L people and animals' urines are prepared to obtain.
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